Browsing Theses and Dissertations by Subject "Victimization"
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Examining the Relative Influence of Peer and Parental Attachment on School VictimizationThere is considerable evidence showing that attachment to parents and peers serves as a protective factor against adolescent anti-social behavior. However, less is known about whether the strength of these attachments serves as a protective factor against being victimized at school. Furthermore, no study has examined the relationship between primary language spoken at home and victimization experienced at school. In a sample of 1200 middle and high school students from an urban-fringe school district, the current investigation examined links between the strength of attachments to parents and peers and the frequency of victimization reported by students. Participants completed surveys in their classrooms as part of a random stratified sampling of classrooms from 6th-12th grades, which included self-report measures of the strength of attachment to primary caregivers and peers, frequency of victimization experienced at school, and primary language spoken in the home. Students who reported stronger attachments to parents and peers, reported less frequent victimization, though results appear to be clinically insignificant. Furthermore, students who reported speaking a language other than English in the home reported more frequent victimization, though attachment did not mediate this finding. These findings suggest the need for interventions which foster the development of strong attachments, and which address improving tolerance for students who speak languages other than and in addition to English.
Prevalence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate StudentsObjective: The primary objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of stalking victimization among a randomly selected sample of female and male undergraduate students. We examined the proportion of relationship violence victimization due to stalking and the co-occurrence between stalking and three additional forms of victimization (physical, sexual, and emotional violence). Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous paper and pencil survey. Setting: Three urban colleges. Participants: 910 female and male undergraduate students attending randomly selected classes on the days of survey administration. Outcome Measures: Experience with stalking victimization and co-occurrence of physical, sexual, and emotional victimization since coming to college. Results: Over half the survey respondents were female (57.1%). Nearly one-third of students reported experiencing any victimization (physical, sexual, emotional, and/or stalking) since coming to college. Stalking was the most frequently reported form of victimization (16.0%). Of the students reporting any victimization since coming to college, 29.7% experienced only stalking victimization and would not have been identified had stalking victimization not been assessed. A majority of stalking victims (59.6%) reported no co-occurring forms of victimization. Among stalking victims who reported at least one additional form of victimization, 57.6% reported both stalking and emotional victimization, 49.2% reported both stalking and sexual victimization, and 27.1% reported both stalking and physical victimization. Although most stalking (41.1%) was perpetrated by individuals known to the victim, such as friends, the perpetrators identified were less frequently (13.7%) intimate or romantic partners. Women were more likely than men to report stalking victimization (22.1% vs. 7.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Stalking was the most frequently reported form of victimization experienced since coming to college. Stalking may represent a unique component of relationship violence, as nearly 60% of students who reported stalking reported no other co-occurring forms of victimization (physical, sexual, or emotional). Further, stalking victims primarily reported that the perpetrator was someone known to them, although not necessarily an intimate partner. Awareness of stalking among those providing care for and resources to adolescents and young adults is critical to improving the safety and well-being of those affected.
Toward a Holistic Vectored Geography of HomicideA minority of the research conducted on the geography of crime has considered crime as a vectored event, consisting of multiple locations of interest and straight-line connections between them. Within this small literature, very little attention has been paid to relationships between the various 'journey' vectors available for consideration. Recently several studies have resurrected the notion of Mobility Triangle Analysis as a method for examining crime as a multi-vectored event. The research described here illustrates that geometric configuration of multi-vector homicide events drives prior findings related to mobility triangle analyses, and demonstrates a two-stage method for reconciling this issue. In addition to examining the geometric configuration of homicide, the research also examines issues of orientation, extent, and the impact of contextual factors in multi-vector models of homicide geography.