• A Development of Orthogonal Functions as Series Solutions of the Partial Differential Equations of Physics

      Kaigh, Irvin (Temple University. Libraries, 1949)
      Introduction. Statement of problem: The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the manner in which a Boundary Value problem in Physics leads to the solution in generalized Fourier Series. The conditions to be met in problems of this sort are generally the Partial Differential Equation and several unique physical conditions which are imposed on the distribution sought after. The problem is solved when a mathematical solution of the Differential Equation is found which satisfies all of the restrictions levied by the physical considerations. The secondary purpose of this study is to obtain a view of the generalized problem which leads ultimately to the Sturm-Liouville theory.
    • A study of the cooperative office work experience program in New Jersey, 1958-1959

      Martin, Charles Wilford, Ed. M. (Temple University. Libraries, 1962)
      Introduction. Statement of the Problem: It was the purpose of this study to determine the current status, practice, and problem of the cooperative office work experience programs that existed in the public high schools in the State of New Jersey with implications for those who plan to organize and develop such programs. It is generally believed that a cooperative office work experience program is a learning device which will provide more effective training for office jobs.
    • Chiasmatic Chorology: Nishida Kitaro's Dialectic of Contradictory Identity

      Nagatomo, Shigenori; Ayoub, Mahmoud; Mohanty, J. N. (Jitendra Nath), 1928- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      In this philosophical work I explicate Nishida Kitaro's dialectics vis-à-vis Mahayana non-dualistic thought and Hegel's dialectical philosophy, and furthermore in terms of a "chiasmatic chorology." Nishida's work makes ample usage of western philosophical concepts, most notably the terminology of Hegelian dialectics. Nishida himself has admitted affinity to Hegel. And yet content-wise the core of Nishida's thinking seem close to Mahayana Buddhism in its line of thought traceable to the Prajñaparamita sutras. The point of my investigation is to clarify in what regard Nishida's dialectic owes allegiance to Hegel and to Mahayana and wherein it diverges from them. Moreover to what extent is Nishida's appropriation of Hegelian terminology adequate in expressing his thought? The work explicates the distinctive aspects of Nishida's thinking in terms of a "chiasmatic chorology" to emphasize the inter-dimensional and placial complexity of the dialectic. In summary two overarching concerns guide the work: 1) The relation of Nishida's dialectic to its forebears -- Mahayana non-dualism and Hegelian dialectics --; and 2) The distinctness of that dialectic as a "chiasmatic chorology." The work concludes that while Nishida, in his attempt to surmount the dualism of Neo-Kantianism, was led to Hegel's dialectic, the core ideas of his dialectic extend beyond the purview of Hegelianism. Contentwise his dialectic is closer in spirit to Mahayana. While Nishida admits to such commensurability with key Mahayana doctrines, his thought nevertheless ought not to be confined to the doctrinal category of "Buddhist thought" both because of its eclectic nature that brings in elements drawn from western and eastern sources, thereby constituting his work as a "world philosophy"; and because of its creative contributions, such as the formulation of basho and its explication in dialectical terms. What cannot be expressed adequately in terms of Hegelian dialectics is the concrete chiasma of what Nishida calls his "absolute dialectic." Moreover its founding upon the choratic nature of basho not only escapes the grasp of Hegel's self-knowing concept but extends beyond previous formulations within Buddhism.
    • Lines in the Sand: An Environmental History of Cold War New Mexico

      Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian); Farber, David R.; Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Immerman, Richard H.; Warren, Louis S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation explores the complex interactions between the Cold War military-scientific apparatus, the idea of a culture of the Cold War, and the desert environment of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico. During and after World War II, the War Department and then the Department of Defense established several military reserves in the region. The massive White Sands Missile Range (at 3,200 square miles the largest military reserve in North America and larger than Rhode Island and Delaware combined) and other military attachés would increasingly define the culture and economy of the Tularosa Basin. Historians have cast places such as White Sands Missile Range as cratered wastelands. Yet the missile range and surrounding military reserves became a contested landscape that centered on the viability of the nonhuman natural world. Diverse communities sought to find their place in a Cold War society and in the process redefined the value of a militarized landscape. Undeniably, missile technology had a profound impact on south-central New Mexico and thus acts as a central theme in the region's postwar history. However, in the years after 1945, environmentalists, wildlife officials, tourists, and displaced ranchers, amongst many others, continued to find new fangled meanings and unexpected uses for the militarized desert environment of south-central New Mexico. The Tularosa Basin was not merely a destroyed landscape. The design and sheer size of the missile range compelled local, national, and transnational voices to not just make sense of the economic implications of the missile range and surrounding military sites, but to rethink its cultural and environmental values in a changing Cold War society. It was a former home to ranchers still tied to the land through lease and suspension agreements. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish personnel cast the site as perfect for experimentation with exotic big game. Environmentalists and wildlife biologists saw the site as ideal for the reintroduction of the Mexican wolf. Tourists came to know the landscape through the simple obelisk at the Trinity Site. While missiles cratered the desert floor, the military bureaucracy did not hold absolute power over the complex interactions between cultures, economies, and the nonhuman natural environment on the postwar Tularosa Basin.
    • Therapy and Punishment: Negotiating Authority in the Management of Drug Addiction

      Condran, Gretchen; Delaney, Kevin; Kidder, Robert L.; Dowdall, George W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Throughout the twentieth century, many behaviors previously considered criminal or immoral were instead defined as medical problems. This process is often referred to as the medicalization of deviance. Like many other behaviors once considered deviant, drug and alcohol abuse has been medicalizing, in a process that accelerated during the latter half of the twentieth century. Despite this movement along the path toward medicalization, drug use, and alcohol use to a lesser extent, are still also sanctioned and managed by the criminal justice system, resulting in a medical-legal-moral hybrid definition of these issues. Today we find instances where these two institutions overlap significantly. At the same time, their mutual involvement in defining and managing drug use is inconsistent. This research uses a qualitative research design to study how this medical-legal-moral hybrid definition of drug use and addiction is discussed and negotiated by various institutions that label and manage individuals who use drugs. I examined this issue by conducting interviews and observations in Philadelphia's Drug Treatment Court as well as in two outpatient drug treatment programs. Results indicate that individuals in both settings frame addiction as a "disease," although the definition is ambiguous and inconsistent. The court and the treatment programs use similar language and methods for assessing substance abuse and how to deal with it. Both also extend the definition of "addiction" to include aspects not directly related to the consumption of drugs or alcohol but to the "drug lifestyle" that includes selling drugs. Still, in neither location is a comprehensive, clear definition of "addiction" promoted and used consistently. This ambiguity results in an overlap of therapeutic and punitive methods to handle the individual's drug usage. In addition, both settings benefit from their interaction and cooperation in managing individuals with substance abuse problems, indicating that rather than moving toward a purely "medical" way of dealing with substance abuse, or placing the issue more firmly in the realm of the criminal justice system, the current mix of moral, criminal and medical methods of labeling and managing substance abuse problems may be more stagnant than the medicalization of deviance thesis suggests.
    • The Gender Politics of Contemporary Sport: Ethics, Power, and the Body

      Taylor, Paul C. (Paul Christopher), 1967-; Wilcox, Shelley; Morgan, William J., 1948-; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Gendered power relations in sport pose important problems for mainstream feminist and ethical arguments for the alleviation of gender-based oppression. Though mainstream feminist theorists and applied ethicists have largely left sport undertheorized, some multi- and inter-disciplinary scholarly attention has been devoted to analyzing gender and sport. However, this scholarship encompasses disparate lines of thought with a range of philosophical, political, disciplinary, methodological and theoretical commitments, which translate into conflicting and competing normative views on how to best conceptualize, theorize, and practically navigate gender relations in sporting contexts. My dissertation remedies the tensions between these conflicting normative views by excavating and critically evaluating the political and philosophical assumptions that ground these views of gender relations in sport. I define 'sport feminism' as the normative views and consequent practical strategies that are concerned with interpreting, navigating, and eliminating the unjust restrictions on women's freedom in sporting contexts. I identify and critically evaluate four sport feminist views: liberal, radical, somatic, and post-structuralist. These views are distinct from one another as they differ in their conceptualizations and interpretations of three elements: (1) the nature of gender and the significance of physiological difference; (2) the function of sport and fitness practices; and (3) the ethical grounds and strategies for defining and alleviating gender-based oppression. Drawing from the merits of these views, my project develops a feminist framework for ethical action with regard to unequal gendered power relations in sport.
    • Counting to Four: Assessing the Quaternity of C.G. Jung in the Light of Lacan and Sophiology

      Bregman, Lucy; Swidler, Leonard J.; Nagatomo, Shigenori (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This thesis is a critical examination of the question of the fourfold, or quaternities, in the thought of C.G. Jung, as well as an in-depth comparison with the four-fold structures of Jacques Lacan and Sergius Bulgakov. I define quaternities as visual or structural formations conceived in four parts, and I center this study on Jung because I see him as the first thinker to seriously examine the place of quaternity in psychology and modern thought. Part of the work of this thesis will be to give a clear view of Jung's quaternal theories, distinguishing the novelty and authenticity of his work from what has been made of it by subsequent New Age and Jungian thinkers. Jacques Lacan, who uses the term "quadrilateral" to describe his formations, will be contrasted with Jung on several counts. First of all, whereas the Jungian quaternity aims to perfectly integrate its various elements, especially when viewed from the perspective of the fourth element of the quaternity, the Lacanian fourth works in the opposite direction, putting into question any reading of the structure which demands resolution and integration. Lacan's quadrilaterals also avoid the complementarity which is always an important aspect of Jungian quaternity, instead opting for a supplementary logic. Sergius Bulgakov avoids, at least in his later work, referring to quaternities, but, in his reading of Sophia (Wisdom), she clearly functions as something of a fourth within the Christian Trinity. Bulgakov's primary contribution is to provide an answer to Jung's complaint that the Christian Trinity has suppressed its fourth and become unbalanced. The fourth that Bulgakov articulates in the form of Sophia is very different from what Jung had argued for. That is, instead of changing the Trinity into a Quaternity Bulgakov maintains that Sophia underlines the "tri-unity" of the Trinity, and functions not a fourth amidst its members, but as a necessary element in order to both bring out the distinctiveness of each person of the Trinity as well as communicate their common identity.
    • "The thick dark current runs": As I Lay Dying -- A Multi-Theoretical Approach

      Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Williams, Roland Leander; Orvell, Miles; Burns, Christy L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation focuses on one of the greatest, yet most problematic, novels in William Faulkner's canon. As I Lay Dying, Faulkner's self-proclaimed "tour de force," is a multilayered, multi-voiced text that leaves many critics wondering how to approach it, which has led to there being only a handful of full length critical texts devoted entirely to the book. The narrow approach used by most articles and critical texts leads to a necessarily cursory glance at the novel. The complexity of this narrative demands a multi-theoretical approach where no one theory is the primary voice or ultimate authority. The structure of the novel has dictated the order in which the theories are presented in the dissertation. The story follows members of a poor farm family as they journey to bury their matriarch. The family journeys from a private isolated space to a public outer space. The chosen theories are ordered in this same inner to outer fashion. The study begins with Freudian theories which consider how the inner workings of the mind affect the individual and moves steadily to Marxist critiques which focus on the effect of society on the individual. In this manner, the discussion grows from individual concerns to communal concerns. Spanning the theoretic gulf between Freud and Marx are Lacanian theories and Race issues using Appiah's theories, each a certain step from the inner to the outer. An important factor in the dissertation is the discourse between the theories as each theory sounds a note of meaning that builds toward a unified chord of meaning. I hope this exercise in literary criticism will add to a fuller understanding of Faulkner's novel.
    • Economic Determinants and Consequences of Voluntary Disclosure of Internal Control Effectiveness: Evidence from Initial Public Offerings

      Krishnan, Jagan; Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Gordon, Elizabeth A. (Associate professor); Krishnan, Jayanthi; Sarkar, S. K. (Sanat K.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation investigates the economic determinants of firms' decisions to voluntarily disclose internal control weaknesses, and the economic consequences of such disclosures, in the context of companies' initial public offerings (IPOs) of equity securities. I find that IPO firms with greater potential litigation risk and restated pre-IPO financial statements are more likely to disclose internal control weaknesses over pre-IPO financial reporting. In addition, I find that voluntary disclosure of internal control weaknesses and the related remediation procedures is negatively associated with underpricing, indicating that ex ante uncertainty about the new issues' value is reduced. Further, IPO firms benefit from such voluntary disclosure through increased IPO proceeds. The results also suggest that the new internal control disclosure requirements under SOX sections 302 and 404 have induced IPO firms to voluntarily disclose internal control weaknesses, contributing to lower information asymmetry between IPO firms and uninformed investors.
    • The interaction of angiocidin and tissue transglutaminase

      Tuszynski, George P.; Sheffield, Joel B.; Giordano, Antonio, MD; Lelkes, Peter I. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the endothelium of pre-existing vasculature and is the main mechanism of vascularization during physiological processes such as embryonic development, growth, regeneration, and wound healing and pathological process of vascularizing tumors. The major source of these environmental signals is the interactions between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell adhesion molecules are found on the surface of all cells and play a role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Tissue transglutaminase is ubiquitously expressed in various tissue types, occurs in both an intracellular and extracellular form, and is highly expressed in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the vasculature. Tissue transglutaminase is secreted from cells externally and binds to the cell surface or extracellular matrix. It has been implicated in the stabilization of the extracellular matrix and in cell-ECM interactions by cross-linking matrix proteins. In 1993, angiocidin was isolated from lung carcinoma extracts by affinity chromatography using a peptide fragment of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matrix protein that has been implicated in mechanisms of tumor progression. The recombinant protein was expressed and shown to be a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis but the mechanism of action was not characterized. Affinity chromatography showed that tissue transglutaminase binds to recombinant angiocidin. Our studies have shown: Angiocidin binds to tissue transglutaminase in situ and in vitro through different binding studies. Recombinant angiocidin was also a substrate for the enzymatic activity of tissue transglutaminase. Both endogenous and exogenous angiocidin were able to crosslink to themselves. This interaction with angiocidin inhibits transglutaminase function by inhibiting amine incorporation, crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins, and the promotion of cell-matrix interactions. Additionally, the monomeric and crosslinked angiocidin have different biological activity. Polymeric angiocidin is more adhesive, inhibits, migration, and is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Our studies suggest that angiocidin inhibits angiogenesis by its ability to bind to tissue transglutaminase and crosslink to itself, thereby destabilizing the cell- extracellular matrix interactions through its interaction with tissue transglutaminase. These studies may help to understand the mechanism of recombinant angiocidin in inhibiting tumor vasculature, as well as understanding the significance of these post-translational modifications of endogenous and exogenous proteins in cellular biology.
    • Insurance Market Equilibrium: Contract Formation, Heterogeneity, and Operational Efficiency

      Powers, Michael R.; Weiss, Mary A.; Cummins, J. David; Mao, Connie X.; Sarkar, S. K. (Sanat K.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The three essays of this dissertation investigate the insurance equilibrium from various perspectives. The first essay uses Cournot game-theoretic model to study the insurance contract formation and provides theoretical justification for policy limit. The second essay introduces buyers' heterogeneous risk aversion into Wilson's equilibrium, derives new equilbria, and provides the conditions under which those new equilibria will hold. The third essay studies the operational efficiency of life insurers in China. Through comparing the efficiency of domestic and foreign life insurers, decomposing their efficiency scores, figuring out the directions and potential they could improve, and analyzing the change and driver of productivity, the essay gives insights of the fast-developing life insurance industry in China.
    • A Conversation With Dance History: Movement and Meaning in the Cultural Body

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962-; Meglin, Joellen A.; Weightman, Lindsay (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study regards the problem of a binary in dance discursive practices, seen in how "world dance" is separated from European concert dance. A close look at 1930s Kenya Luo women's dance in the context of "dance history" raises questions about which dances matter, who counts as a dancer, and how dance is defined. When discursive practices are considered in light of multicultural demographic trends and globalisation the problem points toward a crisis of reason in western discourse about how historical origins and "the body" have been theorised. Within a western philosophical tradition the body and experience are negated as a basis for theorising. Historical models and theories about race and gender often relate binary thinking whereby the body is theorised as text. An alternative theoretical model is established wherein dancers' processes of embodying historical meaning provide one of five bases through which to theorise. The central research questions this study poses and attempts to answer are: how can I illuminate a view of dance that is transhistorical and transnational? How can I write about 1930s Luo women in a way that does not create a case study to exist outside of dance history? Research methods challenge historical materialist frameworks for discussions of the body and suggest insight can be gained into how historical narratives operate with coercive power--both in past and present--by examining how meaning is conceptualised and experienced. The problem is situated inside a hermeneutic circle that connects past and present discourses, so tensions are explored between a binary model of past/present and new ways of thinking about dance and history through embodiment. Archives, elder interviews, and oral histories are a means to approach 1930s Luo Kenya. A choreography model is another method of inquiry where meanings about history and dance that subvert categories and binary assumptions are understood and experienced by dancers through somatic processes. A reflective narrative provides the means to untangle influences of disciplines like dance and history on the phenomenon of personal understanding.
    • The Nature and Role of Sufism in Contemporary Islam: A Case Study of the Life, Thought and Teachings of Fethullah Gülen

      Ayoub, Mahmoud; Blankinship, Khalid Yahya; Saritoprak, Zeki; Angeles, Vivienne S. M., 1944- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The resurgence of Sufism in the contemporary world has necessitated reexamining the nature and role of Sufism in contemporary contexts. A series of the reexaminations reveal that contemporary Sufism cannot be fully explained by traditional theories; instead it must be understood in accordance with changing contexts. On this basis, this dissertation directs itself to an investigation of the contemporary manifestations of Sufism. It specifically examines Sufism in the life, thought and teachings of Fethullah Gülen (b. 1941), as its case study. Gülen is known to be one of the most influential contemporary Muslim leaders, and has led a fast-growing movement expanded to global proportions. Much of the research that has consequently followed the inception of the growth of the movement presents Gülen as one of the major figures in defining the contemporary global Islamic experience, and suggests that the studies of Gülen contribute to a better understanding of contemporary issues in Islamic studies including the resurgence and transformation of Sufism. Remarkably, almost all of the studies on Gülen and the Gülen movement underline the importance of further research on Gülen's approach to Sufism. Terms like 'quasi-Sufism' and 'neo-Sufism' are assigned to his thought, while such phrases as 'a Sufi order,' 'a Sufi-oriented movement' and 'a Nurcu branch in the Naqshbandiyya' are circulated to characterize his movement. However, this terminology has not been adequately examined by any extensive research to warrant its justification. This dissertation examines Gülen's view on Sufism in order to understand how Sufism manifests itself in contemporary contexts, addressing what Sufism means in the contemporary world. Viewing Sufism as a dynamic discipline interacting with given contextual conditions, I primarily argue that there are distinctive characteristics of Sufism that appeal to the contemporary world enough to allow Sufism to resurface; it is necessary to identify those characteristics to understand the nature and role of Sufism in contemporary Islam. Gülen's Sufism, as an outcome of its interaction with a contemporary context, provides a better understanding of the characteristics in a way that it represents one of the contemporary manifestations of Sufism.
    • Room for Possibilities: James Joyce and the Rhetorical Work of Fiction

      Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Wells, Susan, 1947-; O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948-; Burns, Christy L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The resurgence of interest in James Joyce's politics over the past decades reveals Joyce as a politically astute, if not active, writer. But Joyce's politics were never easily codifiable or traceable to a set of ideologically fixed positions. Instead, this dissertation argues, Joyce uses the novel as a space where political debate can be dramatized, and the novel becomes a form of deliberative rhetoric regarding future possibilities. For Joyce, the practices of rhetoric and aesthetics are complexly intertwined and interdependent, though they remain, in many ways, oppositional and contrary. Joyce and other modernist writers often viewed rhetoric as a discursive form that limited rather than expanded possibilities. But at other moments, Joyce presses rhetoric into the service of aesthetic (and vice-versa) since deliberative rhetoric and poetics (as defined by Aristotle) both attend to the possibilities of future action. This dissertation traces Joyce's evolution from a young socialist writer engaged in rhetorical experiments with the essay to his later dramatization of Irish political oratory in Ulysses. Joyce began his career as a self-described "socialist artist" in 1904, but would consciously eschew socialism within the next few years. This dissertation locates Joyce's early political rhetoric in his essay "A Portrait of the Artist" and the abandoned novel Stephen Hero as unconscious remainders reemerging in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In the later text, aesthetics attempt to replace rhetoric as a means of creating radical materialist consciousness, but the later text also re-incorporates and reimagines its earlier incarnations. The earlier texts remain as "symptoms" around which the later is written. Drawing on the definitions of "symptom" in psychoanalytic and Marxist theoretical practice, this dissertation argues that A Portrait of the Artist functions as a text because it includes, even though it attempts to rewrite, the political and rhetorical work of its antecedents. In crafting the "Aeolus" chapter of Ulysses, Joyce returns to the art of rhetoric to dramatize the arguments surrounding Irish labor, politics, and language in 1904 Dublin. Unlike his work in A Portrait of the Artist, Joyce presents oratory as a staging ground for reasoned debate and discussion regarding the future course of Irish history. Whereas rhetoric was an unconscious remainder of socialist politics in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, rhetoric is consciously applied in the work of the characters in the episode who are preoccupied with the consequences of the Irish language movement and middle-class industrialization. This dissertation ultimately argues against positions that view rhetoric as a weak surrogate for aesthetics or as a discursive limitation that must be overcome for aesthetics to produce valuable contemplative effects. Aesthetics in Joyce's fiction has productive rhetorical purposes: to lead readers to contemplate false oppositions, consider the means by which history is produced, to attend to the process of political decision-making, and to deliberate about the consequences of actions.
    • An Evaluation of Meaningful Learning in a High School Chemistry Course

      Schmuckler, Joseph S., 1927-; Fitt, David; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Ketelhut, Diane Jass (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study utilized an action research methodology to examine students' understandings of science knowledge, and meaningful learning using the SLD (Science Lecture Demonstration) and laboratory instructional method in a high school chemistry classroom. This method was a modification of the Science Lecture Demonstration Method as developed by Majerich and Schmuckler (2004, in press), the modification due to the addition of a laboratory component. The participants in this study represented a convenience sample which included one class of twenty-two, middle to high socio-economic status students (Mean family income over $75,000/year in 2005 U.S. dollars) in an honors chemistry course at a public high school in the state of New Jersey. These participants included nine girls and thirteen boys. The results of this study indicated what the students' understandings of science knowledge were, how the understandings differed among students, and to what extent those understandings were indicative of meaningful learning. These results were obtained by careful analysis of student generated concept maps, narratives from demonstration quizzes, laboratory reports, and test questions, as well as a teacher/researcher reflection upon the classroom experience. A simple taxonomy for analyzing students' understandings of science knowledge was developed, based upon the work of Majerich (2004). Findings indicated that the students' understanding of science knowledge, as well as the extent of meaningful learning that occurs in the chemistry classroom may be influenced by the roles of : explicit directions, pre-existing knowledge from elementary and middle school science classes, using examples vs. non-examples, macroscopic vs. microscopic views of nature, time for reflection, and everyday vs. scientific language. Results obtained from high school student responses confirmed Novak's observation of elementary students' lack of differentiation between the terms vapor and gas (Novak, 1998).

      Choi, Jongmoo Jay, 1945-; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Mao, Connie X.; Chen, Zhaohui; Kotabe, Masaaki (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Outsourcing became an important corporate strategic issue and part of the business lexicon since the 1980s. Existing studies on outsourcing mostly focus on benefits of outsourcing such as cost saving and resource reallocation, and the results are generally ambiguous regarding outsourcing outcomes. We study three important aspects of outsourcing that were largely overlooked in the existing literature: the benefit of flexibility acquisition, the power play between the CEO and labor in outsourcing decisions, and the effects of flexibility and governance for global outsourcing. This dissertation consists of three essays and constitutes an empirical investigation that (a) what the effects of flexibility and governance are for US firms engaged in outsourcing, (b) how the power play between the CEO and labor affects the decision to outsource and its outcomes, and (c) how offshore outsourcing is decided and what the value of offshore outsourcing is. The first paper examines the influence of a firm's flexibility on its decision to outsource. It is commonly believed that flexibility is good, but there is little empirical evidence on whether flexibility affects corporate performance. The paper casts outsourcing in terms of real options and presents evidence regarding the value of flexibility for US firms engaged in outsourcing. From a real option perspective, a major source of gains from outsourcing is the flexibility it entails, compared to continued in-house production under high fixed cost and demand uncertainty. Empirical analyses include an examination of market reactions to outsourcing announcements and long-term post-outsourcing firm performance, as well as the relation between flexibility and outsourcing outcomes. The results show that market reactions are positive and significant, along with a potential synergy between outsourcing and insourcing firms. More importantly, after controlling for potential switching costs related to outsourcing, outsourcing gains are significantly associated with the presence of a firm's growth options. In addition, firm performance is related to corporate governance, underscoring the importance of effective corporate governance as a requisite to aid the realization of potential gains from outsourcing. The second paper asks the question of whether the power play between the CEO and labor affects a firm's outsourcing decisions and outcomes. Outsourcing can be viewed as a power play between the CEO and labor. Fundamentally, outsourcing may be potentially desirable because of cost saving and the value of flexibility. However, to make it happen, the CEO must negotiate with labor that may resist outsourcing because of its concern for jobs. Yet without outsourcing, the firm may lose out competitively and labor may lose even more. This paper empirically examines the extent to which outsourcing decisions and outcomes depend on CEO power and labor participation in major corporate decisions. Using the sample of US firms, we find that the likelihood of outsourcing is positively related to CEO power and negatively associated with labor power. More importantly, prior firm performance is likely to be a moderating factor in the resistance of labor against outsourcing. The long-term firm performance is found to be influenced by the power dynamics between the CEO and labor as well as the general efficacy of corporate governance. The third paper investigates the widely debated issue of offshore outsourcing. Given the diversity of cost structure, the gains from outsourcing can be potentially greater internationally than domestically. While uncertainties are greater internationally, these may be offset by the real option benefits of a multinational network. Empirical work for U.S. outsourcing firms indicates that the market valuation is greater and more significant for international outsourcing than domestic outsourcing. The gains are related to flexibility that can be obtained from multinational network. In addition, international differences in locational factors including differences in corporate governance influence the valuation gains from outsourcing as well as the division between outsourcers and insourcers.
    • Structural Determinants for Heparin Binding in Human Coagulation Factor XI

      Walsh, Peter N.; Shore, Scott K.; Collins, Jimmy H.; Suhadolnik, Robert J., 1925-; Soslau, Gerald (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Coagulation factor XI plays an important role in the consolidation phase of blood coagulation. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that zymogen factor XI (FXI) binds to heparin with moderate (KD~110 nM) affinity via residues (K252, K253 and K255) located in the apple 3 (A3) domain of the molecule. In contrast, the enzyme, factor XIa (FXIa), was shown to bind to heparin with significantly higher affinity (~1.5 nM by ELISA) via residues (K529, R530 and R532) within the catalytic domain (CD). The interaction between heparin and FXIa potentiates the inhibition of FXIa by protease nexin-2 by 10-fold. In addition, related polyanions heparin and dextran sulfate inhibit the catalytic activity of FXIa. The present study was designed to determine the relative contributions of positively charged residues as well as the dimeric structure of FXI in heparin binding. During this project, wtFXI, FXIR504A, FXIK505A, FXIR507A, FXIR529A, FXIR530A, FXIR532A, and FXIR586A have been expressed and purified. All mutants were homogenous and identical to wtFXI on SDS-PAGE, clotting assays and 1G5 monoclonal antibody binding studied by SPR. In addition, monomeric FXI C321S/K331A was expressed and purified. Utilizing an ELISA assay, no difference in the affinity for heparin between FXIa and FXI was found. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data collected for FXI clearly indicate a complex interaction which does not conform to a simple 1:1 Langmuir binding model making it difficult to obtain quantitative information. The complexity of FXI interactions with heparin is likely to arise from the multivalent nature of the binding, in which both protein and heparin have multiple binding sites. Two positively charged residues in the FXI catalytic domain, FXIR507A and FXIR532A, were found to be particularly important for interaction with heparin. The FXIR507A and FXIR532A mutants demonstrated ~ 65% and ~50% decreases respectively in total number of heparin binding sites based on ELISA. Also, the apparent dissociation constants for FXIR507A (KDapp ~13 nM) and FXIR532A (KDapp ~21 nM ) were 6 and 10-fold increased respectively compared with 2.1 nM for the wtFXI. Mutant FXIR586A also demonstrated a defect in affinity (KDapp ~ 13 nM) without an effect on the Bmax. The monomeric FXIC321S/R331A was also characterized for its ability to bind heparin compared with wtFXI. Surprisingly, the monomeric FXI displayed defective binding to heparin according to ELISA (KDapp ~ 30 nM) and SPR methods. Thus, the unique homodimeric structure of FXI in addition to the residues both in its catalytic and A3 domain chains are necessary for high-affinity heparin binding.

      Axelrod, Saul; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Connell, James; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Autism is subset of the special education population that seems to be growing at an alarming rate. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), one of the three main deficits found in someone diagnosed with autism is a "qualitative impairment in communication". However, language skills are very difficult for autistic children to learn and are often associated with disruptive behaviors. Research has shown a strong correlation between problem behaviors and difficulties with communication. This study uses techniques (i.e. functional analysis and functional assessment) to determine the function of these problem behaviors and their communicative intent. This study also demonstrates that an experimental approach such as a functional analysis can be done in a public school setting by public school personnel. Once the function is determined, treatments incorporating Functional Communication Training (FCT) can be applied to reduce these problem behaviors while increasing communication. Research has shown that FCT that replaces each function of a problem behavior will reduce problem behaviors in autistic children. Therefore, functional analysis results allow for the reduction of problem behaviors while identifying optimal situations/settings to teach language. Three male autistic students, attending a public school, were involved in the study. All subjects exhibited one or more problem behaviors that interfered with their everyday functioning at school. Initially, functional assessment data were collected via a descriptive analysis using Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) data. The A-B-C data were taken throughout each subject's school day in various environments. The data for each subject were graphed and analyzed by a school psychologist. Based on the results, the school psychologist developed a hypothesis for each subject regarding the function of his problem behavior. Subjects were exposed to various functional analysis conditions using a single subject multielement manipulation design based on the A-B-C data. These functional analysis sessions were conducted in each student's current public school placement. Functional analysis conditions were implemented until stable levels of problem behaviors were obtained or a clear pattern provided evidence as to the function of the problem behavior. Data from all sessions were graphed in a multiple baseline across subjects and visually assessed. Based on the data from the functional analysis, the function of the student's problem behavior was hypothesized. The experimenter, who was also a school psychologist, designed and implemented a function based treatment package to successfully reduce each student's problem behaviors. The treatment for each subject was individually designed based on that subject's functional analysis. Each treatment also incorporated a FCT component. As a result, problem behaviors were successfully reduced for each subject using functional assessment methodology by a school psychologist in a public school setting.
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Novel Initiators for the Thermally Mild Living and Controlled Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates: Potential Application in Dental Composite Resins

      Wunder, Stephanie L.; Varnum, Susan A.; Stanley, Robert J.; Wei, Yan (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      A number of nitroxide adducts and N-acyloxytrialkylammonium salts were prepared, isolated, characterized and evaluated as initiators for the controlled and living free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate monomers under mildly thermal and photochemical conditions. The initiators and polymerization methods that were developed could potentially be used for improving resins employed in dental applications. Using very easy synthesis strategies, the following nitroxide initiators were prepared in high purity, isolated and characterized: 1-Benzoylperoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine (BPO/TEMPO), 1-(2'-Cyano-2'-propoxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (AIBN/TEMPO), 1,1-ditertbutyl-1-(1-methyl-1-cyanoethoxy)-amine (AIBN/DBN), 1,1-ditertbutyl-1-(benzoylperoxy)-amine (BPO/DBN) and 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-4-oxo-1-(1-methyl-1-cyanoethoxy)-piperidine (AIBN/4-OXO-TEMPO). Using H2SO4 additive and an improved unimolecular initiation in nitroxide mediated polymerization, living and controlled polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) were accomplished, for the first time ever for most of the initiators. Linear polymers (PMMA) were produced in high yield (93 %) under mildly thermal conditions (T = 70 oC) and with excellent attributes: (PDI = 1.04-1.26), Mn (87000), Tg (122-128 oC), Td (290-410 oC). Highly crosslinked polymers, poly(TEGDMA) and poly(EBPADMA), were produced in high yield (100 %) with Td (350-400 oC). The initiators were stable for a year and half at 0 oC. Two routes were investigated for the preparation of N-acyloxytrialkylammonium salts. The more efficient of these routes was used to make several novel analogs of the salts. The salts were evaluated for the free radical polymerization of MMA, TEGDMA and EBPADMA under mildly thermal (T = 60 oC) conditions with and without H2SO4 additive. Polymerization rate, yield and polymer attributes all improved upon application of H2SO4 additive. PMMA was produced with excellent attributes (PDI = 1.01-1.06), Mn (96,000-122000), Td (330-385) and Tg (127-134). Highly crosslinked poly(TEGDMA) and poly(EBPADMA) were produced with Td ranges of 300-374 oC and 375-411 oC respectively.
    • Self-disclosure as a predictor of outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth

      Kendall, Philip C.; Fauber, Robert L.; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Weisberg, Robert W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth; however, approximately 30% of youths continue to meet diagnostic criteria for their primary anxiety disorder at posttreatment. Efforts to identify predictors and moderators of outcome in CBT are encouraged in order to enhance treatment efficacy. One potential predictor is youth pretreatment self-disclosure (e.g. Panichelli-Mindel, Flannery-Schroeder, Kendall, & Angelosante, 2005). Using a sample of 101 Anxiety Disordered (AD) youths meeting criteria for a primary diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), or Social Phobia (SOP) who were treated with 16-weeks of CBT (individual or family), this study examined (a) youth self-disclosure as a predictor of CBT outcomes, (b) pre- to post-treatment change in disclosure and distress during disclosure task, for responders relative to nonresponders, (c) disclosure and distress while disclosing in anxious youth relative to community volunteers (N=74); and (d) disclosure and distress while disclosing in treatment responders and nonresponders (posttreatment), and community volunteers. Videotaped recordings of a four-minute Youth Speech Sample (YSS) in which the youth was instructed to talk about him/herself were coded by reliable coders who were blind to diagnostic status, using the Youth Self-Disclosure Rating Scale (YSDRS) for each of the variables of interest (Feared Situations, Personal Content, Global Rating of Disclosure, and Distress while Disclosing). Text analysis software was used to measure Disclosure Language. Treatment outcome was measured using posttreatment diagnostic status and severity, youth self-report, and mother- and father-reports. Findings of the present study indicate that pretreatment disclosure does not predict CBT outcomes for anxious youth. Additionally, there were no differences in the pre- to post-treatment change in disclosure and distress for responders and nonresponders; however, a main effect of treatment on disclosure of personal content was observed, such that youths disclosed more at posttreatment relative to pretreatment. Anxious youths appear more distressed in the disclosure task relative to community volunteers, but groups do not differ in their level of disclosure. Similarly, treatment responders and nonresponder at posttreatment were rated as more distressed while disclosing relative to community volunteers, but do not differ in their level of disclosure. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.