• B55alpha modulates the phosphorylation status of the pRb-related p107 and p130 proteins

      Graña-Amat, Xavier; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Haines, Dale; Shore, Scott K.; Soprano, Kenneth J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      The retinoblastoma family of phosphoproteins consisting of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and the two structurally related proteins p130 and p107 play an important role in the negative regulation of cell cycle progression. Hypophosphorylated pocket proteins interact with the different members of the E2F family and repress the transcription of E2F-dependent genes and consequently suppress cell cycle progression through the G0/G1 transition and the restriction point in G1. Mitogenic stimulation results in sequential activation of cyclin/CDK complexes in mid to late G1, leading to subsequent hyperphosphorylation at multiple Ser/Thr sites of pocket proteins triggering dissociation of pocket protein/E2F complexes. This disruption leads to de-repression of many E2F dependent genes whose products are essential for cell cycle progression. The traditional view has been that pocket proteins continue to be hyperphosphorylated through the S and G2 phases and following cyclin/CDK inactivation during mitotic exit become dephosphorylated by action of PP1. However, our lab observed that upon treatment of asynchronously growing cells with the CDK inhibitor Flavopiridol or CHX, pocket proteins, are rapidly dephosphorylated correlating with the inactivation of G1/CDKs and down regulation of D-type cyclins, respectively. Pocket protein dephosphorylation was prevented by pre-treating these cells with phosphtase inhibitors at a concentration selective for PP2A, implicating PP2A or PP2A-like serine/threonine phosphatase in this iii process. The involvement of PP2A on pocket protein dephosphorylation was further strengthened by the observation that SV40 small t antigen (ST) delays/prevents p107 dephosphorylation. Moreover, a physical association between PP2A/C and p130/p107 was observed throughout the cell cycle that was not affected by CHX treatment, strongly suggesting that CHX-induced dephosphorylation is not the result of increased pocket protein targeting by PP2A, but rather that a dynamic equilibrium between CDKs and PP2A is shifted to dephosphorylation when CDK activity is compromised. This dynamic equilibrium operates throughout the cell cycle. PP2A is a trimeric enzyme complex consisting of a catalytic C, a structural A and substrate specific B subunit. There are four families of regulatory B subunits designated B, B’, B’’ and B’’’, each with several members encoded by genes with multiple splice variants that mediate substrate specificity and subcellular localization. It has been reported recently that in excess of 200 functional distinct PP2A holoenzymes can assemble with distinct specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the mechanisms that regulate the steady state phosphorylation of pocket proteins throughout the cell cycle, it was essential to identify the specific holoenzyme complexes involved. To this end, it was identified that a PP2A trimeric holoenzyme containing B55α specifically targets and dephosphorylates p107/p130 both in vitro and in mammalian cells. B55α associates directly with the spacer of p107 and this interaction seems to be indirectly enhanced by the C-terminus of p107. The decreased association of p107 with PP2A/C of the B55α/PP2A holoenzyme complex upon treatment with ST further confirmed the role of B55α in mediating p107-PP2A/C interaction. Our data also revealed an interaction between B55α and p130, but not pRb, which appears to prefer a PR70, suggesting selectivity in the interaction of pocket proteins with distinct PP2A holoenzymes. In accordance with this, recombinant purified B55α dephosphorylates p107 in vitro. Limited ectopic expression of B55α but not other subunits, result in ST sensitive dephosphorylation of p107 and p130 in cells. Further shRNA mediated knockdown of B55α results in hyperphosphorylation of p107 and p130. This suggests that the cellular levels of B55α are critical in modulating the phosphorylation status of p107/p130 rather than just catalyzing the dephosphorylation of these proteins when the activity of CDKs is compromised. Since ST disrupts the B55α/PP2A holoenzyme complex by binding to the PP2A-A-C dimer and leads to hyperphosphorylation of pocket proteins it is conceivable that ST mediates its effects on cell proliferation at least in part, via inactivation of the PP2A holoenzymes that activates pocket proteins. Given the sensitivity of p107 phosphorylation to the cellular levels of B55α, future analyses should ascertain if deregulation of B55α leads to hyperphosphorylation of pocket proteins and abnormal cell cycle progression.
    • BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF TWO MOLECULAR IODINE MOUTHRINSES AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN RED AND ORANGE COMPLEX PERIODONTAL PATHOGENS

      Rams, Thomas E.; Page, Lawrence; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Objectives: Molecular iodine released from povidone-iodine formulations significantly enhances periodontal probing depth reductions when applied into human periodontitis sites during mechanical root debridement, largely due to its antimicrobial activity against periodontal bacterial pathogens. Since molecular iodine accounts for the antimicrobial effects of povidone-iodine, new commercial mouthrinses with higher levels of free molecular iodine may also exert antimicrobial properties against periodontal bacterial pathogens. To evaluate this issue, the purpose of this study was to measure and compare the in vitro bactericidal effects of two molecular iodine-based mouthrinses against subgingival biofilm samples from adults with severe periodontitis, and against a fresh clinical subgingival isolate of the periodontal pathogen, Prevotella nigrescens. Methods: Paper point subgingival biofilm samples from 32 adults with severeperiodontitis, and a clinical subgingival isolate identified as P. nigrescens, were secondarily used in this study after their initial microbiological analysis at the Oral Microbiology Testing Service Laboratory at Temple University School of Dentistry. In a subgingival biofilm eradication assay, dilution aliquots from each subgingival biofilm specimen were mixed for a 60-second in vitro contact time with either Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse (containing 100 ppm molecular iodine) or iClean(R) mouthrinse (containing 150 ppm molecular iodine), and then neutralized with 3% sodium thiosulfate. The mixtures were then inoculated onto enriched Brucella blood agar culture plates, and incubated anaerobically for 7 days at 37 °C. Bacterial species growing subsequent to a 60-second mouthrinse contact time were considered to be resistant to that mouthrinse. Total viable counts in mouthrinse-exposed subgingival specimens were quantitated, and established phenotypic criteria employed to identify the following red/orange complex periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum group species. Subgingival sample dilution aliquots not exposed to the mouthrinses were similarly processed as controls for comparison with mouthrinse-exposed specimens, and were additionally inoculated onto enriched Brucella blood agar plates supplemented with either metronidazole at 16 mg/L, doxycycline at 4 mg/L, amoxicillin at 8 mg/L, or clindamycin at 4 mg/L, which represent recognized non-susceptible drug breakpoint concentrations for each of the antibiotics, followed by anaerobic incubation for 7 days at 37 ºC. In vitro antibiotic resistance was noted when any of the evaluated red/orange complex periodontal pathogens displayed growth on one or more of the antibiotic supplemented enriched Brucella blood agar plates. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test analysis compared mean total subgingival viable counts, and mean total subgingival counts of the evaluated red/orange complex periodontal pathogens per patient, between subgingival biofilm samples exposed and not exposed in vitro to the molecular iodine mouthrinses, with a P-value of < 0.05 required for statistical significance. For in vitro susceptibility testing of the P. nigrescens subgingival isolate, aliquots of a 0.5 McFarland standard P. nigrescens cell suspension were mixed with each of the two molecular iodine mouthrinses, as well as with 10% and 0.1% solutions of povidone-iodine, and neutralized with sodium thiosulfate after a 60-second in vitro contact time. The mixtures were then plated onto enriched Brucella blood agar culture plates, and incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days at 37 ºC, with total viable P. nigrescens counts on test solution-exposed plates compared to counts non-exposed P. nigrescens control plates. Results: Subgingival biofilms exposed in vitro to either the Iorinse(R) RTU oriClean(R) mouthrinses yielded significantly lower average total subgingival viable counts per patient, with reductions of 27.0% and 63.8%, respectively, than non-exposed control specimens (P < 0.0001). Similarly, both mouthrinses significantly reduced mean red/orange complex periodontal pathogen counts/patient by 74.4% and 97.4%, respectively, as compared to non-exposed control specimens (P < 0.0001). The iClean(R) mouthrinse better reduced average total subgingival viable counts and red/orange complex periodontal pathogen counts than the Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse (P-values < 0.0002 and < 0.0044, respectively). All evaluated red/orange complex periodontal pathogens were suppressed below detection by the Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse in 17 (53.1%) patient samples, and by the iClean(R) mouthrinse in 29 (90.6%) patient samples. Subgingival species resistant in vitro to the Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse were P. intermedia/nigrescens (8 of 25 patient strains), P. micra (7 of 32 patient strains), and F. nucleatum (6 of 30 patient strains), whereas species resistant to the iClean(R) mouthrinse were P. intermedia/nigrescens (1 of 25 patient strains), P. micra (2 of 32 patient strains), and F. nucleatum (2 of 30 patient strains). Relative to a clinical subgingival isolate of P. nigrescens, the Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse produced an 85% reduction, with the iClean(R) mouthrinse and both povidone-iodine concentrations (10% and 0.1%) attaining 100% reductions in total viable cell counts of P. nigrescens after 60 seconds of in vitro exposure. Conclusions: The Iorinse(R) RTU or iClean(R) mouthrinses both exhibited rapid invitro antimicrobial activity against human subgingival biofilm microorganisms, inducing 27.0% to 63.8% reductions, respectively, in total subgingival viable counts, and 74.4% to 97.4% reductions, respectively, in red/orange periodontal pathogen counts. The iClean(R) mouthrinse provided significantly better antimicrobial activity against subgingival biofilm bacteria in vitro than the Iorinse(R) RTU mouthrinse. These findings suggest merit in the clinical use of both molecular iodine-based mouthrinses in the treatment and prevention of bacterial biofilm-related human periodontal diseases.
    • Bad Faith and Checklist Tourism: A Sartrean Analysis

      Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962-; Taylor, Paul C. (Paul Christopher), 1967-; Gjesdal, Kristin; Rey, Terry (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This project offers a unique contribution to the scholarship on Jean-Paul Sartre's concept of bad faith by providing a sustained exploration of bad faith in the context of contemporary tourism. More specifically, I explore the bad faith of what I call "checklist tourism," which defines the tourist trip as a rapid succession of visits from one "must-see" site to the next, snapping photos and collecting souvenirs along the way. I argue that checklist tourism offers a safe and comfortable structure for travel that protects tourists against Sartrean anguish--that is, the experience of alienation, fear, freedom, and responsibility--that travel can sometimes evoke. This analysis contributes to the literature on bad faith in three main ways. First, I provide an extended analysis of the Sartrean spirit of seriousness, highlighting part of this concept that has thus far been underdeveloped in the scholarship. I argue that checklist tourism manifests the spirit of seriousness, which accepts the obligation of "must-see" sites and belief in the transcendent value of the material objects seen on the tour. Second, I explore the embodied bad faith of the possession and appropriation of the material world (rather than studying the possession of people, as most scholars have done), arguing that the tourist attempts to appropriate tourist sites through bodily engagement with them. Third, I develop a theory of play as authenticity, and I offer a systematic investigation of it as a rejection of the ontological bad faith project to be self-identical (i.e. to be God), and a reflective conversion to self-recovery. I then explore the character of the "post-tourist," which has been developing in the tourism literature and which represents a way of touring that rejects the seriousness of the "must-see" sites in favor of an attitude of levity, spontaneity, and playfulness.
    • Badiou's Inaesthetics and the Modern Dilemma

      O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948-; Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Singer, Alan, 1948-; Rabaté, Jean-Michel, 1949- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      The predominance of post-modern thought in the latter half of the 20th century has brought philosophy to a crisis of confidence in its ability to investigate and understand our current reality. The complacent relativism that has emerged from post-modern discourse leaves us unprepared to face either the dominance of a dis-associative free-market or the emergence of regressive fundamental totalitarianism. Alain Badiou tasks philosophy with recovering the process of logical investigation into the primary forces which shape our lives, and he does so by equipping philosophy with both a means and an end: philosophy is a mathematical ontology in the endless pursuit of truth. In an attempt to address the issues of infinitely relative position and totalitarian authority, I understand Badiou to draw most significantly from Wittgenstein's (not Sartre's) notion of the situation and Heidegger's notion of Being, placing both of these insights within the mathematical framework of set theory as informed by Paul Cohen, doing so in the distinctly Platonic spirit of an appeal to truth as the antidote to the sophistry of post-modern thought. Such concerns with the intersection of authority and position are distinctly modern ones, and for Badiou we remain caught on the horns of the modern dilemma of the undisputed Master and the infinite Place. The process of overcoming such a false dichotomy, Badiou suggests, involves a return to the scene of its founding in the century's imagination, the moment of its poetic enunciation. Through an investigation of the critical and creative work of Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot between the wars, I present their striking awareness of this problem and their attempts to overcome it, focusing on their respective moments of success and failure as understood through a critique based on Badiou's ethics and aesthetics.
    • BAG6 as a Novel HIV-1 Host Factor

      Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Chin, Mario; Ganea, Doina; Eisenstein, Toby K.; Xiao, Weidong; Ward, Sara Jane (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the major etiological agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the cause of over 30 million deaths worldwide. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has demonstrated great efficacy at suppressing viral load and is therefore the standard therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. Noncompliance due to severe HAART-associated side effects significantly undermines therapeutic efficacy. Dronabinol, the synthetic form of the cannabinoid THC found in marijuana, is FDA-approved for countering some of these side effects. Studies have reported that cannabinoids restrict HIV-1 replication, although no mechanism has yet been proposed. Thus the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of cannabinoids on HIV-1 infection and to determine the molecular basis of cannabinoid-induced viral suppression. By transcriptomic sequencing of T cells treated with cannabinoids, we have found that the expression of BAG6, a protein uncharacterized within the context of HIV-1 infection, was downregulated. To identify the role of this protein during infection, we knocked down BAG6 and were able to recapitulate the protective effects of cannabinoids by observing reduced severity of viral challenge. Moreover, we have also identified BAG6 to be a binding partner of two HIV-1 viral accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr. Importantly, we have discovered that Vpr mediates targeted degradation of BAG6 by leveraging the host proteasome during the early stages of the viral lifecycle, revealing a hitherto unknown function of this poorly-understood viral protein. We thus establish modulation of BAG6 expression as a novel mediator of the effects of cannaninoids on HIV-1 infection.
    • Balancing accountability with caring relationships: The influence of leadership styles on the behaviors of secondary school administrators

      Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Gross, Steven Jay; Soundy, Cathleen S.; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This case study examines secondary school leaders' perceptions of their ability to build positive relationships with the adolescents in their care as a means for improving students' academic performance. A sample of administrator participants was chosen from four suburban high schools with similar demographics located in the South Central Pennsylvania region. Participants were surveyed, interviewed, and observed in an effort to identify whether or not their self-perceptions of how they build positive relationships with students and their actual behaviors align. A comparison between leadership styles and the gender of the participants was also made to determine whether or not gender influences the behaviors of school leaders as it explores the use of justice-oriented and care-oriented approaches to school leadership. This study is grounded in a theoretical framework based on the works of Shapiro and Stefkovich (2011), Noddings (2005), Kohlberg (1975), Gilligan (1982), and Tannen (2001) as it investigates how secondary school administrators use transformational, ethical, and authoritative behaviors in their daily interactions with students. Using four case studies and the results of an electronic survey, this study examines whether or not school leaders' perceptions of their success in building relationships with students are accurate. The findings of this case study illustrate that transformational and care-oriented styles of school leadership are the most effective in building positive relationships with secondary students. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the survey or interview responses of male and female participants, demonstrating that in this particular study, the gender of the participant did not increase the likelihood of transformational or care-oriented behaviors being used. This study asserts that all school leaders can be more effective in meeting the demands of accountability while still caring for the well-being of students' social, emotional, and cognitive growth by prioritizing the building of relationships over accountability itself, and by developing their own overall capacity to balance both transactional and transformational responsibilities. This research contributes to existing literature on ethical educational leadership, gender-related styles of communication and leadership, and secondary school leadership.
    • Balancing Act: How an Unbalanced Media Affects the Electorate

      Hagen, Michael Gray; Joslyn, Richard; Chomsky, Daniel; Yannella, Philip (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Previous studies of media bias generally do not consider intra-campaign shifts in the composition of the coverage, leaving unanswered the question of whether coverage is consistently balanced or merely appears so when all the ups and downs of the election are tallied up. Even this aggregate assessment of balance frequently reveals imbalance in coverage, but there are few studies that test for effects of media imbalance. A lack of comprehensive content analysis data makes substantive work in this area challenging and frequently dependent upon single-election studies or those that examine a single variable over multiple years. This project takes advantage of a highly detailed, project-generated content analysis of all NBC Nightly News broadcasts and New York Times articles during the general election period (from just prior to the national party conventions through Election Day) for four election years (1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008) to address the question of whether aggregate and intra-campaign imbalance exists along three axes: volume of coverage (total coverage of the campaign and candidates), share of coverage (percentage of coverage received by each candidate on a given day, not conflated with volume), and tone of coverage (average daily valence score of coverage, positive or negative). Share of coverage is not stable at any point of equilibrium, but swings back and forth, favoring one candidate then the other throughout the general election. Analysis of tone of coverage reveals a surprising correlation between the positive/negative coverage of the candidates, with tone of coverage of the candidates correlating to a statistically significant degree. With this data it is possible to test whether shifts in the composition of coverage cause shifts in electoral support as measured by trial heat polls. Analysis of the data shows a significant relationship between changes in share and tone of coverage and changes in levels of electoral support. The corollary question, "what attracts media attention?" shows that media outlets are attracted by conflict as determined by a qualitative and quantitative analysis of headlines and share of coverage, and a further test shows a significant correlation between media coverage of an issue and both candidates' mention of that issue in their remarks, though not between media coverage and a single-candidate mention of the issue. The end result is a more-comprehensive picture of political reporting, its effect on the electorate, and the ways in which candidates may attract attention than is currently available in the literature. The combination of a multi-election measure with a high degree of intra-campaign diagnostic sensitivity provides a useful benchmark for the further study of media coverage of campaigns, as well as more than sufficient justification for its substantive significance as an area of political study, by virtue of the observed relationship between coverage and levels of electoral support.
    • BALIK-ISLAM IN THE PHILIPPINES: REVERSION, SYMBOLIC NEGOTIATION, AND BECOMING THE OTHER

      Abdullah, Zain; Rey, Terry; White, Sydney Davant; Angeles, Vivienne S. M., 1944- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Although the majority of Filipinos are Christian, recent developments reflect an upsurge in conversion to Islam, particularly in the northern Philippines. This dissertation examines one of the fastest growing religious phenomena in Southeast Asia, Balik-Islam, which means “reverts to Islam,” or the process of “returning to Islam.” The Balik-Islam movement has become popular since the 1970s, and its religious narratives on Muslim reversion challenge and complicate what we already know generally about conversion to new religions, including the impact of the external “non-religious” factors associated with it. This dissertation shows how a discourse of “reversion” among Balik-Islam members reveals complex realities about the appeal of Islam to Filipinos. While other scholars have used paradigms concerning “othering” and underlying “symbolic” forces to understanding the reasons why conflict and crisis might appear in conversion narratives, this characterization also tends to reify religion and position Christianity and Islam as polar opposites operating within a hostile environment. My approach is to understand how Balik-Islam members negotiate their transition to Islam by virtue of social and cultural settings that are both fluid and multifaceted. By critically assessing their “reversion” narratives, this dissertation reveals how their transition to Islam reflects a “symbolic negotiation,” or an act of reimagining the process of religious conversion itself, substituting it for a discourse of reversion that reflects a diverse set of spiritual and social needs.
    • Ballparks as America: The Fan Experience at Major League Baseball Parks in the Twentieth Century

      Simon, Bryant; Goedde, Petra, 1964-; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Riess, Steven A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation is a history of the change in form and location of ballparks that explains why that change happened, when it did, and what this tells us about broader society, about hopes and fears, and about tastes and prejudices. It uses case studies of five important and trend-setting ballparks to understand what it meant to go to a major league game in the twentieth century. I examine the Polo Grounds and Yankee Stadium in the first half of the twentieth century, what I call the classic ballpark era, Dodger Stadium and the Astrodome from the 1950s through the 1980s, what I call the multi-use ballpark era, and Camden Yards in the retro-chic ballpark era—the 1990s and beyond. I treat baseball as a reflection of larger American culture that sometimes also shaped that culture. I argue that baseball games were a purportedly inclusive space that was actually exclusive and divided, but that the exclusion and division was masked by rhetoric about the game and the relative lack of explicit policies barring anyone. Instead, owners built a system that was economically and socially stratified and increasingly physically removed from lower-class and non-white city residents. Ballparks’ tiers allowed owners to give wealthier fans the option of sitting in the seats closest to home plate where they would not have to interact with poorer fans who owners pushed to the cheaper seats further from the action. That masked exclusion gave middle- and upper-class fans a space that was comfortable and safe because it was anything but truly accessible to all Americans. I also argue that owners had to change the image of the ballpark and tinker with the exclusion there as fans’ tastes and their visions of what a city should look and feel like changed.
    • BANK HOLDING COMPANY GOVERNANCE, OPACITY AND RISK

      Elyasiani, Elyas; Balsam, Steven; Mao, Connie X.; Naveen, Lalitha (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      As financial intermediaries, banks are "special" because they play an important role in transferring funds from surplus spending units to deficit spending units and serve as a channel of monetary policy. Therefore, the safety and soundness of banks is essential to the financial stability and economic development. This study investigates how bank governance mechanisms, namely, executive compensation and board of directors, affect bank safety. Given the unique nature that bank assets are opaque, bank governance is expected to be different from corporate governance of industrial firms. This study also investigates how the opaqueness nature of bank assets affects the compensation design of bank executives. Chapter 1 investigates the association between asset opacity and CEO pay-performance sensitivity of bank holding companies (BHCs). Contrary to the monitoring cost hypothesis according to which when information asymmetry is high firms rely more heavily on equity-based compensation, I find that when the share of opaque assets in total assets increases, pay-performance sensitivity in BHCs declines. This finding supports the view that when the share of opaque assets increases, managers can pursue risky projects to a greater extent in the interests of shareholders but at the expenses of bondholders, and, hence, the optimal compensation structure in BHCs with larger share of opaque assets has a lower pay-performance sensitivity to restrain managerial risk-taking incentives, reducing the conflicts of interests between shareholders and bondholders. The negative effect of asset opacity on pay-performance sensitivity is robust after accounting for the endogeneity of asset opacity and using various compensation measures. In addition, I find that higher pay-performance sensitivity generally leads to a greater share of opaque assets in total assets. The results of this study suggest that asset opacity is an important determinant of compensation structure in the banking industry. BHCs should use caution when using stocks and options to promote prudent risk taking under bank asset opacity conditions because opaque bank assets make risk-shifting behaviors induced by equity-based compensation difficult to monitor, threatening the bank stability. Regulators should also account for this opacity effect. Chapter 2 investigates the relationship between insolvency risk and executive compensation for BHCs over the 1992-2008 period. I employ CEO compensation sensitivity to risk (vega) and pay-share inequality between the CEO and other executives as measures of compensation and employ a simultaneous equation model to account for the endogeneity problem between vega and risk. Five main results are obtained. First, CEO compensations in BHCs have risen in response to deregulation to resemble those of the industrial firms. Second, higher vegas lead to greater bank instability. Third, the association between bank stability and managerial compensation is bi-directional; higher vegas induce greater risk and vice versa. Fourth, BHCs in the next to the largest-size group increase CEO vegas the most and have the strongest potential to create instability in the financial industry, such as the one witnessed in 2007-2009. Fifth, increased pay-share inequality has effects opposite to those of the increase in vega; greater pay-share inequality is associated with greater bank stability. Implications of executive compensation effects on instability for depositors, deposit insurers and regulators are drawn. Chapter 3 investigates the association between the structure of board of directors and risk taking of bank holding companies. I use the number of directors on the risk committee and the frequency of its meetings to measure the strength of risk management exercised by bank boards. Several interesting findings are obtained. First, banks with stronger risk committees, namely risk committees with a greater number of directors and more frequent meetings, are associated with more diversified loan portfolios, greater amounts of safer loans, less mortgage-backed securities, and lower market risk. These results continue to hold even after controlling for the possible endogeneity problem using the dynamic panel GMM estimator. Overall, these results suggest that stronger risk management by bank boards has a positive and significant impact on banks' safety and soundness. Second, the percentage of banks having a risk committee has been increasing steadily since 1999, suggesting bank boards have gradually taken a greater role in risk management and their fiduciary duties have expanded beyond shareholders to include depositors. However, less than half of bank boards have a risk committee before 2007, suggesting weak risk management at the top level and the possibility that bank boards may have failed to control the excessive risk-taking in the banking industry leading to the recent financial crisis. Finally, the percentage of banks with a risk committee is still less than 60% after the crisis, suggesting that depositors and bank supervisors could enhance the stability of banks by further improving the effectiveness of internal risk control at bank boards.
    • BANKING CYBERSECURITY CULTURE INFLUENCES ON PHISHING SUSCEPTIBILITY

      Vance, Anthony; Andersson, Lynne Mary; Dawson, Maurice, 1982-; Thatcher, Jason Bennett (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The banking industry faces an unprecedented number of phishing attacks as cybercriminals circumvent security and technical countermeasures to deceive banking employees. There is a lack of scholarly research on the causes of phishing susceptibility in the U.S. banking sector. The literature review analysis highlighted the following gaps: (a) studies on information security and organizational culture failed to link theoretical underpinnings to information security results, (b) the lack of scholarly studies on the banking sector impedes academic perspective on the business problem, and (c) there is a need to investigate banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. This study consists of two qualitative inquiries; the initial study was an interpretive inquiry that resulted in a conceptual framework and highlighted a need for theory on banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. The qualitative interpretive study only included interviews from security and technology executives. This study yielded the following three major themes: (a) continuous security awareness, (b) executive-driven security climate, and (c) human-centered security operations. From the inductive analysis, a reducing phishing susceptibility through executive influence and culture conceptual framework emerged. From this study, the basis of a grounded theory study was necessary to develop theory to address phishing in the banking sector. The second inquiry was a grounded theory inquiry that expanded the initial study by interviewing (a) security and technology executives, (b) cybersecurity professionals, and (c) non-technical employees and executing a rigorous data analysis process. This study resulted in the following five major themes: (a) lack of executive coordination and support, (b) security awareness, (c) stronger security resiliency, (d) positive security behavior and environmentalignment, and (e) phishing strategy confusion. Theses findings derived from the data analysis resulted in the development of the Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory, an organizational approach for solidifying phishing countermeasures through banking cybersecurity culture. The Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory reinforces phishing countermeasures with a robust approach due to the hyperactive threat environment and constant changing of tactics. Keywords: Banking, cybersecurity culture, phishing susceptibility, organizational culture
    • Banned Films, C/overt Oppression: Practices of Film Censorship from Contemporary Turkey

      Stankiewicz, Damien, 1980-; Levi, Heather; Osman, Wazhmah; Yesil, Bilge, 1973- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This project explores how film censorship shapes film production and circulation at film festivals, public screenings, and theatrical releases since the early 2000s in Turkey. It argues that, over time, mechanisms of censorship under Erdoğan’s authoritarian regime became less centralized; practices of censorship became more dispersed and less and less “official;” and the various imposing actors and agencies have differed from those in previous decades. Though still consistent with longstanding state ideologies, reasons for censorship practices, now more than ever, must be complexly navigated and negotiated by producers and distributors of film, including festival organizers, art institutions, and filmmakers themselves, through self-censorship.Drawing on a number of in-depth case studies of films banned after 2000, this project analyzes these works within the political and social contexts surrounding their releases, as well as ethnographic data based on dozens of extensive semi-structured interviews with cultural producers over five years of fieldwork. The corresponding ethnographic fieldwork research reveals how the political climate in Turkey has affected (and worked to suppress) cultural production, freedom of speech, activism, and political resistance to the Erdoğan regime. It asks how political activism, speech, and events are converted into the visibility of image, sound, and text (as film) ultimately meets up with structures of the states that seek to obstruct or eliminate this mode of political engagement, not just through banning of artistic expression, but also through processes of delegitimization, investigatory targeting, threats, hate speech, and violence.
    • Barriers and Facilitators of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity After Childbirth: A Qualitative Investigation Among Low-Income African American Mothers

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Background: The childbearing years place socioeconomically disadvantaged African American women at increased risk for poor diet quality, excess weight gain, and cardiometabolic complications. Little is known about the attitudes, beliefs, values, and contextual constraints that shape these high risk mothers’ dietary and physical activity behaviors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine health perceptions of diet quality and physical activity among low-income African American women in the early postpartum period, and how these perceptions manifest as barriers or facilitators to health. Additionally, we examined how they may differ by known predictors of health, such as education, age, parity, and BMI. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, individual interviews with 20 women who were between 3-6 months postpartum. Mothers were approached and recruited in the waiting room of a university-affiliated, outpatient prenatal care clinic in Philadelphia, PA. Enrollment in the study was restricted to women who self-identified as African American, were at least 18 years old, and met the federal income guidelines to qualify for assistance (Medicaid, WIC). Individual interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, with transcripts verified by research staff. Thematic coding and content analysis were performed by 3 researchers using NVivo 10 software to assist with data management. Results: Barriers and facilitators of healthy eating and physical activity after childbirth fell into 4 major themes of mothers’ lives: 1) new structural reality in the postpartum period; 2) physiologic changes after delivery; 3) correct/incorrect perceptions of healthy eating and activity; and 4) social determinants influencing behaviors. Mothers described the transition from pregnancy to the early postpartum period as having a significant negative impact on their eating and activity behaviors due to heightened fatigue, time constraints, and the monotony of daily life with a newborn. We found more than double the number of perceived barriers to engaging in healthy eating than facilitators with regard to fluctuations in food supply, cost of food, and the built environment. Mothers with obesity and less education were more likely to have misperceptions; these misperceptions additionally served as strong barriers to making healthy lifestyle choices. Changes in mothers’ physical symptoms and health status (e.g., developing diabetes, hypertension), on the other hand, facilitated healthy behaviors. Conclusion: This research deepens our understanding of the primary drivers of health behaviors among low-income African American women in the postpartum period. We identified barriers which limit and facilitators which support these mothers’ ability to engage in healthy behaviors, though there were far fewer facilitators of healthy eating and physical activity. Interventions designed to overcome these barriers and capitalize on these facilitators have the potential to improve health outcomes for this population.
    • Barriers to HIV and HCV Screening in the TRUST Buprenorphine Clinic

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      As the opioid epidemic continues in Philadelphia, buprenorphine clinics are becoming a necessary mainstay in treatment of these patients. HIV and HCV rates are rising throughout the city due to injection drug use, and buprenorphine clinics could be a bridge to therapy for these conditions as well. This thesis explores the current data about HIV and HCV rates, their connection to injection drug use, and how these overlapping epidemics might be addressed in a comprehensive manner. Historical data, current trends, and first person reflections from clinicians in the TRUST buprenorphine clinic are used to inform our understanding of barriers to integrated screening and treatment. The thesis concludes with a discussion of a better integrated model of care.
    • "BARTLEBY": AN INTERTEXTUAL MUSIC DRAMA

      Greenbaum, Matthew, 1950-; Klein, Michael Leslie; Anderson, Christine L.; Douglas, John, 1956-2010 (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener was published in 1853. A fictional Law Office located at "No.___Wall Street" is the setting for Melville's tale of a nameless lawyer narrator who becomes increasingly despondent over his copyist employee Bartleby's constant passive refusal: "I prefer not to." This calls into question, who is Bartleby? My aim is to answer this question by appropriating meaning to Bartleby's ambiguous behavior via the expressive emergent properties of music and the disseminative power of language. In my adaptation of the story, Bartleby, who is nearly mute in the novella, sings the words of Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Shakespeare, and William Blake in response to the uncomprehending inquiries of his employer. This leads to my discussion of the expressive logic of my integration of specific texts into Melville's original story followed by an analytical discussion of the musical language of Bartleby and its concomitant musical form.
    • Bastions Against the Fourth Wave: Toward a Theory of Authoritarian Organizations

      Pollack, Mark A., 1966-; Fioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966-; Deeg, Richard, 1961-; Hoover Green, Amelia (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      I theorize that a sub-set of states build and maintain authoritarian organizations (AOs) that exist to protect and reinforce authoritarian practices and values. First, I offer a logic for understanding AOs and their contributions to their member states. Second, I develop a framework that hypothesizes a range of benefits that an AO might offer its member states, identifying both material benefits (that contribute to repression and co-optation behaviors) and ideational benefits (that legitimize autocratic behavior) that an AO might provide. Finally, I assess three contemporary AOs: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Qualitative evidence shows that AOs most successfully contribute to the ideational side of the dictator’s toolkit, particularly by co-opting civil society into a structure set and maintained by authoritarians, and legitimizing authoritarian rule via distorting authoritarian practices, bandwagoning mutual rhetorical support at the international level, and challenging democracy as a norm of governance, chipping away at the Third and Fourth Waves of democratization. My research challenges the dominant understanding of IOs as generally democratizing actors, by identifying a subset of IOs that deliberately perform against this expectation. This research agenda also furthers our understanding the dictator’s toolkit by adding an international component to explanations of how non-democratic governments survive and counter democratizing pressures at home and abroad.
    • Battle of the Corner: Urban Policing and Rioting in the United States, 1943-1971

      Simon, Bryant; Farber, David R.; Kusmer, Kenneth L., 1945-; Berman, Lila Corwin, 1976-; Agee, Christopher Lowen (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Battle of the Corner: Urban Policing and Rioting in the United States, 1943-1971 provides a national history of police reform and police-citizen conflicts in marginalized urban neighborhoods in the three decades after World War II. Examining more than a dozen cities, the dissertation shows how big-city police brass and downtown-friendly municipal elites in the late 1940s and 1950s attempted to professionalize urban law enforcement and regulate rank-and-file discretion through Police-Community Relations programs and novel stop-and-frisk preventive patrol schemes. These efforts ultimately failed to produce diligent yet impartial street policing. Beginning in the late 1950s, and increasing in severity and frequency until the early 1960s, young black and Latino working-class urban residents surrounded, taunted, and attacked police officers making routine arrests. These crowd rescues garnered national attention and prepared the ground for the urban rebellions of 1964 to 1968, many of which began with a controversial police incident on a crowded street corner. While telling a national story, Battle of the Corner provides deeper local context for postwar changes to street policing through detailed case studies highlighting the various stakeholders in reform efforts. In the 1950s and 1960s, African-American activists, block clubs, residents, and politicians pressured police for effective but fair and accountable tactical policing to check rising criminal violence and street disorder in neighborhoods increasingly blighted by urban renewal. Rank-and-file police unions fought civilian review boards and used new collective bargaining rights to stage job actions to obtain higher wages. They also obtained “bill of rights” contract provisions to shield members from misconduct investigations. Police management took advantage of newly-available federal and local resources after the riots to reorganize their departments into top-down bureaucratic organizations capable of conducting stop-and-frisk on a more systematic scale. By the early 1970s, a rising generation of urban black politicians confronted skyrocketing rates of criminal violence, armed militants intent on waging war on the police, and a politically-empowered rank-and-file angry and combative over the more intense threats and pressures they faced on the job. Battle of the Corner breaks ground in telling a national story of policing that juxtaposes elite decision-making and street confrontations and that analyzes a wide range of actors who held a stake in securing order and justice in urban neighborhoods. In chronicling how urban police departments emerged from the profound institutional crisis of the 1960s with greater power, resources, and authority, Battle of the Corner provides a history and a frame for understanding policing controversies today.
    • Baudelaire and the Rival of Nature: the Conflict Between Art and Nature in French Landscape Painting

      Dolan, Therese, 1946-; Singletary, Suzanne; Singletary, Suzanne (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      The rise of landscape painting as a dominant genre in nineteenth century France was closely tied to the ongoing debate between Art and Nature. This conflict permeates the writings of poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire. While Baudelaire scholarship has maintained the idea of the poet as a strict anti-naturalist and proponent of the artificial, this paper offers a revision of Baudelaire's relation to nature through a close reading across his critical and poetic texts. The Paris Salon reviews of 1845, 1846 and 1859, as well as Baudelaire's Journaux Intimes , Paradis Artificiels and two poems that deal directly with the subject of landscape, are examined. The aim of this essay is to provoke new insights into the poet's complex attitudes toward nature and the art of landscape painting in France during the middle years of the nineteenth century.
    • Bawa Muhaiyaddeen: A Study of Mystical Interreligiosity

      Blankinship, Khalid Yahya; Rey, Terry; White, Sydney Davant; Jhala, Jayasinhji (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The focus of the study is on the teachings of Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, the mystic saint whose tomb is in Coatesville, PA, which is the only Sufi shrine in North America. Much has been written on the community of Bawa’s followers whose main office is in the Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship in Philadelphia, PA, USA. However, as far as my research revealed, as to this date, no study has focused particularly on his teachings. The objective of this study is to initiate that. This study spotlighted on how this Sufi saint integrated the various religions in his teachings. His teachings are evidently premised on the Islamic concept of Tawhid. This aligns with the mystic perspective and thus is this study premised. Bawa’s vision is of a single truth emanating throughout creation through all space and time. This is a characteristic that mystics of all traditions appear to share. What makes Bawa unique among the known mystics is how he weaves in the various religions to convey his teachings. Thus, his teachings are a veritable pot pourri of ancient wisdom flowing from the Hindu Puranas to the Sufi teachings in Islam. In one way it can be viewed as a one-man inter-religious monologue. It is not so much the perennial message as looking at each tradition in a way that had eluded the believer before. Sufis of yore are known to use this method, but had remained within their own traditions. Bawa’s teachings are significant in his being a figure that is metaphorically described in a title of a Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship publication as the “Tree That Fell to the West”. Thus, spanning both the East and the West, his teachings became global in its reach and appears to be more relevant and accessible due to the nature of contemporary progression of our psyche. To situate Bawa the study has provided a very brief overview of the mystic perspective and a comparative sketch of mysticism in the West and Islam. Bawa being a Muslim mystic, a chapter on Islam and the Muslim world view and an insight into Sufism was deemed essential to comprehend the depth of Bawa’s teachings. It was also necessary to analyze the significance of the pioneering spirit of North America that is so consonant with the element of freedom that defines the mystic message that is essentially that of liberation. This is viewed as a vital component in the message of Bawa that served to capture the psyche of his followers. What is notable in Bawa’s teachings is how he integrates the popular ideas of different traditions to draw out a hidden significance that overturns the traditional way of how the listener had hitherto viewed them. He views the religions as sections, states, etc., that have to be experienced into the distillation of the truth in a manner of speaking. Each of these plays its part in the progression of every individual to the point of the ultimate realization to the Real. Bawa’s teaching methodology appears to be aligned to the tradition of the “holy men” who have come to light with the recent research of the past two decades. Bawa remains unique in his expansion, per se, in continuation of the model left as the legacy by those holy men that researcher Richard Eaton brought to our attention. An analysis of that legacy is provided as it will be conducive to understanding as to how the Sufi perspective centered on Tawhid brings in the terrain of multiple traditions. Bawa taught through discourses. Such teachings belong to the age old oral tradition. Thus, the teachings flow according to the teacher’s discernment of each individual’s needs in the audience. He would tell his followers that he provides the nourishment as per the need of each individual as he “sees” where each of his “children” are when they come to him. This translates into his perceptiveness of each person’s level of comprehension and his contouring his message to gear into that level for optimal learning. Bawa’s teachings can be described as a veritable ocean in its breadth and depth. The task was to attempt to draw manageable parameters for this research. As such, the usage of Hinduism is the sliver that has been chosen to analyze what and how Bawa conveyed his message. The focal point is that it is through the mystic perspective Bawa integrated diverse traditions to converge on the single point of the Islamic concept of Tawhid. What is shown here is that it is such a perspective that allowed Bawa to bring together the apparently diametrically opposite traditions of Hinduism and Islam through an interreligious journey that brings in a perspectival shift by expanding the psyche of the listener.
    • Bayesian Model Averaging Sufficient Dimension Reduction

      Dong, Yuexiao; Zhao, Zhigen; Lee, Kuang-Yao; Frey, Jesse (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      In sufficient dimension reduction (Li, 1991; Cook, 1998b), original predictors are replaced by their low-dimensional linear combinations while preserving all of the conditional information of the response given the predictors. Sliced inverse regression [SIR; Li, 1991] and principal Hessian directions [PHD; Li, 1992] are two popular sufficient dimension reduction methods, and both SIR and PHD estimators involve all of the original predictor variables. To deal with the cases when the linear combinations involve only a subset of the original predictors, we propose a Bayesian model averaging (Raftery et al., 1997) approach to achieve sparse sufficient dimension reduction. We extend both SIR and PHD under the Bayesian framework. The superior performance of the proposed methods is demonstrated through extensive numerical studies as well as a real data analysis.