Bond, Karen E.; Kahlich, Luke C.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This study of the dance experiences of related men and boys pursues overlapping and related research goals. It is an investigation about reflective teaching practice in the process of developing an emergent curriculum for this multi-generational group of men and boys. It is an investigation about the communicative moments between participants through which members expressed their pedagogical regard for each other, their needs, desires and their dance learning. And it is an investigation about this group of men and boys as an example of aesthetic community, a community engaged in expressing and mediating individual style and dispositions through a group process and resulting in deeply shared aesthetic meanings and group style. Fourteen participants in six family groups danced together on seven Saturdays in a small community north of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants ranged in age from five-years old to more than forty-five years old. Dance curriculum was designed in reference to the teacher's knowledge and experience of creative movement for primary aged children, and in reference to the teacher's dance performance and choreographic experiences and experiences of parenting. Based on detailed transcriptions of two-camera video documentation of the seven sessions, a narrative analysis thickly describes significant movements of participants, before, during and after the sessions, as well as interactions and participants' utterances. Post-session captioned drawings are discussed in detail following each session. Major findings are then presented as related to three research goals: reflective practice for emergent curriculum design, intersubjectivity as it occurred in this example of inter-generational dance education and an examination of this group of learners as an example of aesthetic community. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant literature and recommendations posed for further research.
    • Damming the American Imagination

      Orvell, Miles; Wells, Susan, 1947-; Lee, Sue-Im, 1969-; Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This work intervenes in the complex relationship between the large-scale management and exploitation of water in the United States and its impact on the bioregional literary imagination in the Tennessee Valley between 1933-1963. It shows through site-based environmental criticism and literary analysis that the “dam” becomes a material and symbolic place of convergence where one can examine the relationship between humans and their biospheres. As interdisciplinary rhetorical, literary, historical, archival and cultural analysis, this work engages writers such as David E. Lilienthal, William Bradford Huie, Robert Penn Warren, and Madison Jones in order to reveal the inherently conflicted realities of environmental conservation, individual identity, and displaced regional imaginations in American literature.
    • Dance As Art: A Studio-Based Account

      Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Solomon, Miriam; Alperson, Philip, 1946-; Bond, Karen E.; Camp, Elisabeth (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This dissertation is an attempt to articulate the conviction, born of ten years of intensive experience in learning and practicing to be a dance performer, that the dance performer, through collaboration with the choreographer, makes an important contribution to how we can and do understand artistic dance performance. Further, this contribution involves on-the-fly-thinking-while-doing in which the movement of the dancer's body is run through by consciousness. Some of this activity of "consciousness" in movement may not be part of the deliberative mentality of which the agent is aware; it may instead be something that is part of our body's natural and acquired plan for how to move in the world that is shaped by years of artistic and cultural training and practice. The result is a qualitative and visceral performance that can, although need not, be a representation of some deliberative thought or intention that a dancer can articulate beforehand. It is also the sort of thinking movement that in many cases can be conceived as expression; an utterance of dance artists that is not limited to the communication of emotion that can be appreciated and understood, at least in principle, by a public or audience. What this means for the Philosophy of Dance as Art includes the following: 1) there may not always be a stable, fixed "work" of dance art that can be identified, going forward, as the only relevant work on which critical and philosophical attention should be focused because of variable, contingent and irreducibly individual features of live dance performances, attributable in large part to the efforts, style and improvisation of particular dance performers; 2) the experience of dance artists is relevant to understand dance as art because experiential evidence of practice can supplement and ground the appreciable properties that we can detect in artistic dance performances; 3) artistic dance performance can be conceived as expression without being expressive of either an artist's felt emotion or of human emotion in general - no particular content is needed as long as there is a content; 4) artistic dance performance conceived as expression can, but need not, function as representation in both the strong (imitative) and weak (referential) sense; and 5) artistic dance performance is real, not illusory and not necessarily either a transformation or transfiguration of the real. Dance as art, like theatre, like music and even, perhaps, like painting, sculpture and architecture, although in less clearly artist-present, extemporaneous and embodied ways, is human-constructed, human-understood, human-driven and a full, rich, interactive and meaningful part of human life.

      Kahlich, Luke C.; Meglin, Joellen A.; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Kreinberg, Steven (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Mark Morris is deeply engaged with dance traditions and the classics, but he transforms them into modern, eclectic pieces. He often dissolves the distinctions between reality and fantasy, and good and evil, emphasizing reconciliation and love. Morris sculpts his own story and characters from musical elements within the overarching musical structure, portraying the characters and their emotions through detailed variations of movement quality. Characterizing Morris' dual attitudes as ambivalence, this study aims to highlight the dynamic structure and complexity of meaning in his works. I suggest that Morris' ambivalence is related to his perspective, the way he sees the world.
    • Dancing and the Embodiment of Postsecularism

      Dodds, Sherril, 1967-; Rey, Terry; Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Williams-Witherspoon, Kimmika (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation examines the manners in which dancing in Lucumi religious rituals, as a practice in cosmological embodiment, destabilizes and/or subverts normative secular values and structures, and considers what this subversion reveals about the development of civil discourse and participatory parity in the United States. In particular, this dissertation focuses on the destabilization of the public/private binary, the use of secularization by religious communities for their own benefit, the unsettling of the boundaries of the category of religion, and the exposure of the fallacy of secularism as a hallmark of the liberal nation state. The theoretical foundations of the study are in Carribeanist anthropology and postsecularism. Dance and performance ethnography are the primary methods used to analyze two cases studies. The first case study takes place at a Lucumi religious drumming ceremony, known as a tambor, held in the basement of a private home in New York City. The second case study takes places at a Haitian Vodou drumming ceremony held at Riis Beach, in Queens, New York. The findings taken from these case studies suggest that embodiment plays an important, yet often unacknowledged role, in the development of civil discourse, and supports the postsecular argument that in a society defined by plurality, religion(s) offers substantial material in service of the creation of moral frameworks. Dance, in particular, allows bodies and ideas to bridge spaces and ideologies, thus contributing to how individuals perform their identity in society, and to how society envisions itself as a whole.
    • Dancing Black Power?: Joan Miller, Carole Johnson and The Black Aesthetic, 1960-1975

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Kahlich, Luke C.; Williams-Witherspoon, Kimmika; Norment, Nathaniel (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This dissertation examines the work of two African-American female choreographers, namely Joan Miller and Carole Johnson, and their engagement with the Black Aesthetic during the height of the Black Arts movement in America. The work seeks to examine how these subjects articulated, shaped, responded to, extended, critiqued or otherwise engaged with the notion of the Black aesthetic primarily through the mediums of concert dance and choreography. In consideration of the above, I conducted two, single subject case studies with Joan Miller and Carole Johnson in order to better understand the complexity of the experience of these African-American female dance makers during the selected period and gain a richer understanding of the ways in which they did or did not engage with the notion of the Black Aesthetic through the medium of dance. The subjects for the single case studies were selected because they fit the criteria to answer the research question: each woman is an African-American dance maker who was generating choreography and working actively in the dance field during the identified historical period (1960-1975.). The study employs content analysis of individual semi-structured interviews, cultural documents (including but not limited to playbills, photographs, newspaper clippings, video documentation, and choreographers' notes) and related literature (both revisionist and of the period) to generate a robust portrait of the experiences of the subjects under study. Taken simultaneously, critical race theory and Black feminist thought supply an analytical framework for this project that has allowed me to study the intersecting and mutually constitutive aspects of race, class, gender and economic location from a unique standpoint--that of African-American female choreographers during the Black Power/Black Arts Movement era--in an effort the answer the research question and sub-questions central to this project. The dissertation ultimately posits that both Johnson and Miller did, in fact engage meaningfully with key concepts articulated under the banner of the Black Aesthetic during the height of the U.S.-based Black Arts Movement. Moreover, the project asserts that both women extended their understandings of the Black Aesthetic in order to embrace additional issues of interest; namely, gender and class (on Miller's part) and international human rights (on Johnson's part.) As such, this project ultimately discusses the implications of the inclusion of Miller and Johnson's work within the canon of dance history/studies as a radical shift from the dominant narratives concerning the work of Black female choreographers during the period. Additionally, the dissertation asserts that the inclusion of these narratives in the context of literature and scholarship on the Black Power/Black Arts Movement supports moves in contemporary revisionist scholarship interested in broadening the research on the work of women in the creative arts during the period of interest. Lastly, the project suggests new research trajectories and areas of inquiry but explicating Patricia Hill Collins's work on Black Feminist Thought. By looking at the defining characteristics of Collins scholarship, the project extends the discussion on African-American women's epistemology to include dance performance and creation and complicates the role of who is empowered to make meaning through the lens of Black Feminist Thought and in what form.
    • Dancing Down the Floor: Experiences of 'Community' in a West African Dance Class in Philadelphia

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Bond, Karen E.; Melzer, Patricia, 1970-; Williams-Witherspoon, Kimmika (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      'Community' is a multivalent concept, subject to a plurality of contexts and constructs that can alter and shift its meaning. As a dance artist, I have encountered myriad understandings and manifestations of 'community' through dance practice, and perceive an intrinsic relationship between dance and 'community.' A 'West African' dance class in Philadelphia — designated as a 'community-based' class by the instructor — provides a rich opportunity to excavate this relationship. The class, one of several offered throughout the city, is located in West Philadelphia. It is an intergenerational class attended by a diverse demographic of participants (race/ethnicity, gender, profession, class, age, ability, etc.) with an array of motivations and goals for participating in class (as made evident through conversations and interviews). All are welcome to attend, regardless of previous experience or skill level in 'West African' dance. My dissertation is a qualitative research study that examines participant experiences and interpretations of 'community,' with attention paid to the socio-cultural/political context of 'West African' dance in the United States, specifically in Philadelphia. Methodologically, this study is situated in sensory ethnography, philosophically oriented in community based participatory research, and draws from phenomenological strategies towards gathering lived experience data. Lived experiences of 'community' are placed in conversation with literature concerned with theories and constructions of 'community' from a range of disciplines, as well as texts that interrogate the historical, sociocultural and political contexts which frame 'West African' dance within the United States. As a member of this particular 'West African' dance class, I situate my own experiences within that of the collective, migrating inward and outward between personal reflection and participant narratives. As such this investigation lies at the intersection of subjective, intersubjective, and cultural knowledge.
    • Dancing in Body and Spirit: Dance and Sacred Performance in Thirteenth-Century Beguine Texts

      Meglin, Joellen A.; Bond, Karen E.; Biddick, Kathleen; Flanagan, Eileen (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This study examines dance and dance-like sacred performance in four texts by or about the thirteenth-century beguines Elisabeth of Spalbeek, Hadewijch, Mechthild of Magdeburg, and Agnes Blannbekin. These women wrote about dance as a visionary experience of the joys of heaven or the relationship between God and the soul, and they also created physical performances of faith that, while not called dance by medieval authors, seem remarkably dance-like to a modern eye. The existence of these dance-like sacred performances calls into question the commonly-held belief that most medieval Christians denied their bodies in favor of their souls and considered dancing sinful. In contrast to official church prohibitions of dance I present an alternative viewpoint, that of religious Christian women who physically performed their faith. The research questions this study addresses include the following: what meanings did the concept of dance have for medieval Christians; how did both actual physical dances and the concept of dance relate to sacred performance; and which aspects of certain medieval dances and performances made them sacred to those who performed and those who observed? In a historical interplay of text and context, I thematically analyze four beguine texts and situate them within the larger tapestry of medieval dance and sacred performance. This study suggests that medieval Christian concepts of dance, sacred performance, the soul, and the body were complex and fluid; that medieval sacred performance was as much a matter of a correct inner, emotional and spiritual state as it was of appropriate outward, physical actions; and that sacred performance was a powerful, important force in medieval Europe that various Christians used to support their own beliefs or to contest the beliefs and practices of others.
    • Dancing Latinidad: Salsa Practices and Latino/a Identity at Brasil's Nightclub

      Dodds, Sherril, 1967- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This thesis investigates Brasil’s Nightclub, a Philadelphia salsa club, as a site at which notions of Latino/a identity are produced and performed. Research for the thesis was conducted over the course of five months and was ethnographic in nature. From February 2016 until June 2016, the author attended Brasil’s Nightclub and collected participant observations and interviews. Findings reveal how the club accommodates multiple conflicting narratives of Latino/a identity and how these narratives are embodied through salsa dance practices.
    • Dancing With Arthritis

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This Master of Arts thesis is based on research that I conducted on dancers who have the auto-immune disease of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis is a long-term autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and the surrounding tissues. Dancers with arthritis feel pain the joints that can be minor or severe, depending on how they are moving their bodies. This research investigates how dancers with an arthritic body can dance without the experiencing pain in their joints. Arthritis impairs movement because it is a disease that affects the joints. In this thesis, I created movements that could enable arthritic dancers the opportunity to continue dancing. I have identified a movement vocabulary, movement methods, and strategies for arthritic dancers who want and need to move with minimal pain. Movements have been created specifically for the arthritic body. I use my own experiences and challenges as an arthritic dancer to inform this study. My experiences helped me to create movements specifically for arthritic dancers because I am an advocate for those who suffer from arthritis.

      Rams, Thomas E.; Suzuki, Jon, 1947-; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods are often recovered in large numbers from the subgingival microbiome of human periodontitis, and are statistically associated with progression of chronic periodontitis. Due to their frequent expression of beta-lactamase enzymes, which hydrolyze and degrade beta-lactam class antibiotics, these species may compromise systemic periodontal antimicrobial chemotherapy involving amoxicillin, which may lead to clinical therapeutic failures in chronic periodontitis therapy. Recent studies using phenotypic methods have identified the in vitro growth of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens in the presence of therapeutic threshold concentrations of amoxicillin, which is indicative of species antibiotic resistance. Because of uncertainties with their taxonomic classification, only limited information is available on the distribution of amoxicillin-resistant species within the group of dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods that may colonize and inhabit human subgingival sites. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and its associated analytic software, was recently approved for clinical microbiology diagnostic use in the United States by the United States Food and Drug Administration. This methodology is capable of definitively identifying 4,613 different oral and non-oral microbial species based on mass spectra of their bacterial protein profiles, including many dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods of subgingival origin. However, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has yet to be used for species iii identification of dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods recovered from chronic periodontitis lesions, and resistant in vitro to amoxicillin. As a result, the purpose of this study was to use MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to identify to a species-level the patient distribution of dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods isolated from the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis patients and exhibiting in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of amoxicillin. Methods: 24 chronic periodontitis patients contributed 71 fresh subgingival cultivable isolates (one to 11 isolates per patient) which were presumptively identified by their brown to black colony pigmentation on anaerobically-incubated enriched Brucella blood agar primary isolation plates containing amoxicillin at 8 μg/ml as amoxicillinresistant, dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods. Each of the amoxicillinresistant, dark-pigmented clinical isolates were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis using a bench top mass spectrometer, Bruker FlexControl 3.0 software, and MALDI Biotyper 3.1 software (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA, USA), which contains mass spectra for dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods in its reference library of bacterial protein profiles. A MALDI Biotyper log score of ≥ 1.7 was required for reliable taxonomic classification of the clinical isolates. Results: Only 4 (16.7%) of the chronic periodontitis patients yielded two different dark-pigmented species on amoxicillin-supplemented primary isolation plates, while all other study patients had only one amoxicillin-resistant, dark-pigmented species. Amoxicillin-resistant strains of Prevotella nigrescens were identified in 11 (45.8%) patients, Prevotella intermedia in 8 (33.3%) patients, Prevotella denticola and/or Prevotella species in 3 (12.5%) patients, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2 (8.3%) patients, and Prevotella melaninogenica in one (4.2%) patient. 50 (70.4%) of the amoxicillinresistant clinical isolates exhibited MALDI Biotyper log scores of ≥ 1.7, the threshold for reliable taxonomic classification, whereas 21 (29.6%) had log scores < 1.7, indicating a less reliable species identification. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a range of specific amoxicillinresistant bacterial species comprise cultivable isolates of dark-pigmented, gram-negative, anaerobic rods in the human chronic periodontitis subgingival microbiota. P. nigrescens was the most frequently isolated amoxicillin-resistant, dark-pigmented subgingival bacterial species, followed by P. intermedia. Two study patients surprisingly revealed amoxicillin-resistant strains of P. gingivalis. The occurrence of amoxicillin-resistant, dark-pigmented rods in chronic periodontitis lesions may complicate selection, and markedly reduce the potential effectiveness, of systemic periodontal antimicrobial therapies involving beta-lactam antibiotics.
    • Data Driven High Performance Data Access

      Kant, Krishna; Vucetic, Slobodan; Shi, Justin Y.; Midic, Uros (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Low-latency, high throughput mechanisms to retrieve data become increasingly crucial as the cyber and cyber-physical systems pour out increasing amounts of data that often must be analyzed in an online manner. Generally, as the data volume increases, the marginal utility of an ``average'' data item tends to decline, which requires greater effort in identifying the most valuable data items and making them available with minimal overhead. We believe that data analytics driven mechanisms have a big role to play in solving this needle-in-the-haystack problem. We rely on the claim that efficient pattern discovery and description, coupled with the observed predictability of complex patterns within many applications offers significant potential to enable many I/O optimizations. Our research covers exploitation of storage hierarchy for data driven caching and tiering, reduction of distance between data and computations, removing redundancy in data, using sparse representations of data, the impact of data access mechanisms on resilience, energy consumption, storage usage, and the enablement of new classes of data driven applications. For caching and prefetching, we offer a powerful model that separates the process of access prediction from the data retrieval mechanism. Predictions are made on a data entity basis and used the notions of ``context'' and its aspects such as ``belief'' to uncover and leverage future data needs. This approach allows truly opportunistic utilization of predictive information. We elaborate on which aspects of the context we are using in areas other than caching and prefetching different situations and why it is appropriate in the specified situation. We present in more details the methods we have developed, BeliefCache for data driven caching and prefetching and AVSC for pattern mining based compression of data. In BeliefCache, using a belief, an aspect of context representing an estimate of the probability that the storage element will be needed, we developed modular framework BeliefCache, to make unified informed decisions about that element or a group. For the workloads we examined we were able to capture complex non-sequential access patterns better than a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing cloud storage gateways. Moreover, our framework is also able to adjust to variations in the workload faster. It also does not require a static workload to be effective since modular framework allows for discovering and adapting to the changes in the workload. In AVSC, using an aspect of context to gauge the similarity of the events, we perform our compression by keeping relevant events intact and approximating other events. We do that in two stages. We first generate a summarization of the data, then approximately match the remaining events with the existing patterns if possible, or add the patterns to the summary otherwise. We show gains over the plain lossless compression for a specified amount of accuracy for purposes of identifying the state of the system and a clear tradeoff in between the compressibility and fidelity. In other mentioned research areas we present challenges and opportunities with the hope that will spur researchers to further examine those issues in the space of rapidly emerging data intensive applications. We also discuss the ideas how our research in other domains could be applied in our attempts to provide high performance data access.
    • Data Mining Algorithms for Classification of Complex Biomedical Data

      Vucetic, Slobodan; Obradovic, Zoran; Latecki, Longin; Davey, Adam (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      In my dissertation, I will present my research which contributes to solve the following three open problems from biomedical informatics: (1) Multi-task approaches for microarray classification; (2) Multi-label classification of gene and protein prediction from multi-source biological data; (3) Spatial scan for movement data. In microarray classification, samples belong to several predefined categories (e.g., cancer vs. control tissues) and the goal is to build a predictor that classifies a new tissue sample based on its microarray measurements. When faced with the small-sample high-dimensional microarray data, most machine learning algorithm would produce an overly complicated model that performs well on training data but poorly on new data. To reduce the risk of over-fitting, feature selection becomes an essential technique in microarray classification. However, standard feature selection algorithms are bound to underperform when the size of the microarray data is particularly small. The best remedy is to borrow strength from external microarray datasets. In this dissertation, I will present two new multi-task feature filter methods which can improve the classification performance by utilizing the external microarray data. The first method is to aggregate the feature selection results from multiple microarray classification tasks. The resulting multi-task feature selection can be shown to improve quality of the selected features and lead to higher classification accuracy. The second method jointly selects a small gene set with maximal discriminative power and minimal redundancy across multiple classification tasks by solving an objective function with integer constraints. In protein function prediction problem, gene functions are predicted from a predefined set of possible functions (e.g., the functions defined in the Gene Ontology). Gene function prediction is a complex classification problem characterized by the following aspects: (1) a single gene may have multiple functions; (2) the functions are organized in hierarchy; (3) unbalanced training data for each function (much less positive than negative examples); (4) missing class labels; (5) availability of multiple biological data sources, such as microarray data, genome sequence and protein-protein interactions. As participants in the 2011 Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA) challenge, our team achieved the highest AUC accuracy among 45 groups. In the competition, we gained by focusing on the 5-th aspect of the problem. Thus, in this dissertation, I will discuss several schemes to integrate the prediction scores from multiple data sources and show their results. Interestingly, the experimental results show that a simple averaging integration method is competitive with other state-of-the-art data integration methods. Original spatial scan algorithm is used for detection of spatial overdensities: discovery of spatial subregions with significantly higher scores according to some density measure. This algorithm is widely used in identifying cluster of disease cases (e.g., identifying environmental risk factors for child leukemia). However, the original spatial scan algorithm only works on static spatial data. In this dissertation, I will propose one possible solution for spatial scan on movement data.
    • Data Mining Algorithms for Decentralized Fault Detection and Diagnostic in Industrial Systems

      Vucetic, Slobodan; Obradovic, Zoran; Latecki, Longin; Seibold, Benjamin (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Timely Fault Detection and Diagnosis in complex manufacturing systems is critical to ensure safe and effective operation of plant equipment. Process fault is defined as a deviation from normal process behavior, defined within the limits of safe production. The quantifiable objectives of Fault Detection include achieving low detection delay time, low false positive rate, and high detection rate. Once a fault has been detected pinpointing the type of fault is needed for purposes of fault mitigation and returning to normal process operation. This is known as Fault Diagnosis. Data-driven Fault Detection and Diagnosis methods emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional mathematical model-based methods, especially for complex systems due to difficulty in describing the underlying process. A distinct feature of data-driven methods is that no a priori information about the process is necessary. Instead, it is assumed that historical data, containing process features measured in regular time intervals (e.g., power plant sensor measurements), are available for development of fault detection/diagnosis model through generalization of data. The goal of my research was to address the shortcomings of the existing data-driven methods and contribute to solving open problems, such as: 1) decentralized fault detection and diagnosis; 2) fault detection in the cold start setting; 3) optimizing the detection delay and dealing with noisy data annotations. 4) developing models that can adapt to concept changes in power plant dynamics. For small-scale sensor networks, it is reasonable to assume that all measurements are available at a central location (sink) where fault predictions are made. This is known as a centralized fault detection approach. For large-scale networks, decentralized approach is often used, where network is decomposed into potentially overlapping blocks and each block provides local decisions that are fused at the sink. The appealing properties of the decentralized approach include fault tolerance, scalability, and reusability. When one or more blocks go offline due to maintenance of their sensors, the predictions can still be made using the remaining blocks. In addition, when the physical facility is reconfigured, either by changing its components or sensors, it can be easier to modify part of the decentralized system impacted by the changes than to overhaul the whole centralized system. The scalability comes from reduced costs of system setup, update, communication, and decision making. Main challenges in decentralized monitoring include process decomposition and decision fusion. We proposed a decentralized model where the sensors are partitioned into small, potentially overlapping, blocks based on the Sparse Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, which preserves strong correlations among sensors, followed by training local models at each block, and fusion of decisions based on the proposed Maximum Entropy algorithm. Moreover, we introduced a novel framework for adding constraints to the Sparse PCA problem. The constraints limit the set of possible solutions by imposing additional goals to be reached trough optimization along with the existing Sparse PCA goals. The experimental results on benchmark fault detection data show that Sparse PCA can utilize prior knowledge, which is not directly available in data, in order to produce desirable network partitions, with a pre-defined limit on communication cost and/or robustness.
    • Data Mining Algorithms for Traffic Sampling, Estimation and Forecasting

      Vucetic, Slobodan; Obradovic, Zoran; Latecki, Longin; Zhu, Ying (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Despite the significant investments over the last few decades to enhance and improve road infrastructure worldwide, the capacity of road networks has not kept pace with the ever increasing growth in demand. As a result, congestion has become endemic to many highways and city streets. As an alternative to costly and sometimes infeasible construction of new roads, transportation departments are increasingly looking at ways to improve traffic flow over the existing infrastructure. The biggest challenge in accomplishing this goal is the ability to sample traffic data, estimate traffic current state, and forecast its future behavior. In this thesis, we first address the problem of traffic sampling where we propose strategies for frugal sensing where we collect a fraction of the observed traffic information to reduce costs while achieving high accuracy. Next we demonstrate how traffic estimation using deterministic traffic models can be improved using proposed data reconstruction techniques. Finally, we propose how mixture of experts algorithm which consists of two regime-specific linear predictors and a decision tree gating function can improve short-term and long-term traffic forecasting. As mobile devices become more pervasive, participatory sensing is becoming an attractive way of collecting large quantities of valuable location-based data. An important participatory sensing application is traffic monitoring, where GPS-enabled smartphones can provide invaluable information about traffic conditions. We propose a strategy for frugal sensing in which the participants send only a fraction of the observed traffic information to reduce costs while achieving high accuracy. The strategy is based on autonomous sensing, in which participants make decisions to send traffic information without guidance from the central server, thus reducing the communication overhead and improving privacy. To provide accurate and computationally efficient estimation of the current traffic, we propose to use a budgeted version of the Gaussian Process model on the server side. The experiments on real-life traffic data sets indicate that the proposed approach can use up to two orders of magnitude less samples than a baseline approach with only a negligible loss in accuracy. The estimation of the state of traffic provides a detailed picture of the conditions of a traffic network based on limited traffic measurements and, as such, plays a key role in intelligent transportation systems. Most often, traffic measurements are aggregated over multiple time steps, and this procedure raises the question of how to best use this information for state estimation. Reconstructing the high-resolution measurements from the aggregated ones and using them to correct the state estimates at every time step are proposed. Several reconstruction techniques from signal processing, including kernel regression and a reconstruction approach based on convex optimization, were considered. Experimental results show that signal reconstruction leads to more accurate traffic state estimation as compared with the standard approach for dealing with aggregated measurements. Accurate traffic speed forecasting can help in trip planning by allowing travelers to avoid congested routes, either by choosing alternative routes or by changing the departure time. An important feature of traffic is that it consists of free flow and congested regimes, which have significantly different properties. Training a single traffic speed predictor for both regimes typically results in suboptimal accuracy. To address this problem, a mixture of experts algorithm which consists of two regime-specific linear predictors and a decision tree gating function was developed. Experimental results showed that mixture of experts approach outperforms several popular benchmark approaches.

      Faheem, Ahmed; Coe, Joseph T.; Abboud, Bechara E.; Darvish, Kurosh (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Current pavement performance prediction models are based on the parameters such as climate, traffic, environment, material properties, etc. while all these factors are playing important roles in the performance of pavements, the quality of construction and production are also as important as the other factors. The designed properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavements, known as flexible pavements, are subjected to change during production and construction stages. Therefore, most of the times the final product is not the exact reflection of the design. In almost any highway project, these changes are common and likely to occur from different sources, by various causes, and at any stage. These changes often have considerable impacts on the long-term performance of a project. The uncertainty of the traffic and environmental factors, as well as the variability of material properties and pavement structural systems, are obstacles for precise prediction of pavement performance. Therefore, it is essential to adopt a hybrid approach in pavement performance prediction and design; in which deterministic values work along with stochastic ones. Despite the advancement of technology, it is natural to observe variability during the production and construction stages of flexible pavements. Quality control programs are trying to minimize and control these variations and keep them at the desired levels. Utilizing the information gathered at the production and construction stages is beneficial for managers and researchers. This information enables performing analysis and investigations of pavements based on the as-produced and as-constructed values, rather than focusing on design values. This study describes a geo-relational framework to connect the pavement life-cycle information. This framework allows more intelligent and data-driven decisions for the pavements. The constructed geo-relational database can pave the way for artificial intelligence tools to help both researchers and practitioners having more accurate pavement design, quality control programs, and maintenance activities. This study utilizes data collected as part of quality control programs to develop more accurate deterioration and performance models. This data is not only providing the true perspective of actual measurements from different pavement properties but also answers how they are distributed over the length of the pavement. This study develops and utilizes different distribution functions of pavement properties and incorporate them into the general performance prediction models. These prediction models consist of different elements that are working together to produce an accurate and detailed prediction of performance. The model predicts occurrence and intensity of four common flexible pavement distresses; such as rutting, alligator, longitudinal and transverse cracking along with the total deterioration rate at different ages and locations of pavement based on material properties, traffic, and climate of a given highway. The uniqueness of the suggested models compared to the conventional pavement models in the literature is that; it carries out a multiscale and multiphysics approach which is believed to be essential for analyzing a complex system such as flexible pavements. This approach encompasses the discretization of the system into subsystems to employ the proper computational tools required to treat them. This approach is suitable for problems with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales as well as a wide variety of different coupled physical phenomena such as pavements. Moreover, the suggested framework in this study relies on using stochastic and machine learning techniques in the analysis along with the conventional deterministic methods. In addition, this study utilizes mechanical testing to provide better insights into the behavior of the pavement. A series of performance tests are conducted on field core samples with a variety of different material properties at different ages. These tests allow connecting the lab test results with the field performance survey and the material, environmental and loading properties. Moreover, the mix volumetrics extracted from the cores assisted verifying the distribution function models. Finally, the deterioration of flexible pavements as a result of four different distresses is individually investigated and based on the findings; different models are suggested. Dividing the roadway into small sections allowed predicting finer resolution of performance. These models are proposed to assist the highway agencies s in their pavement management process and quality control programs. The resulting models showed a strong ability to predict field performance at any age during the pavements service life. The results of this study highlighted the benefits of highway agencies in adopting a geo-relational framework for their pavement network. This study provides information and guidance to evolve towards data-driven pavement life cycle management consisted of quality pre-construction, quality during construction, and deterioration post-construction.
    • Data-Fitted Generic Second Order Macroscopic Traffic Flow Models

      Seibold, Benjamin; Szyld, Daniel; Chidyagwai, Prince; Piccoli, Benedetto, 1968- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The Aw-Rascle-Zhang (ARZ) model has become a favorable ``second order" macroscopic traffic model, which corrects several shortcomings of the Payne-Whitham (PW) model. The ARZ model possesses a family of flow rate versus density (FD) curves, rather than a single one as in the ``first order" Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) model. This is more realistic especially during congested traffic state, where the historic fundamental diagram data points are observed to be set-valued. However, the ARZ model also possesses some obvious shortcomings, e.g., it assumes multiple maximum traffic densities which should be a ``property" of road. Instead, we propose a Generalized ARZ (GARZ) model under the generic framework of ``second order" macroscopic models to overcome the drawbacks of the ARZ model. A systematic approach is presented to design generic ``second order" models from historic data, e.g., we construct a family of flow rate curves by fitting with data. Based on the GARZ model, we then propose a phase-transition-like model that allows the flow rate curves to coincide in the free flow regime. The resulting model is called Collapsed GARZ (CGARZ) model. The CGARZ model keeps the flavor of phase transition models in the sense that it assume a single FD function in the free-flow phase. However, one should note that there is no real phase transition in the CGARZ model. To investigate to which extent the new generic ``second order" models (GARZ, CGARZ) improve the prediction accuracy of macroscopic models, we perform a comparison of the proposed models with two types of LWR models and their ``second order" generalizations, given by the ARZ model, via a three-detector problem test. In this test framework, the initial and boundary conditions are derived from real traffic data. In terms of using historic traffic data, a statistical technique, the so-called kernel density estimation, is applied to obtain density and velocity distributions from trajectory data, and a cubic interpolation is employed to formulate boundary condition from single-loop sensor data. Moreover, a relaxation term is added to the momentum equation of selected ``second order" models to address further unrealistic aspects of homogeneous models. Using these inhomogeneous ``second order" models, we study which choices of the relaxation term &tau are realistic.
    • Dealing with Uncertainty in the Advance Ticket Sales Environment: An Empirical Examination on the Adaptive Nature of Consumer’s Intertemporal Choice Decisions

      Drayer, Joris; Ok, Chihyung; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Hantula, Donald A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Timing is everything. There are ideal times for essentially in everything we do. Every day we face questions of timing, but we have limited guiding principles to answer those questions. There is a science behind ‘when we buy’ and the advance ticket sales market provides a ripe laboratory for research. Consumer’s deal with myriads of uncertainty finding the ideal time to book that vacation they have been long time waiting for. Prices change daily based on real time demand and the information asymmetry between buyers and sellers further complicates this problem for consumers as decisional agents. Given this emerging research opportunity, this dissertation conducts a series of experimental studies to examine the underlying process consumers undergo when booking and purchasing sporting event tickets. Study 1 begins exploring two key decisional factors (sellout risk and opportunity cost) consumers use to guide their temporal choice under uncertainty. A selective attention bias was elicited where sport fans and casual consumers placed subjective weighted values on these uncertainty cues. Study 2 further examines distinct biases in temporal choice due to emotion and motivation of consumers. The study found that consumers with higher involvement led to the belief to find better priced deal in the future which was mediated by their overconfidence. Lastly, Study 3 examines the boundary conditions and tests how the information frame and structure of the environment can further influence consumer’s booking and purchase decision. The empirical findings from the dissertation highlight the importance of consumer’s decisional biases in inter-temporal choice and provides theoretical and practical implications for both marketing and pricing research. Unlike normative assumptions of rationality, the studies find that there is no one size fit all optimal decision model on whether to wait or purchase. The optimization strategy of temporal choice ultimately lies within the interaction between the individual and how they cope with uncertainty cues in their surrounding purchase environment.
    • Debt Financing to Innovative Firms: Evidence from First Action Reports on Patent Applications

      Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Byzalov, Dmitri; Wang, Wei; Mao, Connie X. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      I examine the causal impact of initial patent reviews on firms’ subsequent debt financing. I collect data on patent examiners’ first action reports from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. These initial reports reveal the merits of an invention at an early stage in the multi-year patent application process and signal the likelihood of future patent approval. To separate the net causal impact of initial patent reviews from the underlying invention quality, I use examiners’ propensity to approve an application as an instrument. I predict and find that better initial patent review outcomes improve firms’ subsequent loan financing outcomes, including higher borrowing capacity, broader banking relationships, and more favorable loan contract terms. I further show an increase in future operating cash flow and a reduction in information asymmetry as channels through which favorable patent reviews alleviate loan financing problems. Altogether, I provide evidence that the patenting process mitigates debt financing problems for innovative firms and facilitates lending. At a higher level, I highlight the importance of accounting intangibles, which is incremental to economic intangibles.

      Beglar, David; Childs, Marshall; Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Sakamoto, Masako; Nishino, Takako; Beglar, David J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This case study investigates the language policies and planning (LPP) implemented in Palau since the occupation by Japan before and during World War II, and by the United States of America under the United Nation's Trusteeship after the war. Palau is an island country in the Pacific with a population of 17,500, including 4,600 foreign-born citizens. The society is multilingual as a result of a 150-year occupation by other countries, including Japan and the United States, before its independence in 1994. In this study I also explore the effects of LPP during that time, including the policy regarding a standard writing system, practices at pedagogical institutions, and Palauans' opinions about languages, especially the two official languages, Palauan and English. Data were gathered through interviews, historical document study, observations of classes, and a questionnaire administered in Palau, by visiting the country more than 20 times, for one- to two-week stays beginning in 2001. Hornberger (2006) stated that the terms language policy and language planning have been used interchangeably or as a single concept in many previous studies. Her suggestion was to use the two terms as a set, as the relationship between them has been ambiguous in the past (p. 25). I agree with Hornberger that the two terms fundamentally form a single concept, and therefore, they are used as a set in this study. The theoretical framework proposed by Taylor (2002) is used to analyze the current LPP in Palau: that is, (1) language planning composed of (1.1) status planning, (1.2) corpus planning, and (1.3) acquisition planning; (2) language-in-education policy; and (3) aspects of language-in-education implementation program that consist of (3.1) curriculum policies, (3.2) personnel policies, (3.3) material policies (methods, content), (3.4) community policies, and (3.5) evaluation policies (p. 318). He stated, "[t]he process of devising a new national language policy" affects "language-in-education implementation programs" (p. 318). Major LPP studies were reviewed chronologically based on three phases suggested by Ricento (2000, pp. 10-22). It was helpful to consider the history of LPP "as a dynamic interplay between academic concerns... and political/bureaucratic interests" (Wee, 2011, p. 11). Also, some previous researchers have noted that localized studies of language goals, language use, and language change are needed. According to Kaplan and Baldauf (2003), who studied languages and language-in-education planning in the Pacific Basin, it is rare for Pacific Basin countries to have a language policy: "... [L]anguage planning is frequently undertaken by the education sector in the absence of any such higher-level policy or in the light of such a policy so vaguely articulated as to be quite incapable of implementation" (p. 6). Although their study provided a great deal of valuable information, they did not investigate the language policies of Palau. In this study I describe the government's policies, and real life situation of the policies. To describe the real life situation of the policies, interviews, and a questionnaire survey were used. I interviewed Palauans, such as those who had experienced the occupation(s) and postwar period to better understand the historical background of the current LPP. I also interviewed incumbent teachers after observing their classes. Most of them described various problems in teaching the compulsory Palauan Studies Course, on Palauan language, history, tradition, and culture. I also interviewed officials of the Ministry of Education, who provided a great deal of information about the educational system in Palau and the curriculum of the Palauan Studies Course. The 62-item questionnaire provided data concerning people's language use in various social contexts, as well as the effects of language policies and planning on people's opinions about languages. The 137 respondents were divided into five groups according to their year of birth, considering the years when important transitions had occurred in the LPP. Their responses were compared, and some of the respondents were interviewed to illuminate the questionnaire results. I interviewed eight Palauans in March and September 2012 and asked why they had selected certain responses to the questionnaire items. The questionnaire results indicated that there is a tendency for the younger generation to use English more than the older generations in various contexts, and that the efforts Palauans have made, such as making the new writing system a compulsory part of the school curriculum, have yielded positive effects on the opinions of the younger generation, who learned the Palauan writing system at school. Overall, the results showed that Palauan is not in danger of extinction at present, but it might lose its status as the primary language in the future. I suggest strategies for preserving Palauan as the primary language.