• NOVEL UMPOLUNG STRATEGIES FOR C−O BOND FORMATION WITH HYPERVALENT IODINE REAGENTS

      Wengryniuk, Sarah E.; Dobereiner, Graham; Wang, Rongsheng; Watson, Mary P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The development of new strategies and associated reagents that enable previously inaccessible synthetic disconnections is largely attributing to the remarkable progress in exploring new chemical space for drug discovery and innovative complex molecule syntheses. In the Wengryniuk laboratory, we are devoted to discovering new synthetic methodologies that are based on umpolung or reverse polarity, strategies, enabled by Nitrogen-ligated (bis)cationic hypervalent iodine reagents (N-HVIs). I(III) N-HVIs represent an attractive new class of oxidant as they are environmentally benign, highly tunable, and have shown ability in enabling distinguished modes of reactivity. This dissertation focuses on demonstrating the synthetic utility of these N-HVI reagents towards C–O bond formation via a reverse polarity approach.In Chapter 1, a summary of the reactivity and characteristics of hypervalent iodine reagents is provided. Chapter 2 describes a mild and metal-free strategy for alcohol oxidation mediated by I(III) N-HVI reagents. This method demonstrates the first method for chemoselective oxidation of equatorial over axial alcohols and was the first in situ synthesis and application of N-HVIs for a simple one-pot procedure. Chapter 3 discusses a novel strategy for a dual C–H functionalization to access functionalized chroman scaffolds via an umpolung oxygen activation cyclization cascade. Computational studies in collaboration with Prof. Dean Tantillo (UC-Davis) along with experimental probes in our laboratory, support the formation of an umpoled oxygen intermediate as well as competitive direct and spirocyclization pathways for the key C–O bond forming event. The utility of the developed method is demonstrated through a downstream derivatization of the iodonium salt moiety to access C–H, C–X, and C–C substitution via established Pd-catalyzed cross couplings. Total synthesis of (±)-conicol natural product was performed in 8 steps and 23% overall yield, further demonstrating the synthetic utility of the developed method. Key synthetic steps include a smooth construction of the chroman core via N-HVI mediated C–H etherification of a pendant alcohol followed by a late-stage double bond installation. Overall, this dissertation summarizes the current state of research enabled by N-HVI reagents, with a focus on their utility in reverse polarity heteroatom activation strategies, and it serves as a practical guide for future development in the field.