• Extension of Kendall's tau Using Rank-Adapted SVD to Identify Correlation and Factions Among Rankers and Equivalence Classes Among Ranked Elements

      Heiberger, Richard M., 1945-; Wei, William W. S.; Chitturi, Pallavi; Pigeon, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The practice of ranking objects, events, and people to determine relevance, importance, or competitive edge is ancient. Recently, the use of rankings has permeated into daily usage, especially in the fields of business and education. When determining the association among those creating the ranks (herein called sources), the traditional assumption is that all sources compare a list of the same items (herein called elements). In the twenty-first century, it is rare that any two sources choose identical elements to rank. Adding to this difficulty, the number of credible sources creating and releasing rankings is increasing. In statistical literature, there is no current methodology that adequately assesses the association among multiple sources. We introduce rank-adapted singular value decomposition (R-A SVD), a new method that uses Kendall's tau as the underlying correlation method. We begin with (P), a matrix of data ranks. The first step is to factor the covariance matrix (K) as follows: K = cov(P) = V D^2 V Here, (V) is an orthonormal basis for the rows that is useful in identifying when sources agree as to the rank order and specifically which sources. D is a diagonal of eigenvalues. By analogy with singular value decomposition (SVD), we define U^* as U^* = PVD^(-1) The diagonal matrix, D, provides the factored eigenvalues in decreasing order. The largest eigenvalue is used to assess the overall association among the sources and is a conservative unbiased method comparable to Kendall's W. Anderson's test determines whether this association is significant and also identifies other significant eigenvalues produced by the covariance matrix.. Using Anderson's test (1963) we identify the a significantly large eigenvalues from D. When one or more eigenvalues is significant, there is evidence that the association among the sources is significant. Focusing on the a corresponding vectors of V specifically identifies which sources agree. In cases where more than one eigenvalue is significant, the $a$ significant vectors of V provide insight into factions. When more than one set of sources is in agreement, each group of agreeing sources is considered a faction. In many cases, more than one set of sources will be in agreement with one another but not necessarily with another set of sources; each group that is in agreement would be considered a faction. Using the a significant vectors of U^* provides different but equally important results. In many cases, the elements that are being ranked can be subdivided into equivalence classes. An equivalence class is defined as subpopulations of ranked elements that are similar to one another but dissimilar from other classes. When these classes exist, U^* provides insight as to how many classes and which elements belong in each class. In summary, the R-A SVD method gives the user the ability to assess whether there is any underlying association among multiple rank sources. It then identifies when sources agree and allows for more useful and careful interpretation when analyzing rank data.