• "Being Vietnamese": The Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the United States during the Early Cold War

      Immerman, Richard H.; Farber, David R.; Simon, Bryant; Quinn-Judge, Sophie; Buzzanco, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This dissertation examines the early U.S.-D.R.V. relationship by analyzing related myths and exploring Viet Minh policies. I go beyond the previous literature to examine the Viet Minh government's modernization and anti-imperialist projects, both of which proved critical to D.R.V. policy evolution and the evolution of a new national identity. During the French era, as Vietnamese thinkers rethought the meaning of "being Vietnamese," groups like the Viet Minh determined that modernization was the essential to Vietnam's independence and that imperialist states like the U.S. posed a serious threat to their revolution and their independence. I argue that D.R.V. officials dismissed all possibility of a real alliance with the U.S. long before 1950. Soviet and Chinese mentors later provided development aid to Hanoi, while the D.R.V. maintained its autonomy and avoided becoming a client state by seeking alliances with other decolonizing countries. In doing so, Vietnamese leaders gained their own chances to mentor others and improve their status on the world stage. After Geneva, Hanoi continued to advance modernization in the North using a variety of methods, but its officials also heightened their complaints against the U.S. In particular, the D.R.V. denounced America's invasion of South Vietnam and its "puppet" government in Saigon as evidence of an imperialist plot. In advocating an anti-imperialist line and modernized future, D.R.V. leaders elaborated a new national identity, tying modernization and anti-imperialism inextricably to "being Vietnamese." Yet modernization presented serious challenges and Hanoi's faith in anti-imperialism had its drawbacks, limiting their ability to critique and evaluate the U.S. threat fully.

      Lindorff, Joyce, 1950-; Abramovic, Charles; Alperson, Philip; Ngô, Thanh Nhàn (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Western art music is relatively new in Vietnam, with a colonial history that started in the late nineteenth century. Early European music exposure in Vietnam was part of French mission civilisatrice and was later taken over by the Vietnamese with the establishment of the Vietnam Academy of Music in 1956. The development and progress of classical music, however, was hindered by the Vietnam war and facility limitations throughout most of the country’s modern history. Despite the obstacles, Vietnamese musicians continued to operate the school and to train generations of musicians. Vietnamese composers also managed to produce a substantial amount of repertoire in various genres: orchestra, chamber, solo instrument, songs, and more. Within the relatively small solo instrumental output, piano music occupies a major part. These works, however, remain unknown due to lack of performance and information. Given the author’s main interest and focus as a pianist, the first chapter of this paper offers an overview of the development and dissemination of European classical music in Vietnam as context for the subsequent chapters, which focuses on compositions for piano. The next chapter provides some discussion about the general development of style and aesthetics of Vietnamese classical music. The final chapter provides a closer look at some representative composers and their piano works, with historical background, musical analysis, and performance commentary.