• A MUSLIM FIFTH COLUMN: MORISCO RELIGION AND THE PERFORMANCE OF IDENTITY IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY SPAIN

      Abdullah, Zain; Blankinship, Khalid Yahya; Rey, Terry; Byng, Michelle (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Muslims of the newly conquered territory of Granada rebelled against their Catholic Castilian and Aragonese masters. The Muslims of Granada were subsequently given the choice of expulsion or conversion, with many choosing to remain and convert to Catholicism. Beginning with these initial conversions, the question of Morisco Muslim-ness is one that has historians for years. For many scholars, Morisco religiosity represents a form of syncretic religion that blends both the Catholic and the Muslim in specific instantiations of religious practice. For others, the Moriscos represent a crypto-Islamic community that practiced a form of taqiyya, or the Islamic practice allowing Muslims to conceal their religious affiliation under duress or the threat of death. What these analyses fail to take into account is the performative aspects of Morisco religious practice at the boundaries of Catholicism and Islam. This dissertation intends to look at Moriscos as a suspect community from the perspective of the Spanish state, but also from the vantage point of the Moriscos themselves, who attempted to navigate the boundaries of Catholicism as articulated in legislation, polemical texts, and inquisitorial trials, while framing their religious practice in terms of cultural preservation. Similarly, this dissertation will examine the methods employed by the Moriscos in their performance of an oppositional Muslim identity set in direct contrast to a developing Spanish nationalism. Performance here is being employed to investigate how Moriscos, who represented a “fifth column” for the nascent Spanish state, constructed fluid identities that fluctuated in response to the socio-cultural and/or political context.
    • Assessing Social Justice Perspectives Among Resident Assistants: The Impact of a Race Relations Inter-Group Dialogue

      Carter, Niambi M., 1977- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This study was designed to assess a PWIs residential life department's initiative to provide their Resident Assistants (RAs) an opportunity to discuss race through an inter-group dialogue session. I argue that any activity that focuses on race needs to be grounded in a social justice framework. This is because this framework educates individuals about systematic social, political, and economic issues that plague our society. A social justice grounding also fosters a disposition that desires to eliminate institutionalized discrimination. As such, this study sought to answer the following research questions: how did this inter-group dialogue impact the RAs ability to recognize race-related issues in the United States and did this inter-group dialogue foster a social justice perspective among the RAs that participated? Through a content analysis of ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews with RAs who participated in the dialogue the findings suggest that RAs did gain an understanding of how different lived experiences effect how someone views societal race issues, but the inter-group dialogue did not foster a transformative perspective among RAs that were not already grounded in social justice. Recommendations to improve future sessions are provided.
    • BLACK MEN AND HEALTHCARE: EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF VIRTUAL AGENT TECHNOLOGY TO INCREASE ENGAGEMENT BY REDUCING STIGMA, BUILDING TRUST, AND PROVIDING EXPANDED ACCESS

      Wray, Matt, 1964-; Zhao, Shanyang, 1957-; Fagan, Jay; Lee, Simon Craddock (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      ABSTRACT When examining disparities in healthcare, notably those facing black men (Danaei et al. 2010; Thorpe Jr et al 2013), trust formation (Smith 2010; Levine 2013), internalization of stigma (Goffman 1963; Becker 2008), and identity construction (Hill Collins 2009, Crenshaw 2010) are three potentially important social processes worthy of consideration. Research has often sought to explore racialized differences in healthcare utilization and health outcomes by operationalizing trust (Adegbembo, Tomar, and Logan 2006; Carpenter et al. 2009), stigma (Wailoo 2006; Stuber, Meyer, and Link 2008), and identity (Mimiaga et al. 2009), but there is little research that speaks to the dynamic relationship between all three processes as they pertain to healthcare (Eaton et al. 2015). Furthermore, previous research on the three processes has not focused on new healthcare interventions and new medical technologies. This dissertation expands the conversation on trust, stigma, and identity by exploring how technological advances—namely, the use of virtual agents—can be employed to potentially increase engagement in healthcare for black men. This dissertation discusses the reciprocal nature of identity construction and internalization of stigma and the impact that both processes have on the health maintenance behaviors of black men, especially insofar as there exists an avenue for technology to mitigate current disparities. With stigma inherently being affixed to characteristics associated with identity, such as race or sexual orientation, and with stigmatized populations sometimes internalizing the negative labels society casts upon them (Becker 2008), understanding the manner in which these two social processes may serve to reinforce each other is key. Next, adopting a position consistent with Eaton et al. (2015), who argued that medical distrust mediates the effect of stigma on engagement in care, I highlight the process of trust and explore the roles of identity construction and internalization of stigma with respect to its formation. This dissertation explores the proactive use of distrust (Levine 2013), as well as what black men I spoke with are reporting that healthcare can do to (re)earn and maintain their trust. Finally, I detail the impact that (dis)trust has on healthcare utilization and the potential ability of embodied conversational agent (ECA) technology (virtual agents) to reduce the social and structural barriers that impact black men’s access to healthcare. In analyzing the relationship between trust and healthcare utilization, which is captured via patients’ healthcare experiences and their activation behaviors (Hibbard and Greene 2013), the impact of both processes on health outcomes are also examined. This dissertation utilizes a mixed methods research frame (Creswell and Creswell 2017), employing both qualitative and quantitative strategies. Focus groups (N=11; participants N=67), key informant interviews (N=12), and interviews (N=5) with participants who pilot test an online health promotion system (Gabe) are integral in providing this research with valuable insight into the ways in which trust, stigma, and identity impact the health behaviors of black men. Quantitative data from a pilot test (N=30) of the Gabe system, an ECA operated health promotion program designed for black men, are also analyzed. Data from risk assessments, demographic surveys, and participant use of the Gabe system serve to buttress the qualitative analysis. By employing an interdisciplinary approach, and exploring the dynamic relationships that exist across identity, stigma, and trust as they pertain to healthcare utilization, this dissertation presents a unique discussion surrounding the capacity of ECA technology to improve access to healthcare for marginalized populations.
    • Classroom Peer Effects, Effort, and Race

      Diamantaras, Dimitrios; Goetz, Michael L.; Ritter, Moritz B. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation develops a theoretical model of educational peer effects and then empirically tests whether or not they exist. In the theoretical model, each student selects an effort level to maximize utility; this effort choice depends on his peer group's effort and race. The students' equilibrium effort expression results in hypotheses that can be directly investigated empirically, a definition of the social multiplier, and conditions under which a social multiplier exists. The empirical model uses student-level data with observations on complete classrooms and two measures of effort, self-assessed effort and time spent studying, to investigate whether or not peer effects exist. The estimation results of the empirical model, interpreted using a simulation-based technique, find a positive relationship between the amount of time a student spends studying and time spent studying by peers who share his race; for self-assessed effort, the results are ambiguous. Simulations of policy experiments show that effort is higher in more racially homogeneous classrooms and that a social multiplier exists for both a reduction in the time a student spends working at a part time job and an increase in the student's socioeconomic status.
    • Colorblind Christians: White Evangelical Institutions and Theologies of Race In the Era of Civil Rights

      Berman, Lila Corwin, 1976-; Simon, Bryant; Neptune, Harvey R., 1970-; Harvey, Paul, 1961- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation traces the history of black and white evangelical encounters between the 1960s and 1990s. In the crucible of these encounters, white evangelicals forged a new theology of race: Christian colorblindness. Drawing on biblical idioms and the rhetoric of spiritual unity, white evangelicals turned their back on white supremacist theologies even as they resisted black evangelical calls for a more thorough redistribution of power. In the ambiguous space between racist reaction and anti-racist Christianity, white evangelicals successfully expanded their movement and adapted to the changes the civil rights movement wrought. Professing to be united in Christ, they molded an evangelical form of whiteness while proclaiming colorblind intentions. Colorblind Christians embraced a politics of church primacy. They believed that conversion to evangelical Christianity, not systemic change or legal reform, was the source of racial progress. When people became Christians, their new identity as members of the Body of Christ superseded any racial identity. Black evangelicals could use such claims to press for inclusion in white evangelical institutions. But white evangelicals often used the same logic to silence black evangelical demands for reform. In these spaces of ostensible Christian unity, white evangelicals preserved whiteness at the center of American evangelicalism. The story of black and white evangelical encounters reveals an American racial order that was at once racial and religious. Colorblind Christians invites scholars of race to consider how religion shapes racial formation and encourages scholars of religion to think about how race structures religion. Using the archives of the nation’s largest Protestant denomination, overlooked records from the most influential church growth initiative of the era, and rarely-examined sources such as student newspapers from white evangelical colleges, Colorblind Christians shows how white evangelicals shaped the American racial order and became successful religio-racial entrepreneurs in a time of rapid change. Using race strategically to grow their churches, white evangelicals invested in whiteness in the name of spreading a colorblind gospel. Black evangelicals promoted an alternative evangelical vision that placed racial justice at the center of the gospel. Their efforts to belong in American evangelicalism revealed the racial boundaries of the movement. By the end of the twentieth century, Christian colorblindness had helped to grow evangelicalism and enhance its political power, but it did so by coloring evangelicalism white. Black evangelicals, outsiders in their own religious tradition, continued to expose these often-invisible investments and pointed the way toward an evangelicalism beyond whiteness.
    • DISABILITY, DEPENDENCY, AND THE MIND: REPRESENTATIONS OF CARE-GIVING AND RECEIVING

      Orvell, Miles; Henry, Katherine, 1956-; Walters, Shannon; Lyon, Janet (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Since its beginnings in the 1970s disability activist movement, disability studiesscholarship has traditionally focused on physical disability and, in working to deconstruct the figure of the “cripple” as a symbol of pathos, has shied away from close examinations of pain, suffering, and dependency in favor of a focus on disability pride, agency, and community. As the field has grown, however, it has made room for investigations into these more difficult considerations, and in particular into how these affective states cluster around mind-related disability. Feminist philosopher Eva Kittay’s 1999 book, Love’s Labor, reexamines social contract theory in terms of what she calls the “dependency relation” and its attendant ethics of care. Bringing together mental disability with an analysis of both gender and race, Kittay’s work undergirds my own project’s intervention into readings of American literature between the Civil War and World War II, along with recent debates (for example, in the work of Licia Carlson, Nirmala Erevelles, Rachel Adams, among others) about the gendered, raced, and classed structures of care and dependency that are particularly evident in the case of mind-related disability. With a few notable recent exceptions, scholarship into the history of psychiatry has largely ignored the early and sustained imbrication of race in the origins of the American asylum movement and its widespread — and long-lasting — cultural impact. My project seeks to intervene into this history by examining the works of American writers who deploy representations of dependency and mind-related disability, and, in so doing, also critique, and sometimes reinscribe, assumptions of racial and gendered Otherness. I argue that mind-related disability produces strong cultural anxiety reflected in these writings precisely because it threatens the illusion of raced-and-gendered autonomy, an American ideal that has never been possible but has loomed large since the earliest days of the republic. Working from Ato Quayson’s insight that attention to disability, like the sublime, activates aesthetic instability in the structures of representation and an ethical core in literary interpretation, I offer textual readings that show that dependency, coded as weakness and vulnerability, was conceived as a condition categorically apart from white male-independence, coded as strength and autonomy. As such, the focus on independence as the organizing principle of a just society — rather than on distributed responsibility and nonhierarchical interdependence — easily survived the shift from antebellum sentimental protection to modernist scientific persecution. Focusing my inquiry on dependency and care, in my second chapter, “The Mad History of Asylums and Abolition,” I show how the early asylum movement and abolitionists produced and responded to oppressive rhetorics of race and madness that could be generative for resistance nonetheless. To that end, I examine the writing of asylum-movement reformer Dorothea Dix, in which we see the strained attempt to advocate for insanity as a specifically white condition that was tied to the vigor of civilization and progress. I then turn to the writing of abolitionist and social reformer Frederick Douglass, who sought to establish the capacity of black Americans to suffer mental anguish or “madness” under slavery and yet also to invert mainstream rhetoric such that madness adhered not to the abolitionist but to the slaveholding society of which he was critical. In my third chapter, “The Traumas and Delusions of the Civil War,” I reveal the mutual dependency of race and mind-related disability in representations of the Civil War and its traumas. Mind-related disability, instantiated in the individual body, becomes a potent metaphor for the social trauma of the war and the trauma of slavery, both of which are repressed in the post-Reconstruction narratives of white national fraternal healing. I focus specifically on the sentimental novella, For the Major, by Constance Fenimore Woolson, and on the genre-bending work, Specimen Days, by Walt Whitman, to show how otherwise promising models of care are profoundly compromised by their erasures of race and/or mind-related disability. In my fourth chapter, “The Medical Gothic: The Medical Gaze and Monstrous Care,” I show how after the war, the consolidation and assertion of medical authority produced a medical gaze defined by empiricism and scientific objectivity, a gaze that was critiqued by several late nineteenth-century writers by figuring the monstrous results of such medical care. I examine the doctor-patient relationship at the heart of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” and the ethical medical dilemma at the center of Stephen Crane’s novella, The Monster, to analyze the harmful care that produces social death under asymmetrical conditions of power. Despite these critiques of medical authority, the degeneration theories of the finde-siecle and the shift towards biological determinism engendered the rise of eugenics and an especially virulent abjection of mind-related disability. In this context, my fifth chapter, “Eugenic Time, Eugenic Death,” examines how community care could not help but fail and survival itself emerges as a kind of violence, as Charles Chesnutt’s story, “Dave’s Neckliss,” and Mary Wilkins Freeman’s story “Old Woman Magoun,” confirm. Throughout the dissertation, I show how the fantasy of American autonomy and rationality relies on racial and gendered hierarchies to sustain it, with often brutal consequences in the care of the dependent mentally ill/disabled.
    • DRAFTING INTO MANHOOD: BLACK NFL DRAFT PROSPECTS' CONCEPTIONS OF MANHOOD AND IDEAS OF PLAYING IN THE NFL

      Asante, Molefi Kete, 1942-; Thompson, Heather Ann, 1963-; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Conyers, James L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This dissertation examines how manhood is conceptualized by Black National Football League (NFL) prospects and explores how their characterizations of manhood are associated with their desire to become NFL players. This mixed-method study uses data collected by interviewing and surveying fifteen Black NFL draft prospects who were or would be eligible for the NFL draft between 2005-2016. The data are supplemented with existing literature and analyzed using the "Utamaduni Bwana" table of African cultural manhood in order to (1) culturally locate participants' conceptions of manhood, (2) identify the African elements within their conceptions of manhood, and (3) highlight the agency within their responses. In essence, this dissertation explores the significance of the NFL draft and the influence of colonization on Black NFL prospects' conceptions of manhood. This study found that Black NFL prospects' desire to reach the NFL is heavily associated with their attempt to reach manhood. The characteristics most commonly found in the participants' conceptions of manhood are strength, independence, and financial success; and their perceptions of NFL players contain hyper-expressions of these same characteristics. In addition, Black NFL prospects' conceptualization of manhood contain both African cultural elements and, as a result of colonization, hegemonic Western cultural elements. This dissertation makes an important contribution to sporting and gender literature by using an Afrocentric methodology to push beyond the normative investigation of Black-male athletes' identity and sporting goals. This study offers new and culturally appropriate questions regarding race, gender, and sports.
    • Effects of race and gender on preservice music educators' perceptions of composer diversity

      Confredo, Deborah A.; Dilworth, Rollo A.; Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Levitt, Laura, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      American music education is focused primarily on music written by White men (Baker, 2003). However, women are more likely to believe they can find success in a career in the arts when they have positive female role models (Quimby & DeSantis, 2006). Similarly, college students are more likely to name career role models who match their own ethnicity (Karunanayake & Nuata, 2004). If young women and students of color do not get to see composers who remind them of themselves, then they will be less likely to feel confident as potential composers. The purpose of this study is to determine undergraduate music education students’ commitment to promoting the music of diverse composers in their future classrooms. A pilot study conducted in 2017 supported the need for this research. Participants in that study expressed the belief that composer diversity is important, but that their undergraduate program is not adequately preparing them to incorporate diverse composers in their teaching. The research addresses the following questions: 1) To what extent do preservice music teachers believe that composer diversity is important? 2) To what extent do preservice music teachers feel prepared to teach their students about diverse composers? 3) Are women preservice teachers and/or preservice teachers of color more likely to believe composer diversity is important than teachers who are men and/or White? All participants (n=34) were junior and senior undergraduate students studying music education at a university in the mid-Atlantic states. These preservice music teachers completed an online survey, answering Likert-style questions about how they value composer diversity, and if they feel prepared to teach music written by composers of all genders and composers of color. They were also asked to name women composers, composers of color, and women composers of color they have studied in their undergraduate program. The participants’ responses were analyzed by gender and race, and the data was analyzed with a series of Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance tests. The results of the study suggest that while preservice music teachers believe that teaching their students about diverse composers is important, they are not enthusiastic about how prepared they are to teach about these composers. They are especially unprepared to teach their students about women of color, suggesting a need for a more intersectional approach to diverse learning (Matsuda, 2013). No differences were found between participants of different races. There were no significant differences between gender nonbinary participants (n=2) and participants of other genders. There were four significant differences between men (n=19) and women (n=13). Men responded with higher levels of agreement to the statements “I look forward to incorporating music by composers of color into my classroom” and “I look forward to incorporating music by composers of all genders into my classroom.” When asked about what factors influence their repertoire selection, women placed more importance on “The audience will enjoy the music” and “Composers of all genders are featured equally.” The median number of composers of color participants named was 5. The median number of female composers was 2.5, and the median number of female composers of color was 0.
    • Examining the Hispanic Paradox in Post-Operative Complication Rates

      Friedenberg, Frank K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Parkman, Henry P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      INTRODUCTION: Racial disparities exist in both healthcare access and outcomes. Despite high poverty rates, less education, and worse access to healthcare, the Hispanic population as a whole experiences equal, if not better outcomes compared to their non- Hispanic White counterparts. We sought to determine if race was significantly associated with the development of serious post-operative complications (POC) among patients undergoing intra-abdominal general surgical procedures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing appendectomy, cholecystectomy, or colectomy at a single healthcare system over a 12 month period. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, co-morbidities, operative variables, and the occurrence of selected post-operative complications. Variables found to be significantly associated with the development of a POC on univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model to determine the effect of Hispanic race on POC. Additionally, we constructed a propensity score adjusted logistic regression model as a confirmation of our findings. RESULTS: Among 456 patients, 48 (10.5%) developed a POC. Hispanic race, age, tobacco use, selected co-morbidities, surgical procedure and surgical approach were all associated with POC on univariate analysis. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounders, Hispanic race, age, tobacco use, and surgical approach were all significantly associated with POC. Hispanic race was the strongest independent predictor, and was found to be protective against the development of a POC (adjusted OR= 0.22, p-value=0.048). The propensity score adjusted regression model provided a similar estimate of the effect of Hispanic race on POC (adjusted OR= 0.20, p-value=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that Hispanic patients undergoing common intra-abdominal surgical procedures have lower rates of serious post-operative complications, even after adjusting for patient demographics, co-morbidities, and operative variables. This, and other existing data, suggests that Hispanic patients may incur some type of overall health advantage despite the socioeconomic hardships they often face.
    • FAITH OVER COLOR: ETHIO-EUROPEAN ENCOUNTERS AND DISCOURSES IN THE EARLY-MODERN ERA

      Tibebu, Teshale; Cassanelli, Lee V., 1946-; Northrup, David, 1941-; Spodek, Howard, 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation explores multiple episodes of interaction between Ethiopians and Europeans throughout the early modern era. After overviewing the Ethiopian exploration of Europe in the 15th century and the first Catholic attempts to reconnect to the Ethiopian Church at the turn of the 16th century, it focuses on the Ethio-Lusophone encounter by considering the emergence of Ethiopian studies in early modern Lisbon, the Portuguese military intervention in the Ethiopian-Adal War (1529-1543) and the Jesuit mission to Ethiopia (1555-1632). This dissertation argues that in the context of the early-modern Ethio-European encounter, faith trumped skin color in the discourse on sameness and otherness: throughout the 15th and 16th centuries Europeans and Ethiopians perceived each other as belonging to the same Christian world and collaborated to defy the perceived Muslim threat. Starting in the late 16th century however, Counter-Reformation Catholicism and Jesuit proselytism transformed Ethiopians into others, and--in Ethiopian eyes--Europeans became a threat. The Jesuit mission engendered an era of turmoil that crippled both the Ethio-European encounter and the Ethiopian monarchy: in its aftermath, the Ethiopian elites maintained a policy of isolation from Europe, barred Europeans from entering their country and redirected their attention to the Muslim societies of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean basins.
    • How Specification of Race and Social Class Affects Stereotypes, Implicit Attitudes, Explicit Attitudes, and Behavior

      Karpinski, Andrew; Hantula, Donald A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Weisberg, Robert W.; Xie, Hongling; Ellman, Lauren M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Race and social class are inherently confounded in the American society/culture—people stereotypically assume poor Black and rich White when only race is specified. However, much of the social psychological literature focuses on either race or social class during stereotype and attitude assessment. This focus is problematic given that different patterns of responses arise when both categories are specified (e.g., rich Black) rather than when only one of the two categories is reported (e.g., Black). Here I report on two pilot studies and two independent studies to examine the unique and combined effects of race and social class on stereotypes, implicit attitudes, explicit attitudes, and decision-making when stimulus race and/or social class are/is manipulated. In Pilot Study 1, I examined general race only and social class only implicit preferences and found overall pro-White/anti-Black and pro-rich/anti-poor preferences. In Pilot Study 2, I examined implicit associations between race and social class. Results confirmed that participants hold implicit rich-White and/or poor-Black associations. In Study 1a and 1b, I directly examined implicit attitudes, explicit stereotypes, and explicit affective responses when both race and social class are specified. Across all measures, participants had more positive attitudes and stereotypes about rich Blacks than rich Whites, rich Whites than poor Whites, and rich Blacks than poor Blacks. Attitudes and stereotypes about poor Whites compared to poor Blacks were more nuanced and were measure dependent. In Study 2, I investigated how race and social class information influences decision-making in a situation resembling a real world scenario (i.e., academic honor society selection processes). The results of this study suggest that the intersection of race and social class might be nuanced for this type of decision-making task, as only marginally significant effects for race appeared. Participants demonstrated lower criterion for Black than White applicants, suggesting that they are more likely to accept Black than White applicants into the honor society. This effect did not vary by target social class. These findings provide important insight into associations between race and social class, how the intersection of race and social class information affects stereotyping and attitudes, and fluctuations in decision-making when both race and social class of an academic honor society applicant are known. Overall, these results suggest that the intersection of race and social class need to be examined together.
    • In the Margins or the Mainstream? Gay and Lesbian Narratives About Urban Space, Place, and Community in Everyday Life

      Ericksen, Julia A., 1941-; Kidd, Dustin; Levine, Judith Adrienne, 1965-; Davis, James Earl, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      In this dissertation, I analyze narratives about how gays and lesbians think about urban space and communities in relation to their sexual identities. My research addresses discussions about assimilation and acceptance of gays and lesbians into U.S. culture and the residential departure of LGBTQ communities from enclaves characterize by the late 20th century. I also consider the extent to which gay and lesbian adults have move beyond experiences of living in the "closet." Have gays and lesbians entered the urban mainstream, or are they still relegated to the margins? To answer this, I asked three other main questions. First, I asked if sexual identity was still considered to be an important part of decision making processes for those who identified as gay and lesbian, and if so how this influenced choices about urban space use. Second, under the hypothesis that sexual identity was still a factor in decision making regarding urban space, I asked if there were any differences for gays and lesbians with various intersectional identities. Given that we know other factors like gender, race, class, and family can influence these choices for most people, I wanted to determine if such factors played a role in these experiences. Third, and specific to the site of my research, I asked what places in Philadelphia held meaning for gays and lesbians with regard to their sexual identities and sense of community. I identified two main narrative themes that described how gay and lesbian people thought about and made decisions about occupying different places in Philadelphia. The first I refer to as the "assimilation narrative," which represents cultural acceptance and residential integration into mixed populations. The second narrative is what I refer to as the "marketplace narrative," which is based on the idea of maximizing the chances of finding compatible partners in the city, as well as the social ties and resources that come with participation in these social markets. I found that my participants employed both types of narratives, but assimilation narratives were much more common when talking about residential decisions, while marketplace narratives were dominant in a discussion of a symbolic and ambient LGBTQ community. The process of finding and participating in a sexual marketplace was facilitated by the prominent, visible Gayborhood district in the city. This was described as a place that was symbolically linked with the ambient LGBTQ community, and participants could typically rely on these to represent them and to provide opportunities to find marketplaces regardless of where they lived. Those with multiple marginalized identities, especially women and people of color, more often felt unable to rely on the Gayborhood to facilitate this process. These participants described difficulty feeling as if they belonged in many of the places there, which they often viewed as more representative of white, gay men. People in these groups frequently put more work into the process of finding or creating marketplaces for themselves. Assimilation narratives were much more common when discussing residential choices, since participants could often rely at least partially on the ambient community and visibility of the Gayborhood for marketplaces. Residential choices involved sexuality-related considerations, though narratives about this process were typically described as a way of avoiding unfriendly neighborhoods and minimizing safety risks rather than choosing to live in proximity to other gays and lesbians. Participants referenced 11 neighborhood areas as those most friendly or comfortable for gays and lesbians, and most of them lived among these areas. Those who did not live in these neighborhoods discussed the additional work they did to manage their identities and marketplace ties in relation to the other factors that outweighed sexuality. Assimilation narratives were less relevant when discussing living places like unfriendly neighborhoods and workplaces, and narratives about being in or out of the closet sometimes resurfaced there. Some groups were also described as uninterested in assimilation, and some participants struggled with balancing radical politics and the benefits of assimilating. My findings in this research are based on the qualitative analysis of 54 semi-structured interviews with adults identifying primarily as gay, lesbian, queer, and who identify themselves as being primarily interested in same-sex relationships. This group represented whites and people of color evenly, slightly more women than men, and people across a range of ages from 18 to 58 years. People with and without children were both represented in the sample. I also conducted a brief ethnography of the 11 neighborhoods most often associated with the dominant narrative themes. I present descriptive data profiles on these neighborhoods drawing on data from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2008-2012 American Community Survey estimates. In Chapter 1, I provide an introduction to this topic and my specific research questions and findings, as well as an overview of the theoretical framework and methods I used. In Chapter 2, I provide a historical perspective on gay, lesbian, and LGBTQ communities and neighborhoods both generally and in Philadelphia. In Chapter 3, I discuss the "Gayborhood," a downtown district that visibly and symbolically represented the LGBTQ community in this city. In Chapter 4, I explore how those with intersecting marginalized identities often failed to experience an inclusive marketplace in these supposedly shared spaces. I also discuss work these groups sometimes did to gain access to spaces that they could utilize to create a sense of place, shifting between assimilation and marketplace narratives. In Chapter 5, I discuss participants' choices to live in neighborhoods other than the Gayborhood, and how assimilation narratives involved identity management work in negotiating factors like family, economics, and safety in relation to sexual identity in these neighborhoods. In Chapter 6, I talk about how gays and lesbians drew upon social networks and technology when finding gay, lesbian, and queer places both in Philadelphia and when traveling. In Chapter 7, my concluding chapter, I address the limitations of this particular research, the possibilities for future research based on the findings of this work, and implications for both LGBTQ communities and individuals in thinking about who among us is being left in the margins of society while others among us find our paths into the mainstream.
    • (IN)VISIBLE BODIES: LESBIAN WOMEN NAVIGATING GENDER, SEXUALITY, AND RACE

      Ericksen, Julia A., 1941-; Kidd, Dustin; Stein, Arlene; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Fifteen feet tall and clad in a three-piece suit, a giant image of Ellen DeGeneres keeps watch over a major highway that skirts Philadelphia. She smiles off in the distance, looking past lines of commuting cars, seated with her knees wide and one arm casually resting on her leg. Advertising her 3 PM talk show, this image is part of a complicated past of lesbians embodying masculinity (Kennedy and Davis 1993; Faderman 1991). At the same time this image is clearly part of this specific historical moment in which gender is increasingly recognized as a malleable project of the body (Butler 1993; Halberstam 1998). This dissertation works to understand the ways that bodies become gendered bodies and conversely to understand the sense-making activities that individuals use to explain their bodies and bodywork. Because lesbian women already sit outside of traditional feminine norms, their femininity is already excised from their bodies. As such, the ways that lesbian women experience gender can be one path of inquiry to the ways that gender and other identities get mapped onto bodies. While academic scholarship has been increasingly addressing issues of sexual identity at a macro level, with particular attention paid to the same-sex marriage debates, there is a lack of consideration of the ways that individual gay bodies, identities, and embodied experiences are affected by the recent social and political attention to "gay issues." This billboard of America's most beloved lesbian is also symbolic of the ever-increasing visibility of the gay body. In this climate of unprecedented gay visibility and social action relying on that visibility, how are individuals assigning meaning to their own bodies and identities? Whose bodies and what identities are able to reap the benefits of this new climate of visibility, and which are still excluded? Drawing from 45 open-ended interviews with lesbians of color and white lesbians, my dissertation examines the ways that non-straight women enact, imagine, re-imagine, and narrate their experiences of gender. I have found two distinct rhetorical strategies used to talk about gendered performances of the body: essentialism and play. Whether women are describing their embodiment of femininity or masculinity, both, or neither, they overwhelmingly draw from one of these two narratives to make sense of their experience. However, I will argue that the choice of narrative is not a neutral or made in the absence of power relations. Instead, my research suggests that women are making these choices within larger webs of racialized political discourses that make available or constrain corporeal possibilities. This becomes most clear when examining the racial differences in the adoption of these narratives. While white lesbians comfortably used both rhetorical strategies, none of the women of color I interviewed invoked narratives that described their gender work as "play." Mainstream LGBT activism has been based on the civil rights model of single-axis politics that relies on subsuming other identities for the dominant strategies and goals (Cohen 1999). This single focus has become crystallized in the past two years as same-sex marriage has become virtually the only issue that gay activism has addressed. Queer politics in theory was a great alternative to these sexual identity politics. For folks experiencing marginality from multiple axes, this shift seemed promising. Unfortunately, queer theory and activism has not been the liberating force it promised to be for many queers of color and non-middle class queers (Cohen 1999; Ferguson 2003). As a result, the libratory promise of identity deconstruction and destabilization that postmodernism has promised appears to be a liberation reserved for white bodies.
    • Investigating The Dual Mortgage Market: The Distribution Of Subprime Lending By Race And Its Consequences For Minority Communities

      Ericksen, Eugene P.; Shlay, Anne B.; Elesh, David; Adams, Carolyn Teich (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This dissertation examines the overlap of the racial composition of a neighborhood and the existence of a dual mortgage market in which prime and subprime lenders serve different neighborhoods and borrowers. Does subprime lending represent the democratization of credit or does it serve to track people by race? This dissertation employs Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data, U.S. Census Data and the HUD Subprime Lender List to identify subprime loans. I use Hierarchical Linear Modeling to predict the likelihood of subprime for a borrower in Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco and Alameda County California. The findings demonstrate that blacks and borrowers in black neighborhoods have a higher likelihood of originating a subprime loan than whites or borrowers in white neighborhoods. Further, blacks borrowing in largely white neighborhoods have an even higher likelihood of originating a subprime loan compared to their white neighbors than do blacks borrowing in largely black neighborhoods. These findings indicate that subprime lenders not only serve different neighborhoods, but also different borrowers regardless of the neighborhood in which they are borrowing and support the existence of a dual mortgage market that is defined by race. The results from the analysis examining the consequences of subprime lending for neighborhoods indicate that after controlling for neighborhood characteristics, the positive relationship between earlier and later rates of subprime lending disappears. Also, while higher rates of subprime refinance lending were associated with a decrease in neighborhood median income in 2000, subprime lending was associated with positive changes in median house value and percent of homeowners that are black in the neighborhood, although the effects of subprime on median house value disappeared after controlling for neighborhood conditions. The study points to the continued difficulties that black borrowers and borrowers in black neighborhoods face in obtaining a fair loan. As lending practices are reformed, it is important to keep in mind the need to ensure that minority borrowers who are in the position to afford a home loan maintain the ability to get a loan, but increased care must be taken to ensure that they obtain the ability to do so on fair terms.
    • Liberation in White and Black: The American Visual Culture of Two Philadelphia-area Episcopal Churches

      Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Watt, David Harrington; Rey, Terry; Pahl, Jon, 1958-; Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Liberation in White and Black studies, respectively, Washington Memorial Chapel (WMC) and The Church of the Advocate (COA), which are two Episcopal parishes in the Diocese of Pennsylvania. This dissertation investigates the ways that the visual culture of these spaces represents and affects the religious, racial and national self-understanding of these churches and their ongoing operations by offering particular and opposing narrative interpretations of American history. These "sacred spaces" visually describe the United States (implicitly and explicitly) in terms of race and violence in narratives that set them in fundamental opposition to each other, and set a trajectory for each parishes' life that has determined a great deal of its activities over time. I develop this thesis by situating each congregation and its development in the context of the entire history of both the Episcopal Church and Philadelphia as related to race, violence and patriotism. WMC is what historian of religions scholar Jonathan Z. Smith calls a "locative" space and tries to persuade all Americans to patriotically covenant with images of heroic "White" freedom struggle. COA is what Smith calls a "utopian" space and tries to compel its visitors to covenant with a subversive critique of the United States in terms of the parallels between biblical Israel and the African American freedom struggle. My analysis draws especially on the theoretical work of Pierre Bourdieu and David Morgan. A major focus of Pierre Bourdieu's work in both Language and Symbolic Power, and The Logic of Practice is the power of group-making. Group-creating power is often exercised through representations that create a seemingly objective sense of group identity and a social world that is perceived as "natural." David Morgan writes that religious visual culture functions as this sort of political practice through the organization of memory among those who are drawn to "covenant" with images. The Introduction of my dissertation lays out the theoretical approaches informing the visual culture analysis of these Episcopal Churches and raises the significant questions. Three main chapters provide: 1) an historical background of patriotism, race and violence in the Episcopal Church and in Philadelphia in particular, and 2-3) a thorough analysis of the history and visual culture of each space in context. A great deal of my analysis will be interpretive "readings" of the visual culture of the aforementioned churches in their larger contexts to explain how the visual culture represents social classifications to affect the constituents religious, racial and national self-understanding, and their ongoing operations by offering particular and opposing narrative interpretations of American history. The project concludes by summarizing the ways that the analysis of these spaces explicates the thesis with thoughts about the implications for the disciplines involved and further research.
    • NAVIGATING PATERNAL HURDLES: A STRENGTHS-BASED EXPLORATION OF THE WAYS YOUNG BLACK MEN CONSTRUCT AND ENACT FATHERHOOD IN SOUTHWEST PHILADELPHIA

      Wood, Jennifer, 1971-; Payne, Yasser Arafat; Fader, Jamie J.; Fagan, Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      The literature on desistance and crime-prevention finds that paternal engagement is correlated with increased self-esteem, and decreased delinquency, criminality and recidivism for both fathers and children (Holmes et al., 2012; James, 2015; Makariev & Shaker, 2010; Martinez, DeGarmo, & Eddy, 2004; Visher et al., 2011). While there is a breadth of research examining the collateral consequences of justice-involvement, such as employer discrimination and housing insecurity, there remains a dearth of literature exploring how these consequences specifically impact fathering. Because paternal engagement has implications for public safety, it is imperative to identify the personal and environmental factors that facilitate or challenge paternal engagement and the ways that paternal identity construction influences how fathers engage with their children. The current study employs a strengths-based perspective that acknowledges broader contextual forces that can impact marginalized fathers and explores the process of paternal identity construction and enactment within a novel framework that integrates perspectives from bioecological theory and identity theory. In particular, it investigates the ways young Black fathers navigate and adapt to different barriers to fathering, with a specific focus on police encounters and hypersurveillance. The research design comprises a qualitative approach that begins with a narrative inquiry interview followed by a subsequent interview that expands on themes discovered during the narrative inquiry. The study draws from interviews with 50 Black fathers between the ages of 25-34, with at least one biological child, living in the 19143 zip code of Philadelphia. Guided by the Dynamic Identity Construction and Enactment (DICE) model, the current study finds that social interactions with family, community, and criminal justice agents; internalized images of fathers and police in the media; and historical phenomena, such as mass incarceration and the crack epidemic cumulatively impact both paternal identity construction and fathering behavior for young Black men living in Southwest Philadelphia. This study suggests the use of the DICE model in research with marginalized communities, as it engenders a strengths-based lens by exploring both individual and contextual influences on individuals and communities. Findings also suggest (a) a reframing of deviance, (b) the use of person-first language in order to lessen the stigma of a criminal record (i.e. using terms such as “incarcerated individuals” instead of “inmates”), (c) increased non-law related interactions between police and community members in order to enhance familiarity and assuage fear on both ends, (d) a shift towards community corrections in order for fathers to remain active in their children’s lives, and (e) a greater focus on community-based coparenting programs in order to ensure that fathers maintain access to their children.
    • OTHER PEOPLE’S CHILDREN: HOW RACE, SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND SPATIAL CONTEXT INFLUENCE OLDER ADULTS’ ATTITUDES ABOUT SCHOOL FUNDING

      Adams, Carolyn Teich; Stahler, Gerald; Ferman, Barbara; Levine, Judith Adrienne, 1965- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This qualitative, exploratory study uses an interpretive case study design to elucidate key factors influencing the attitudes and behaviors of older adults with regard to public education funding in the context of rapid demographic change. The research was conducted in three first-ring suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where the older population is predominately White, and students in the districts come from diverse racial backgrounds. The study examines how social networks and physical environment relate to older people’s attitudes and behaviors with respect to public education funding. Current literature about older adults in neighborhoods focuses primarily on them as recipients of service. In contrast, this study examines older people as political actors and provides a robust and nuanced discussion about how they themselves frame issues of school funding. The project makes a timely contribution to research on the relationship between the growing racial generation divide and support for public education among older adults. It also provides strategy recommendations designed to increase older people’s support for public education funding.
    • RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION AS A BARRIER TO SOCIOECONOMIC UPWARD MOBILITY AMONG SECOND-GENERATION IMMIGRANTS: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE AND SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION

      Klugman, Joshua; Bachmeier, James D.; Tesfai, Rebbeca; Jordan, Will J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Today’s second-generation immigrants who are mostly of Hispanic, Afro-Caribbean, and Asian descent face new challenges that prevent them from replicating the high levels of intergenerational upward mobility that were achieved by most European immigrants and their offspring in earlier periods. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the persistent racial and ethnic discrimination against nonwhite children of immigrants constitutes a major barrier to their incorporation into the middle class as such experiences foster a reactive mindset that is detrimental to socioeconomic incorporation. To test this claim, I analyze whether perceived discrimination (PD) has a negative impact on the educational and occupational outlooks, and ultimately on the socioeconomic status attainment of second-generation immigrants. Further, I examine how socioeconomic background and contextual factors influence the risk of PD on the one hand, and its short- and long-term consequences on the other. Drawing from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), which was conducted in three waves when respondents were on average fourteen, seventeen, and twenty-four years old, I include individual-level and school-level data and use school random effects logistic and linear regression modeling to examine the effects of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination on second-generation immigrant incorporation. I find very little evidence for the notion that PD has a negative impact on future outlooks or status attainment; only youth who come of age in relatively privileged socioeconomic circumstances are more likely to have higher educational aspirations than expectations, but this mechanism does not translate into lower status attainment. I discuss possible explanations for the lack of support of segmented assimilation theory’s claims as well as the theoretical and methodological implications of my study.
    • SANCTUARY, SOCIAL POWER, & SILENCE: UNDERSTANDING BASEBALL AS A SITE OF CONTESTED ETHNIC AND RACIAL TERRAIN

      Grasmuck, Sherri; Delaney, Kevin; Vila, Pablo, 1952-; Washington, Robert E., 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This research examines connections between race, ethnicity, and professional baseball. I use a multi-method approach looking at secondary source data on player positions and contemporary stacking, media analysis, fan narratives and sport blogs in the two contexts of Philadelphia and Los Angeles. I find that minorities are well represented in leadership positions and portrayed positively by the media, but that some racial inequality still exists. Whites and light-skinned Latinos are more likely to hold leadership roles than blacks and dark-skinned Latinos. In addition, media narratives reinforce the mind/body dualism by emphasizing the character make up of white players while highlighting the physicality of darker skinned players. Despite this evidence, fans from all ethnic and racial groups spoke highly of sport as a space that represented racial progress and a place where they felt comfortable are interacting with others who were different from themselves. These narratives were closely connected to fans' desires to maintain positive emotions within the leisure context of sport. Ultimately, I argue that baseball can serve as a site of racial progress and change but that it does so partially within a narrow cultural context. Baseball thus alters symbolic meanings of race but simultaneously misses important opportunities to make deeper social change at the material level.
    • School Choice and Segregation: How Race Influences Choices and the Consequences for Neighborhood Public Schools

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Elesh, David; Saporito, Salvatore; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation examines the relationship between school choice and race. I examine whether the racial composition of schools influences choices and whether choices of private and public choice schools lead to greater segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. I improve on existing research by adopting the theoretical framework used in neighborhood preferences literature to distinguish between race and race-associated reasons as motivations for avoiding racially integrating schools. This study utilizes geocoded data from the Philadelphia Area Study (PAS) and elementary school catchment maps to examine families' preferences and behaviors in the context of the actual conditions of their assigned schools. Catchment maps are integrated with Census data to determine whether choice schools have a role in white flight and segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. The findings suggest that families are most likely to avoid neighborhood schools with high proportions of racial minorities. However, attitudes regarding racial climates are more consistent predictors of preferences than the actual racial composition of local schools. Highly segregated neighborhood schools satisfy families who desire racially homogeneous school climates, as do private schools. Families who seek diverse environments are more likely to look to charter and magnet schools. The white flight analysis shows that whites are more likely to leave schools that have modest proportions of black students, and less likely to leave schools that are already integrated. These results suggest that whites react especially strongly to schools with low levels of integration, and those who remain in the few racially balanced schools do so out of a preference for diversity or because they do not have the resources to leave. Public choice schools spur white flight in urban areas, but actually reduce flight in suburban schools. Finally, I find that choice schools do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups are spatially segregated from whites, and they also do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups attend more or less disadvantaged schools than whites. This suggests that segregation and stratification are two distinct aspects of racial inequality and should be considered separately when evaluating the effectiveness of choice programs.