• Calcite and Calcium Oxalate Sequestration of Heavy Metals

      Kargbo, David M.; Boufadel, Michel C.; Strongin, Daniel R.; Suri, Rominder P. S.; Hasan, Zameer U. (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      Heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc pose a significant threat to human health and environment. Several factors such as pH, EH, organic matter and clay content of the soil affect the bioavailability of such heavy metals in the environment. The presence of several naturally occurring minerals such as calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) and calcium oxalate (CaC2O4.) in the environment significantly influence the fate and transport of some of the heavy metal cations. Sequestration of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from solution by calcite has been clearly demonstrated in the literature. However, studies on heavy metal sequestration by calcite and calcium oxalate from a multi-metal environmental that represents real world situations are rare. In this contribution, column flow studies of Cd and Zn sequestration by calcite exposed to influent solutions saturated or non-saturated with calcite and containing either 1 mg/L of Cd, 1 mg/L of Zn or combined 1 mg/L of Zn and Cd, followed by desorption of the sequestered metals were conducted. Complementary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data were generated. Kinetic studies show that reaction rates of Cd and Zn with calcite are governed by a simple rate law with reaction orders of less than 1 (0.02 - 0.07) indicating at least mathematically, the occurrence of reactions that went to completion if the reaction orders did not change. When the influent solution contains a single cation, the rate of Zn removal from solution by calcite and calcium oxalate is greater than Cd removal rate. However in a multi-cation environment, cadmium removal rate was greater than zinc removal rate. MINTEQA2 a geochemical equilibrium speciation model was used to compute the equilibrium between the various species in the cation-calcite environment. Complimentary desorption studies and surface SEM/EDS analysis indicate that the removal of Cd and Zn from solution by calcite and calcium oxalate is probably due to precipitation/complexation reaction. The SEM and EDS results appear to confirm the presence of a precipitate on the mineral surface in the case of the influent solution containing Zn. The current research also examines the effect of citrate, a commonly present urinary tract species on calcium oxalate dissolution. The dissolution studies indicate that citrate solution is capable of dissolving sodium oxalate at high pH. The dissolution of calcium oxalate results in the release of heavy metals that were previously sequestered within the mineral. Results show that a greater percentage of zinc was removed than cadmium, from calcium oxalate due to its dissolution by citrate.
    • Caliban's Victorian Children: Racial Negotiations from Emancipation to Jubilee

      Logan, Peter Melville, 1951-; Joyce, Joyce Ann, 1949-; Mitchell, Sally, 1937-; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962-; Talton, Benjamin (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This dissertation examines the various discursive expressions of black agency that formed the stereotypical representations of African descendants found in Victorian racial discourse. It is, therefore, an analysis of the discursive practices of peoples of African descent and not of the actual stereotypes frequently associated with Victorian racial discourse. I believe that a close reading and analysis of the discursive practices of peoples of African descent subject to British rule will generate more focused critical narratives about the fantasies that plagued the British imagination well into the twentieth century. This study also suggest that contemporary scholars should start looking at Victorian racial discourse as an active dialogue and conversation with the Other, rather than a description of the psychology of power.
    • Can Families Always Get What They Want? Families' Perceptions of School Quality and Their Effects on School Choice Decisions

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Delaney, Kevin; Elesh, David; Jones, Brian J., 1950- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      School quality and school choice are two hotly debated issues within current academic research, and the two topics are not wholly disconnected from one another. School quality literature includes debates over the most accurate definition, or definitions, of what constitutes school quality. Research addressing school choice often includes references to issues of school quality, albeit with different conclusions about the level of importance school quality plays in actual school choice decisions. In order to understand families' decisions about schools, one must recognize not only the ways in which perceptions of quality influence choices, but also that school quality and school choice are, at the same time, conceptually distinct topics. Therefore, the primary question guiding my research asks, is there a relationship between families perceptions of quality education and the school choices they ultimately make. More specifically, my research first explores how families determine what constitutes a quality school, and second, how that informs the schools they select for their children. I examine six distinct types of school choice options families may choose for their children: private, neighborhood public, magnet, charter, non-neighborhood public, or homeschooling. I investigate whether or not family assessments of quality vary along racial or socioeconomic lines and whether such variation explains some differences in families school choices by these sociodemographic characteristics. I explore families behavior during their search for their children school to determine if any racial or socioeconomic variation exists in how different families conduct this search. I also examine factors that may prevent some families from actualizing their ideals of school quality in their choices. In other words, are there obstacles to particular school choices for families from diverse social backgrounds? Data in this study comes from the Pennsylvania and Metropolitan Area Survey, collected with the Philadelphia Indicators project and Temple University Institute of Public Affairs. This survey includes households within five Pennsylvania counties; Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia counties as well as four counties in New Jersey: Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, and Salem counties. This sample includes only households including at least one school aged child (enrolled in grades kindergarten through twelfth grade) proving a sample size of N = 589 households. My findings demonstrate that significant variation by race and class exist in families perceptions of school quality, in specific school characteristics they report represent the most important indicator of school quality, in the number of school choice options families consider during the process of school choice decision making, in specific factors families report as most important for school choice decisions, and finally in the actual school choices families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds make for their children education. Research about how families choose schools and how this decision making process differs by race and socioeconomic status can serve to inform discussions about increasing the amount of public choice schools such as magnets, charters, non-neighborhood public school transfer programs. This research has the potential to assist policy-makers in determining whether expanding such choice options may result in either an increase or a decrease in the ability of racial minorities and those with fewer financial means to attend quality schools. This research may also help determine whether current levels of school segregation along racial and class lines will improve or worsen as families ability to choose schools for their children expands. In Chapter 5 of my study, the unit of analysis for my sample size changes from families (N = 589) to the total number of school choices those 589 families made for their children, resulting in a sample size of N = 655 choices used only in Chapter 5.
    • Can I Succeed as an Adolescent Mother? Examining the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Self-Efficacy, Academic Achievement, and School Attendance

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Fullard, William (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence in predicting parenting self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, academic achievement, and school attendance among a sample of adolescent mothers. A battery of instruments was administered to a sample of 108 high school students who were enrolled in the Employment Leading to Education and Career Training (ELECT) Program. The students ranged from 16- to 21-years of age and were enrolled between the 10th and 12th grade. Emotional intelligence was assessed with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient: Short Version (EQ-i:S), and self-efficacy variables were measured with the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form-Abridged (SELF-A) and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC). Moderate and significant correlations were found between emotional intelligence and both parenting and academic self-efficacy measures. Despite a positive relationship with academic self-efficacy, emotional intelligence was not found to correlate with student achievement or school attendance, with the exception of Social Studies achievement. The investigation of length of time parenting revealed no relations with parenting self-efficacy beliefs or school outcome variables such as grade point averages or attendance. Results also indicated that the level of involvement from the child's father did not correlate with this sample of adolescent mothers' perception of parenting satisfaction. However, parenting satisfaction and school achievement were negatively correlated with their satisfaction with available social support networks.
    • Can Institutional Reforms Promote Sustainable Planning? Integrating Regional Transportation and Land Use in Toronto and Chicago (2001-2014)

      Rosan, Christina; Adams, Carolyn Teich; Flamm, Bradley; Shell, Jacob, 1983-; Mercier, Jean (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Although governments have implemented several reforms to better integrate or coordinate regional transportation and land use decisions, little is known about the effects of new institutional designs on planning and development outcomes. This study compares the effects of two different types of institutional reforms on the planning process, transportation investments and land use decisions, while assessing their characteristics in terms of accountability, democracy, and effectiveness. Using semi-structured interviews, planning documents, as well as transportation spending and land use decisions, this longitudinal, comparative case study assesses the effects of the centralized, regulatory framework implemented in Toronto in 2005-2006, to the collaborative governance framework adopted in Chicago in 2005. Although each institutional design features different sets of constraints and opportunities, both reforms improved the planning process by establishing a renewed commitment to the exercise of regional planning. However, their impact on transportation investments was limited because the allocation of transportation funds is still primarily controlled by the province and the state governments who continue to control the purse strings and allocate money to advance their own political agendas. Both cases also show how difficult it is to increase densities and curb urban sprawl because local land uses, zoning and development approvals remain the prerogative of local governments and a function of locational preferences of individuals and corporations, which are contingent upon the market and shaped by global economic forces. Besides stronger regional institutions, the evidence presented in this study calls for new political strategies that address the fiscalization of land use and that offer financial incentives for the adoption of smart growth policies.
    • CANNABINOID RECEPTOR 2 AGONIST REDUCES IMMUNE CELL MIGRATION IN NEUROINFLAMMATION VIA INHIBITION OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9

      Ganea, Doina; Autieri, Michael V.; Tuma, Ronald F. (Ronald Franklin); Kilpatrick, Laurie; Rogers, Thomas J., 1950- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Several studies have reported that administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists in inflammatory/autoimmune and CNS injury models resulted in significant attenuation of clinical disease. The beneficial effects correlated with the observed reduction of inflammatory mediators and peripheral immune cell infiltration into the site of inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratories demonstrated that administration of cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist attenuated disease score and improved recovery in two murine models of neuroinflammation; spinal cord injury (SCI) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms through which administration of selective cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R) agonists modify inflammatory responses and help to improve function in SCI and EAE. In SCI, an acute neuroinflammatory disorder, administration of CB2R agonist at 1 h and 24 h following contusion injury to the cord resulted in improved recovery of motor function and bladder function (the ability to spontaneously void) compared to control animals. Evaluation of inflammatory mediators at 48h demonstrated a dramatic reduction in the expression of the chemokines CXCL9, 10, 11 and cytokines IL-23 and its receptor in CB2R agonist-treated cords. There was also a reduction in the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR7), which correlated with a decreased number of immunoreactive microglia. Interestingly, at seven days post injury, CB2R agonist-treated injured cords showed a significant reduction in both hematopoietic and myeloid cell infiltration. In EAE, a chronic neuroinflammatory disorder, our laboratories demonstrated previously that administration of a CB2R agonist led to lower disease scores and improved recovery. In this study, we observed reduced numbers of infiltrating hematopoietic and myeloid cells into the spinal cord and brain of CB2 agonist-treated mice. This reduction was observed at the peak of disease (day 17) and the effect was maintained at the chronic stage of disease (day 30). Evaluation of molecules associated with cell migration showed decreased levels of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and 9 at peak of EAE in treated mice. The decrease in VCAM-1 correlates with our previous observation of decreased leukocyte rolling and adhesion to brain microvasculature. However, the reduction in MMP-2/9 expression suggests that CB2R agonists may also affect leukocyte transmigration into the perivascular space and further infiltration into the CNS parenchyma. This process requires both chemokine cues and the gelatinases MMP2/9. Animals deficient in these MMPs show leukocyte accumulation in the perivascular space and are resistant to EAE. There are no reports in the literature on possible CB2R agonist effects on gelatinases in myeloid cells. Although both MMP-2 and -9 are produced by antigen-presenting cells and act on similar substrates, MMP-9 appears to play a crucial role in EAE. Therefore, we decided to examine the effects of CB2 signaling on MMP-9 expression in myeloid cells, focusing on myeloid bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages, dendritic cells, and primary microglia with the cytokine cocktail TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, containing PGE2, which mimicked an inflammatory milieu, resulted in expression of high levels of MMP-9. Treatment with CB2R agonists reduced MMP-9 in all three cell types. Since migration of DC to various sites is required for their activation and for the initiation of adaptive immune responses, we evaluated the effects of CB2R agonists on migration. The reduced levels of MMP-9 correlated with reduced migration of DC to the draining lymph nodes in vivo, as well as reduced migration vitro in the matrigel migration assay. The effect on MMP-9 expression was mediated through CB2R, resulting in reduction in cAMP levels, subsequent decrease in ERK activation, and reduced binding of c-Fos and c-Jun to the AP-1 site in the MMP-9 promoter. We postulate that, by dampening production of MMP-9 and subsequent MMP-9-dependent DC migration, cannabinoids contribute to resolve acute inflammation and to reestablish homeostasis. Selective CB2R agonists might be valuable future therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions by targeting activated immune cells including DC.
    • Cannabinoid Receptor 2-Selective Ligands as Immunosuppressive Compounds: Utility in Graft Rejection

      Eisenstein, Toby K.; Ganea, Doina; Chan, Marion M.; Adler, Martin W.; Rogers, Thomas J., 1950- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed mainly on leukocytes and is the receptor implicated in mediating many of the effects of cannabinoids on immune processes. The capacity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and of two CB2-selective agonists to inhibit the murine Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR), an in vitro correlate of graft rejection following skin and organ transplantation was tested. Both CB2-selective agonists and delta-9-THC significantly suppressed the MLR in a dose dependent fashion. The inhibition was via CB2, as suppression could be blocked by pretreatment with a CB2- selective antagonist, but not by a CB1 antagonist, and none of the compounds suppressed the MLR when splenocytes from CB2 deficient mice were used. The CB2 agonists were shown to act directly on T-cells, as exposure of CD3+ cells to these compounds completely inhibited their action in a reconstituted MLR and proliferation of purified T-cells by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies was inhibited. Treatment of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells with a CB2-selective agonist inhibited the MLR, though significantly less than when both cell types were treated. T-cell function was decreased by CB2 agonists, as an ELISA of MLR culture supernatants revealed IL-2 release was significantly reduced in the cannabinoid treated cells. Further, treatment with O-1966 dose- dependently decreased levels of the active nuclear forms of the transcription factors NF- kappa-B and NFAT in wild-type T-cells, but not T-cells from CB2 knockout (CB2R k/o) mice. Additionally, a gene expression profile of purified T-cells from MLR cultures, generated using a PCR T-cell activation array, showed that O-1966 decreased mRNA expression of CD40 ligand and CyclinD3, and increased mRNA expression of Src-like-adaptor 2 (SLA2), Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 5 (SOCS5), and IL-10. The increase in IL-10 was confirmed by measuring IL-10 protein levels in MLR culture supernatants. An increase in the percentage of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) was observed in MLR cultures and pretreatment with anti-IL-10 resulted in a partial reversal of the inhibition of proliferation and blocked the increase of Tregs. Additionally, O-1966 treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of CD4 in MLR cultures from wild-type, but not CB2R k/o, mice. The ability of O-1966 treatment to block rejection of skin grafts in vivo was also tested. Mice received skin grafts from a histoincompatible donor, and the time to graft rejection was analyzed. Compared to mice that received the vehicle, mice that received O-1966 treatment had significantly prolonged graft survival and increased Tregs in the spleen. The spleen cells from O-1966-treated mice had reduced proliferation in an MLR and an increased percentage of Tregs. Together, these data support the potential of this class of compounds as useful therapies to prolong graft survival in transplant patients and possibly as a new class of immunosuppressive drugs.
    • Cannabis use and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms: A multiple mediation model

      Ellman, Lauren M.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Olino, Thomas; Steinberg, Laurence D., 1952-; Heimberg, Richard G.; Drabick, Deborah A.; McCloskey, Michael S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Cannabis use has been associated with various psychosis outcomes, including psychotic disorders, the clinical high risk period of psychosis, and subthreshold measures of psychotic symptoms in non-clinical samples, such as attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS). The present study examined whether individual- and contextual-level factors account for the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the relationship between cannabis and psychosis would be mediated by social functioning; negative, depression, anxiety, and aggression symptoms; context of cannabis use; and motivations for cannabis use. Nine hundred and forty-five young adults ages 18-35 years (M = 20.1 years, 24.4% male) completed self-report questionnaires: the Prodromal Questionnaire, Marijuana Use Form, Social Functioning Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form-Anxiety Subscale, Social Phobia Scale, Life History of Aggression Scale, Reasons for Use scale, and Drug Use Frequency questionnaire. Psychosis outcomes included a dimensional measure of APPS and a dichotomous measure indicating potential higher/lower risk for psychosis, based on number of distressing symptoms endorsed (i.e., D-APPS status). A multiple mediation framework was used, and significance of mediators was evaluated through estimating the significance of indirect effects using bootstrapped confidence intervals. Increases in negative and aggression symptoms mediated the relationship between higher cannabis use and increases in APPS. Negative and aggression symptoms, context of cannabis use, and using cannabis to cope with unpleasant affect mediated the relationship between cannabis use and high-D-APPS status. Results indicate that individual and contextual-level characteristics may contribute to the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis.
    • “Can’t I be Black and smart?”: Examining the experiences of Black high-achieving college women inside and outside the classroom

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Jordan, Will J.; Schifter, Catherine; Fries-Britt, Sharon (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      This study examines the experiences of high-achieving talented undergraduate Black women inside and outside the classroom at a predominantly white urban university. Much of the higher education research studies how college affects students and how they develop psychosocially during their undergraduate experience. Using a series of semi-structured qualitative interviews with undergraduate honors students, this study examines how Black women make meaning around their experiences in their social and academic lives at college. Intersectionality is used as a theoretical framework to analyze participants’ experiences and to consider the salience of their intersecting racial, gender, and academic identities. Results indicated that inside the classroom participants were spotlighted and felt they were the representatives for their identity groups. In campus life, they were isolated and faced microaggressions from peers. Participants described their intersectional race x gender x academic identity as most salient in their experiences at college. Implications discuss strategies for creating more inclusive academic and social environments and future research for high-achieving undergraduate Black women.
    • Capabilities, Strategic Intent and Firm Performance: An Empirical Investigation

      Hamilton, Robert D. (Robert Devitt); Feinberg, Susan; Winston Smith, Sheryl; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This dissertation consists of three papers that are linked through the topic of organizational capabilities. The first paper, entitled "Organizational Core Capabilities, Strategic Intent and Performance: A Study of the Pharmaceutical Industry," looks at the association between capabilities, strategic intent and performance. Employing capabilities theory and the strategic intent literature, I model (i) the association of firm-level capabilities and rigidities on performance, (ii) the association of strategic intent and performance and (iii) the interaction effects of capabilities and strategic intent upon performance. Our sample consists of pharmaceutical firms during the years 1993 to 2003 and I find that both capabilities and strategic intent are negatively associated with firm performance. The interaction of the two main effects is positively related to performance conditional on firms having high strategic intent. The findings point to potential evidence of core rigidities theory as well as strategic intent theory, which has yet to be empirically tested by scholars. The second paper is entitled "The Impact of Political Capabilities on Firm Performance: An Empirical Investigation." In this paper, I integrate capabilities theory with the literature on corporate political activity (CPA). The CPA literature has been robust in addressing the determinants of a firm's choice to engage in political activities but has been less robust in modeling the CPA-performance link. I address this by first integrating capabilities theory and political action and then by testing a number of constructs on a sample of Fortune 500 firms from varying industries. Specifically, I find that political action committee (PAC) intensity and lobbying intensity is associated with higher firm performance. I then interact PAC intensity with lobbying intensity and also find positive association between this interaction and performance, denoting that these two activities are complements and not substitutes. Finally, I moderate these relationships with industry concentration and find that performance increases for politically active firms as industries become more concentrated. The third paper is titled "Political Capabilities and Rigidities: The Case of AT&T's Acquisition Attempt of T-Mobile USA." This paper studies, in an in-depth case study, the political capabilities of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), focusing on the years 1984-2011. Using capabilities and rigidities theory from management, I provide detailed evidence of (i) AT&T's intent to compete on political capabilities, (ii) the success derived from these political capabilities and (iii) situational failure resulting from an over-reliance on these political capabilities. In the empirical section, I show how the firm failed to assess external information that it needed to adjust its competitive strategy and, as a result, failed to acquire a key competitor. This paper makes contributions to capabilities research, rigidities research and corporate political activity.
    • CAPTIVATING A NATION: WOMEN'S INDIAN CAPTIVITY AND AMERICAN NATIONAL IDENTITY, 1787-1830

      Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian); Roney, Jessica C. (Jessica Choppin), 1978-; Glasson, Travis; Richter, Daniel K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Stories of Indian captivity had long interested Anglo-American readers. Throughout the early republic, the genre of women's Indian captivity narratives took on another significance. "Captivating a Nation" places the scholarship of Indian captivity in conversation with American nationalism and reveals the ways in which Indian captivity narratives became the surface upon which American imagined their nation. "Captivating a Nation" is an examination of women's Indian captivity narratives published between 1787 and 1830. These narratives provided more than a continuous repository of settlers as victims in an untamed wilderness. They were narratives of nationhood in complex and contradictory ways. Indian captivity narratives were a popular genre among readers of the early American republic. Yet, less than half of those concerning male captives were published in multiple editions, while every narrative concerning a female captive was republished. Unlike the captivity narratives of men, those concerning women were re-published and re-consumed because settler women taken captive to Americans of the early republic symbolized the tenuousness and vulnerability of the young nation. That is, they simultaneously gave voice to fears related to national stability as well as contained those fears with the redemption of the woman and her return to white society.
    • Captivity and Conflict: A Study of Gender, Genre, and Religious Others

      Levitt, Laura, 1960-; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Watt, David Harrington; Abdullah, Zain (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This project considers questions of religious othering in the contemporary United States through the lens of popular post-religious narratives. These narratives salaciously depict mistreated women in order to demarcate certain religions as deviant; authors and pundits then use these narratives in order to justify outside intervention in specific religious communities. By closely analyzing a selection of contemporary narratives written about women from Muslim and fundamentalist Mormon communities with special attention to both the feminist enactments and tropes of captivity which permeate these texts, this project challenges simplistic portrayals of religious Others. In doing so, the analysis draws the reader's attention to the uncanny imitations in many of these texts: in arguing that certain religions "capture" their female adherents, authors of contemporary captivity narratives silence the voices of women whose stories they seek to illuminate. The dissertation also explores the ambivalent content of many of these narratives. When read against the grain, captivity literature offers surprising opportunities for nuanced explorations of religion, gender and agency.
    • CARAVAGGIO: PERCEPTION SHIFTS THROUGH SELECTED TWENTIETH– and TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY MUSEUM EXHIBITIONS

      Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; West, Ashley D.; West, Ashley D. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The focus of this thesis will be the exploration of the narrative constructs around the life and work of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610). This exploration will occur through the study of selected exhibitions curated on the Lombard artist from the twentieth- through twenty-first centuries. It will demonstrate how museums have played a significant role in the public’s understanding and perception of Caravaggio. In this thesis, I will argue that exhibitions on Caravaggio have supported and reshaped the general understanding and perception of the artist in crucial ways not done to the same effect in more nuanced academic scholarship. I will also argue that public exhibitions have functioned according to a different set of agendas from those addressed to academia. For example, exhibitions are conceived and function on guiding principles such as alignment with museum mission statements, audience draw and accessibility, educational outcomes, and the visitor experience. This thesis will seek to determine to what measure these principles have affected the framing of content and to clarify how in particular the selective use of Caravaggio’s biography has affected interpretation of his works within a museum context for a viewing public. The restored enthusiasm for Caravaggio in the second-half of the twentieth century also focused on his personal life due to the publication and translation by Walter Friedlaender of Lives written by his seventeenth-century biographers—Giorgio Mancini, Giovanni Baglione, and Giovanni Pietro Bellori—as well as the publication of documents and court records, which highlighted episodes of Caravaggio’s criminality, all impinging on our interpretation of his artistic merits. Although these findings support our understanding of Caravaggio as a complex individual, they also contribute to the sensationalization and romanticization of the artist as the quintessentially bohemian figure. Furthermore, doubtful attributions and disputes over execution dates problematize our understanding of the artist’s oeuvre and have at certain points reinforced a ‘Caravaggio narrative’ of the rebellious, indecorous artist. It is my intention to show how museum exhibitions have contributed to and exploited this narrative and to determine more precisely how and to what extent they have shaped it. With this exploration of Caravaggio’s narrative construction by museum exhibitions of the twentieth- to twenty-first centuries, I aim to approach and reconsider this subject, which has been dealt with heavily in scholarship, under a different lens. In the case of Caravaggio—whose persona and works have been posthumously manipulated, admired, and condemned at the hands of biographers and critics—it is necessary to approach this subject with renewed, unbiased, and objective vigor within a new frame of understanding: the museum exhibition frame. I will use a comparative method, studying three key exhibitions over time, to show how museums have presented the artist’s career development. I pay particular attention to the incorporation of biography and to the impact the inclusion of selected aspects of his Lives have had on the public view of his works. The influential format of Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists set the structure and codified the model of biographical determinism that would inform Caravaggio’s later biographers in the interpretation of his works; this has persisted through the twentieth- and twenty-first centuries with the application of psychoanalytic approaches to Caravaggio. The first of the three exhibitions I have selected is Longhi’s 1951 Milan exhibition, Mostra del Caravaggio e dei Caravaggeschi, which restored public consciousness of Caravaggio’s innovative and revolutionary style, reinserting him into the artistic canon. My second example will be The Age of Caravaggio, held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1985. The Met exhibition is novel for its focus on Caravaggio’s relationship with his precursors and contemporaries (the organizing committee deliberately excluded works by Caravaggio’s followers) and for its interpretation of works within their historical context. Finally, I will examine Caravaggio: L’ultimo tempo 1606–1610, held first at the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples 2004–2005, then later as Caravaggio: The Final Years, at the National Gallery, London in 2005, which focused on the more enigmatic part of Caravaggio’s late career after his flight from Rome in 1606. The London 2005 exhibition provided new insight into the artist’s stylistic changes in the last years of his life. These three exhibitions will give insight about the perception shifts of the artist that have taken place in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as a result of scholarly research spurred by museum exhibitions centered around Caravaggio.
    • Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation of iron-bearing minerals

      Strongin, Daniel R.; Stanley, Robert J.; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Schoonen, Martin A. A., 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Carbon dioxide (CO2) is formed when fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal are burned in power producing plants. CO2 is naturally found in the atmosphere as part of the carbon cycle, however it becomes a primary greenhouse gas when human activities disturb this natural balanced cycle by increasing levels in the atmosphere. In light of this fact, greenhouse gas mitigation strategies have garnered a lot of attention. Carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) has emerged as a possible strategy to limit CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The technology involves capturing CO2 at the point sources, using it for other markets or transporting to geological formations for safe storage. This thesis aims to understand and probe the chemistry of the reactions between CO2 and iron-bearing sediments to ensure secure storage for millennia. The dissertation work presented here focused on trapping CO2 as a carbonate mineral as a permanent and secure method of CO2 storage. The research also explored the use of iron-bearing minerals found in the geological subsurface as candidates for trapping CO2 and sulfide gas mixtures as siderite (FeCO3) and iron sulfides. Carbon dioxide sequestration via the use of sulfide reductants of the iron oxyhydroxide polymorphs lepidocrocite, goethite and akaganeite with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The exposure of the different iron oxyhydroxides to aqueous sulfide in contact with scCO2 at ~70-100 ˚C resulted in the partial transformation of the minerals to siderite (FeCO3). The order of mineral reactivity with regard to siderite formation in the scCO2/sulfide environment was goethite < lepidocrocite ≤ akaganéite. Overall, the results suggested that the carbonation of lepidocrocite and akaganéite with a CO2 waste stream containing ~1-5% H2S would sequester both the carbon and sulfide efficiently. Hence, it might be possible to develop a process that could be associated with large CO2 point sources in locations without suitable sedimentary strata for subsurface sequestration. This thesis also investigates the effect of salinity on the reactions between a ferric-bearing oxide phase, aqueous sulfide, and scCO2. ATR-FTIR was again used as an in situ probe to follow product formation in the reaction environment. X-ray diffraction along with Rietveld refinement was used to determine the relative proportion of solid product phases. ATR-FTIR results showed the evolution of siderite (FeCO3) in solutions containing NaCl(aq) concentrations that varied from 0.10 to 4.0 M. The yield of siderite was greatest under solution ionic strength conditions associated with NaCl(aq) concentrations of 0.1-1 M (siderite yield 40% of solid product) and lowest at the highest ionic strength achieved with 4 M NaCl(aq) (20% of solid product). Based partly on thermochemical calculations, it is suggested that a decrease in the concentration of aqueous HCO3- and a corresponding increase in co-ion formation, (i.e., NaHCO3) with increasing NaCl(aq) concentration resulted in the decreasing yield of siderite product. At all the ionic strength conditions used in this study, the most abundant solid phase product present after reaction was hematite (Fe2O3) and pyrite (FeS2). The former product likely formed via dissolution/reprecipitation reactions, whereas the reductive dissolution of ferric iron by the aqueous sulfide likely preceded the formation of pyrite. These in situ experiments allowed the ability to follow the reaction chemistry between the iron oxyhr(oxide), aqueous sulfide and CO2 under conditions relevant to subsurface conditions. Furthermore, very important results from these small-scale experiments show this process can be a potentially superior and operable method for mitigating CO2 emissions.
    • CARBONIC ANHYDRASE MODULATORS FOR DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF HUMAN DISEASES

      Ilies, Marc A.; Canney, Daniel J.; Walker, Ellen A.; Mesaros, Eugen (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration of CO2 under physiologic conditions and are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Modulation of CA activity, particularly CA inhibition is exploited pharmacologically for the treatment of many diseases such as cancer, glaucoma, edemas, mountain sickness. CA activation has been less frequently investigated till recently. Genetic deficiencies of several CA isozymes are reported in the literature and reflect the important role of carbonic anhydrases in human physiology and homeostasis. Activation of CA isozymes in brain have been correlated recently with spatial learning and memory. Based on these premises, activators of CA isozymes have the potential to alleviate mild dementias and to act as potential nootropic agents. In chapter 3, continuing our long-term interests towards the development of potent and selective CAAs, we carried out X-ray crystallographic studies with a small series of pyridinium histamine derivatives, previously developed as CAAs by our group. This study revealed important insights into the binding of this class of activators into the active site of CA II isozyme. A potent pyridinium histamine CAA 25i was successfully crystallized with CA II isozyme and was found to bind into the hydrophobic region of the active site, with two binding conformations being observed. This is one of the very few X-ray crystal structures of a CAA available. Based on the findings of this X-ray crystallographic study and building on our previously developed ethylene bis-imidazole CAAs, we advanced a novel series of lipophilic bis-imidazoles. Enzymatic assays carried out on purified human CA isozymes revealed several low nanomolar potent activators against various brain-relevant CA isozymes. Bis-imidazole 30e was found to be a nanomolar potent activator for CA IV, CA VA and CA IX. Due to their conjugated structure, these CAAs were also fluorescent and therefore were fully characterized in terms of photophysical properties, with several representatives proving to display very good fluorophores. The very good activation profile against several different CA isozymes, along with excellent fluorescence properties recommend these compounds as great molecular tools for elucidation of role of CA isozymes in brain physiology, as well as towards improvement of memory and learning. Focusing on inhibition of CA isozymes, it must be stressed that over the last decade a clear connection had been established between the expression of CA IX and CA XII and cancer. Since cancer is the second most common cause of death in the world, we explored the possibility to kill cancer cells via inhibition of different CA isozymes present in cancer cells. The membrane bound carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) isozyme represents a particularly interesting anticancer target as it is significantly overexpressed in many solid tumors as compared to normal tissues. In malign tissues this CA isozyme was found to play important role in pH homeostasis and promotes tumor cell survival, progression and metastasis. Thus, CA IX represents a potential biomarker and an appealing therapeutic target for the detection and treatment of cancer. CA IX can be targeted either through the development of small or large molecular weight, potent, and selective inhibitors or through the development of CA IX targeted drug delivery systems for selective delivery of potent chemotherapeutic agents. Building on these premises, in this dissertation, we also revealed our continuing efforts towards the development of potent and selective CA IX inhibitors along with their translation into the development of CA IX targeted drug delivery systems. In chapter 4, we designed a series of small molecular weight (MW) ureido 1,3,4-thiadiazole sulfonamide derivatives employing the “tail approach”, through the decoration of established sulfonamide CA inhibitor warheads with different tail moieties via ureido linker. The generated CAIs were tested against tumor associated CA IX and CA XII isozymes and off-target cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II, and were revealed to be moderate to highly selective and nanomolar, even sub-nanomolar, potent CA IX inhibitors. Several potent pan-inhibitors were also identified in this section. We assessed these CAIs for their in vitro cell killing ability using MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cell line expressing CA IX and CA XII. The most efficient CAI proved to be ureido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide 69, which showed subnanomolar potency against purified human CA IX and CA XII isozymes, with good selectivity against CA I and CA II, and consistent, statistically significant cancer cell killing. In Chapter 5, continuing our efforts towards the development of potent and selective CA IX inhibitors, we designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated a new series of PEGylated 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide CAIs, bearing different PEG backbone length. We increased the PEG size from 1K to 20K, in order to better understand the impact of the PEG linker length on the in vitro cell killing ability against CA IX expressing cancer cell lines and also against a CA IX negative cell line. In vitro cell viability assays revealed the optimum PEG linker length for this type of bifunctional bis-sulfonamide CAIs in killing the tumor cells. The most efficient PEGylated CAI was found to bis-sulfonamide DTP1K 91, which showed consistent and significant cancer cell killing at concentrations of 10−100 μM across different CA IX and CA XII expressing cancer cell lines. DTP1K 91 did not affect the cell viability of CA IX negative NCI-H23 tumor cells, thus revealing a CA IX mediated cell killing for these inhibitors. In chapter 6, we decided to further explore the possibility of using CA IX as a targeting epitome for the development of a gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery system. We translated the oligoEG- and PEGylated CAI conjugates into efficient targeting ligands for gold nanoparticle decoration along with chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox), in a novel multi-ligand gold nanoplatform designed to selectively release the drug intracellularly, in order to enhance the selective tumor drug uptake and tumor killing. We were successful in developing compatible CAI- and Dox- ligands for efficient dual functionalization of gold nanoparticles. Our optimized, CA IX targeted gold nanoplatform was found to be very efficient towards killing HT-29 tumor cells especially under hypoxic conditions, reducing the hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, thus confirmed the potentiating role of CA IX as a targeting epitome.
    • CARDIAC REMODELING DURING PREGNANCY WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PROLOGUE OF PATHOLOGICAL REMODELING

      Houser, Steven R.; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Mohsin, Sadia; Chen, Xiongwen; Leinwand, Leslie A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Pregnancy induces a dramatic change in hemodynamics due to increased blood volume and metabolic demands. The adaptation of the heart leads to physiological cardiac hypertrophy remodeling in healthy individuals during pregnancy. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is known to predispose individuals to adverse cardiovascular event. Cardiac remodeling during pregnancy in obese individuals with or without MetS remains unclear. This study first observed differences in cardiac remodeling in human patients with excess weight during pregnancy. The pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling with pregnancy was then studied in a diet-induced animal model that recapitulates features of human MetS. Female mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) (45%kcal) for 4 months had increased body weight, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Pregnant female mice were kept on this HFD and were compared to nonpregnant females and normal diet (10%kcal fat) controls. HFD induced early-stage MetS led to cardiac hypertrophy at term that had features of pathological hypertrophy (PH), including fibrosis and upregulation of fetal genes associated with PH. Hearts from pregnant animals on the HFD had a distinct gene expression profile that likely underlies their pathological remodeling. Post-partum mice with preexisting MetS are also more susceptible to future pathological stimuli, with exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function. These results suggested that preexisting MetS could change physiological into pathological cardiac remodeling during pregnancy, and predispose the heart to future cardiovascular risks.
    • Carom, a novel gene, is up-regulated by homocysteine through DNA hypomethylation to inhibit endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis

      Wang, Hong, 1956 September 19-; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong, 1956 September 19-; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ashby, Barrie; Merali, Salim; Xiao, Weidong; Susztak, Katalin (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We previously demonstrated that homocysteine (Hcy) suppresses endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, and post-injury EC repair, but the molecular mechanism underlying Hcy-induced EC injury is unclear. In this study, we identified a novel gene, Carom, which mediates Hcy-induced suppression of EC migration and angiogenesis. We identified FCH and double SH3 domains 2 (FCHSD2), a novel gene, as an Hcy-responsive gene through Differential Display in Hcy (50µM)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). FCHSD2 was initially named as Carom, based on the identification of this molecule as an interacting protein of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) and membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 1 (MAGI1). In this thesis, we describe this gene as Carom. Carom belongs to the Fes/CIP4 homology and Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) protein family, which is a group of multivalent adaptors linking plasma membrane and cytoskeleton, involved in endocytosis and cell migration. However, Carom's function is poorly characterized. Based on the findings that CASK and MAGI1 inhibit cell migration and growth, and the role of F-BAR proteins in cell migration, we hypothesize that Hcy up-regulates Carom to inhibit EC growth and/or migration, finally leading to CVD. We confirmed the significant induction of Carom mRNA expression in Hcy-treated HUVECs or human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) by Northern blot and Real-time PCR. In addition, we found that Carom protein expressions were significantly increased both in Hcy-treated HAECs and lung ECs isolated from HHcy mice by Western blot using our homemade rabbit antibody against Carom. These data indicate that Hcy increases endothelial expression of Carom both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in order to characterize Carom function in EC, we generated recombinant adenovirus Adv-Carom to transduce Carom for gain-of-function study and Adv-Carom-shRNA to express Carom shRNA for loss-of-function study. We found that neither adenovirus-transduced Carom expression nor adenoviral Carom shRNA had any impact on HUVEC proliferation by using [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Interestingly, we demonstrated that Adv-Carom inhibited HAEC migration, while Hcy-induced HEAC migration inhibition could be rescued by Adv-Carom-shRNA. These data suggest that Carom may inhibit angiogenesis via a cell proliferation-independent mechanism. Furthermore, we found that Hcy significantly increased the intracellular level of S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) but not S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), and decreased the SAM/SAH ratio, an indicator of cellular methylation, in HAECs, by using High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to measure SAH and SAM levels. Meanwhile, Carom protein expression was significantly induced by azacytidine (AZC), a DNA methyltransferse inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner in HAECs. Based on these data, we speculated that Hcy-induced hypomethylation could associate with Carom up-regulation. Thus we used bisulfite deep sequencing to profile methylation status of Carom gene in Hcy-treated HUVECs and found that Carom promoter was hypomethylated by Hcy. In addition, eight transcriptional factor binding sites on Carom were hypomethylated by Hcy. These data suggest that Hcy may induce Carom via a DNA hypomethylation-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we found that adenovirus-transduced Carom expression significantly increased the secretions of two anti-angiogenic chemokines, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in HAECs by using human cytokine array. Similarly, Hcy also significantly increased mRNA expressions of CXCL10 and CXCL11, while Adv-Carom-shRNA blocked down the inductions of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by Hcy. We further demonstrated that adenovirus-transduced Carom expression inhibited angiogenesis by performing tube formation assay of HAECs, whereas Hcy-induced angiogenesis suppression were rescued by Adv-Carom-shRNA as well as the neutralizing antibodies of CXCL10 and CXCL11. These data suggest that Hcy induces Carom to trigger CXCL10 and CXCL11 downstream to inhibit angiogenesis. In conclusion, Hcy induces Carom expression through DNA hypomethylation to inhibit EC migration and angiogenesis.
    • Cartelization and the State of Political Parties: A Comparative Study of Party Organization in the United States, Germany and Poland

      Kolodny, Robin, 1964-; Deeg, Richard, 1961-; Suárez, Sandra L.; Kreuzer, Marcus, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation studies political party organization in the United States, Germany and Poland during national election campaigns and regular party operations. According to conventional wisdom, changes in party organization, such as professionalized campaigns and communications technology, have detrimental effects on political parties. Katz and Mair argue (1995) that political parties have become agents of the state and fail to provide linkage between the state and the electorate due to these changes in party organization. As cartel parties, political parties are then financially dependent on the state and do not need the support of the electorate. Katz and Mair further suggest that developing a closer relationship with the state has weakened political parties, especially the party on the ground. This dissertation tests whether Katz and Mair's cartel theory applies to political parties in the United States, Germany and Poland examining the parties' organizations during and in between election campaigns and finds that the political parties do not confirm the cartel theory. American and German political parties do not primarily rely on government financing and possess too strong of an electoral linkage to their voters to be considered cartel parties. Political parties in Poland better fit with the cartel theory due to strong financial ties with the state and insufficient linkage with their electorate, both inside and outside of election campaigns. This dissertation argues that the cartel thesis should not be considered a theory since it cannot explain observations regarding political parties and their organizations in the United States, Germany and Poland. Instead, the cartel thesis should be considered a heuristic tool to characterize political parties, continuing the tradition of prior descriptive party models such as those of the mass and the catch-all parties.
    • CASCADING TURBULENCE: TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA DURING THE FALL OF 2013

      Gross, Steven Jay; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Patterson, Timothy (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      This qualitative, phenomenological study examined teachers' experiences of the policy context of the fall of 2013 in the School District of Philadelphia. It was an extremely turbulent time resulting from a cascading policy environment with origins in federal government mandates. The study focused on ten teachers' perceptions of policy implementation in one comprehensive high school. Each teacher was interviewed once in the summer of 2017. State, local, and school specific policy forces were examined. Turbulence theory anchored the study. Teacher interview data were used to construct a turbulence gauge for the school, shedding light on teacher perceptions of the magnitude of disruption. Events from 1997 to 2013 in the School District of Philadelphia provided evidence that policy forces from different governance levels and various contextual factors cascaded upon each other yielding a crescendo of policy implementation experienced by teachers in the fall of 2013. Findings indicated that teachers' perceptions of policy implementation during the fall of 2013 were traumatic, chaotic, and compliance-driven. Teachers primarily held the district responsible for the state of affairs, then the principal, and lastly, the federal government. A finding of severe turbulence was assigned to the school reflecting teachers' perceptions of policy implementation. This study informs school leaders in domains related to policy implementation, strategic planning, and impacts on human capital. Future studies should examine how policy implementation in the NCLB era manufactures an up-tempo change culture which converges on teachers and impacts their perceptions of efficacy and capacity to deliver instruction. Key terms: policy implementation, NCLB, Turbulence Theory, Philadelphia, affective, school closings
    • Caseload Advising as Teaching: An Advising-Teaching Model to Improve the Retention and Persistence of First Year Students

      DuCette, Joseph P.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Najera, Kristina; Sanford-DeShields, Jayminn; Varnum, Susan A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      At the collegial level, academic advising has long been advocated as a scholarly activity based on its parallel to teaching. In fact, the National Academic Advising Association (NACADA) has promoted the parallel between Developmental Advising and Teaching as its primary contribution to the education community and to its claim as a scholarly profession. While there are similarities between the two, this study seeks to contribute to the body of research by probing this theory via the restructuring of the CST 1001 Freshman Seminar Course offered within the College of Science & Technology at a large, urban public research institution. By implementing a caseload-teaching model of the course for first year freshman STEM students, the study sets out to illustrate whether caseload advising within a classroom/teaching setting can improve students’ first year retention and persistence to graduation. This evaluation study is two-fold: Not only does it set out to “treat’ students within a section of the course via the application of constructive and intrusive advising/teaching practices, and track student persistence to graduation in four, five and six years, it also examines the increasing demand on the academic advising role and its place within the higher education landscape. In search for its place in the higher education community and its claim as a profession, the study examines the advisor role to determine whether the advising practice offers more than its student service function, which is designed to carry out the mission of the institution.