• A Development of Orthogonal Functions as Series Solutions of the Partial Differential Equations of Physics

      Kaigh, Irvin (Temple University. Libraries, 1949)
      Introduction. Statement of problem: The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the manner in which a Boundary Value problem in Physics leads to the solution in generalized Fourier Series. The conditions to be met in problems of this sort are generally the Partial Differential Equation and several unique physical conditions which are imposed on the distribution sought after. The problem is solved when a mathematical solution of the Differential Equation is found which satisfies all of the restrictions levied by the physical considerations. The secondary purpose of this study is to obtain a view of the generalized problem which leads ultimately to the Sturm-Liouville theory.
    • Locating the Tango: Place and the Nuevo Social Dance Community

      Garrett, Paul B., 1968-; Romberg, Raquel; Meglin, Joellen A.; Chakravorty, Pallabi (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      In this dissertation, I examine the impact of globalizing processes upon the contemporary Argentine tango scene in Buenos Aires. Focusing on a contested trend referred to as tango nuevo, I engage debates surrounding: authenticity and cultural ownership; the performance of gender and sexuality; generational conflict in human movement practice; the enduring significance of place in an era of heightened globalization; the role of place and global economics in shaping transnational cultural formations; community as a site of anxiety, hierarchy and conflict; the tension between preservation and evolution in the survival of cultural phenomena; and conflicting narratives of dance as drug, therapy and pain. The result of a five-year pursuit of Argentine tango, both as an anthropologist and a dancer, this dissertation is informed by two years of fieldwork in Buenos Aires, three years of preliminary research in Philadelphia, a preliminary fieldsite investigation in Buenos Aires, and participant observation in a handful of U.S. tango communities preceding fieldwork. This dissertation will add to the literature on Argentine tango by challenging popular and scholarly notions of what may be encompassed under this term. With community as the key concept underlying my study, I hope to expand upon the application of semiotic analysis in dance studies through an emphasis on practice and phenomenology, framing community through the performance of shared bodily vocabularies that are open to renewal and transformation. Building upon recent anthropological investigations of globalization and modernity, I suggest that human movement practices present a rich area for further research into the enduring significance of place. In approaching a fluid, global community via local-level fieldwork that is oriented towards the passage of media, ideas and dancers across borders, my project suggests a solution to the quandaries of doing ethnography and microanalysis in complex, transnational macro-contexts. With the growth of new sites, new codes, and a new community of practitioners, I argue that the study of tango in anthropological perspective offers a unique view into the ways in which individuals carve out notions of personhood, identity and culture in a globalized world.
    • Characteristics and Predictors of Ecstasy (MDMA) Use During College

      Brown, Ronald T.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Kendrick, Zebulon V.; Segal, Jay S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This cross-sectional investigation examined characteristics of ecstasy use during college and associations between ecstasy use during college and demographic factors, family functioning, mental health, and stage of change for ecstasy use. In addition a multivariate model was developed to predict characteristics of ecstasy use during college. An electronic survey was sent to all undergraduate students enrolled at a large urban university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States during the spring of 2007. Demographic factors and characteristics of ecstasy use were examined using standardized measures employed in national drug use surveys and by the World Health Organization. Measures associated specifically with ecstasy use during college were developed for this investigation. Family functioning was measured with the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale. Mental health was measured with the K6 screening instrument for nonspecific psychological distress. Stage of change was measured with a five-stage algorithm. The final sample for analysis consisted of 194 participants who reported ecstasy use during college and 2849 participants who reported no ecstasy use during college. Data were described using conventional descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics and non-parametric statistics. A logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with ecstasy use during college. Based on the results, the following generalized conclusions were drawn: ecstasy continues to be used by college students at large urban universities in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States; because the majority of college students reported using ecstasy for the first time during college and also reported using ecstasy for up to two years, it appears that the college environment is a contextual factor for ecstasy use; lower family communication is associated with ecstasy use during college; psychological distress is associated with ecstasy use during college; being white (versus non-white), male (versus female) and having low or moderate (versus high) family communication each is independently associated with ecstasy use during college; differences in stage of change for ecstasy use among ecstasy users and the demographic profile of ecstasy users compared to non-ecstasy users suggest that prevention, education and intervention efforts should be designed to match the unique factors associated with ecstasy use during college.
    • Rembrandt's Artful Use of Statues and Casts: New Insights into His Studio Practices and Working Methods

      Hall, Marcia B.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Dolan, Therese, 1946-; Silver, Larry, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Although Rembrandt van Rijn owned over eighty pieces of sculpture, studies regarding his use of the collection are in short supply and tend to be either formal, tracing the few images of sculpture in Rembrandt's oeuvre to those listed in his 1656 bankruptcy inventory, or else they refer to his use of classical sculpture in general terms as an inspiration for his history paintings. This study shifts emphasis from formal and iconographic issues to Rembrandt's studio practices and working methods. It examines his manipulation of the border between reality and illusion (what Ovid termed "the art that conceals art"): his effort to "incarnate" his sculptural sources by wrapping them in textiles and giving them the appearance of flesh. Seventeenth-century theory provides the foundation for this hypothesis: artists/theorists such as Karl van Mander, Peter Paul Rubens, and Philips Angel promoted the judicious use of sculpture and encouraged artists to transform its marmoreal surface into pliant flesh; Van Mander advised painters to make the thin garments of classical statues more appropriate for Northern paintings by wrapping them in woolen cloth; he also encouraged artists to "steal arms, legs, hands, and feet" from works of art and synthesize them into new creations. Esteemed precedents also support the hypothesis: recent studies of Cornelis Cornelius van Haarlem, Hendrick Goltzius, and Bartholomeus Spranger examined their use of Renaissance bronzes, an inexpensive and plentiful source that Rembrandt also seems to have tapped. Paragone, a popular debate in both Amsterdam and Leiden, is another facet of this study. Empirical observations reveal patterns in Rembrandt's use of sculpture: several etchings of his studio show busts adorned with hats or wrapped in fabric (a practice also described in a seventeenth-century poem about Rembrandt); a number of his head studies, genre, and history paintings suggest that he used busts of Roman emperors for models. The less subtle artistry of his students and his colleague Jan Lievens also exposes their use of clothed statues and thereby corroborates the hypothesis that Rembrandt's reliance on sculpture for models was more prevalent and artful (in the sense of covert) than has previously been noted.
    • Objectivity and Autonomy in the Newsroom: A Field Approach

      Garrett, Paul B., 1968-; Jhala, Jayasinhji; Kitch, Carolyn L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation provides a better understanding of how journalists attain their personal and occupational identities. In particular, I examine the origins and meanings of journalistic objectivity as well as the professional autonomy that is specific to journalism. Journalists understand objectivity as a worldview, value, ideal, and impossibility. A central question that remains is why the term objectivity has become highly devalued in journalistic discourse in the past 30 years, a puzzling development considered in light of evidence that "objectivity" remains important in American journalism. I use Bourdieu's notion of field to explore anthropological ways of looking at objectivity, for instance, viewing it as a practice that distinguishes journalists from other professionals as knowledge workers. Applying notions of field to the journalistic field through anthropological methods and perspective permits the linkage of microlevel perspectives to macrolevel social phenomena. The dissertation demonstrates how qualitative research on individuals and newsroom organizations can be connected to the field of journalism in the United States. Additionally, it offers insight into why journalists continue to embrace objectivity, even as they acknowledge its deficiencies as a journalistic goal.
    • Life at the Extreme: An investigation into the experiences of professional sailors competing in a fully crewed around the world race

      Sachs, Michael L.; Folger, Joseph P., 1951-; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Participants were 15 professional sailors, ranging in age from 23-49 years (M age = 35.9 years; SD = 7.4), who competed in the 2005/06 VOR. After receiving approval from the Temple University Institutional Review Board, the researcher recruited participants who were subsequently required to provide informed consent to participate in the study. Using a semi-structured interview format, face-to-face interviews were completed with three sailors in Miami, FL, and with nine sailors in Valencia, Spain (three interviews with individual participants, one interview with two participants, and a focus group with four participants). Three interviews were completed via telephone. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Each transcript was then analysed through an inductive open coding process. Data analysis revealed nine major themes (Background, Skiffs on Steroids, Boat Breakdowns, Managing Self, Pressure, Tragedy, Extreme, Team, and Reflecting) with associated subthemes, and three dimensions (Resonance, Edgework, and Performance Capacities) with associated subdimensions. A framework for understanding the experiences of the sailors was conceived in the form of a model depicting the dimensions of resonance (a passion for adventure and the VOR in particular), edgework (a desire and ability to perform in high-risk, life threatening situations), and performance capacities (team, individual, and boat). The model suggests an interplay between the dimensions of edgework and resonance, against which is set the performance dimension. This study is the first to take a glimpse inside the experiences of professional ocean racing sailors who compete in fully crewed around-the-world races. Findings confirm the widely held belief that the VOR is an extreme and unique event in the world of sport.
    • An analysis of taxpayer attitudes toward a local income tax to support public schools

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Ikpa, Vivian W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      While states have traditionally relied almost solely upon local property taxes for the main support of public education, other revenue sources have included sales, bank shares and occupational taxes at the local level. With the passing of the Local Tax Enabling Act in 1965 at the state level, most Pennsylvania school districts were empowered to collect non-real estate taxes (General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1965). On November 11, 1986, an earned income tax resolution was approved and adopted by the Township of Upper Dublin with an effective date of January 1, 1987. On June 1, 1993 the School District of Upper Dublin and the School Board of Directors followed suit and approved and adopted an earned income tax resolution. Currently, all School District of Upper Dublin residents pay a one-percent earned income tax (Lukoff, 1986). The earned income tax revenues are shared equally between the township and school district. The major aim of this study was to assess real estate property taxpayer attitudes in the School District and Township of Upper Dublin towards the earned income tax. More specifically, did taxpayers believe that the earned income tax held steady, or reduced, real estate property taxes? The study employed one primary data collection strategy: a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of real estate property taxpayers in the School District of Upper Dublin. This methodology allowed the researcher to gain a more thorough understanding of the issue and to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The study revealed that taxpayers in the school district and township did not generally believe the earned income tax had reduced and/or held steady real estate property taxes. When the tax was instituted two decades ago, reducing real estate property taxes was one purpose, as was finding an additional source of revenue for the school district and township. Additionally, taxpayers in the study viewed the earned income tax as a "good" or "fair" tax and certainly recognized the purpose of the tax to fund education and township services via another source of revenue. Accordingly, school district and township officials must recognize that taxpayer's feelings translate into implications for public policy. These implications include recognizing the mistrust and misinformation associated with the tax and developing a better informed public. Officials must recognize that taxpayers seem to believe that the earned income tax is a "good" and/or "fair" tax, but are required to pay it like any other tax.
    • A Study of the Relationship Between and Among Scheduling, Grouping, Grading, Curriculum, and Mathematics Achievement in Pennsylvania Secondary Schools

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Schifter, Catherine; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Fitt, David; Walker, Thomas J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Widespread access to technology facilitates the sharing of effective classroom practices across disciplines. The implementation of successful practices is essential; particularly in this era of educational accountability, most notably the adequately yearly progress (AYP) goals of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. In addition to bottom-up classroom practices, teachers and other educational stakeholders are entitled to information about top-down policies to enhance teaching and learning. This study examines the correlation between policies in four areas and outcomes on one specific component of AYP in Pennsylvania public secondary schools. The policies considered herein are scheduling (traditional or block), grouping (homogeneous or heterogeneous), grading (weighted or not), and secondary math curriculum (U.S. Department of Education cited standards-based or traditional). This study quantifies the correlation between school district polices in these areas and results on the 11th grade mathematics portion of the 2006 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). Standard and Poor's recognizes school districts in Pennsylvania and across the country whose students have achieved NCLB testing outcomes that exceed expectations. In 2005, 55 Pennsylvania districts were cited by Standard and Poor's as being "outperforming school districts." The 60 secondary schools in these districts served as the population for this study. The study quantifies the correlation between the specific combinations of the four policies utilized by the 40 participating high schools and PSSA results. Evidence is discovered that, of the four policies, only block scheduling correlated with higher PSSA 11th grade math outcomes.
    • Explicitly rejecting an implicit dichotomy: An integration of two contrasting approaches to assessing dependency

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Karpinski, Andrew; Fauber, Robert L.; Bornstein, Robert F.; Overton, Willis F.; Drabick, Deborah A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Proponents of self-report and projective assessment traditions have approached the assessment of interpersonal dependency quite differently, in ways that are only recently becoming more aligned. The present study aimed to address the increasing convergence between the two sides, administering both self-report measures and a newly developed implicit measure of dependency in an attempt to characterize more precisely the relations between these seemingly disparate approaches. The study was moderately successful in validating the implicit measure using criteria proposed by two independent groups (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mucke, 2002; Bornstein, 2002). The implicit measure was found to be reliable, orthogonal to two self-report dependency instruments, and predictive of external criteria such as other personality constructs and past depression. This success, however, was hampered by the study's inability to replicate prior findings using a task assessing help-seeking, identified as a behavioral indicator of dependency. All implicit and self-report dependency indices were unrelated to all measures of help-seeking, which prevented any further analyses; potential explanations for the failure of this task are proposed in the Discussion. This study also provided an examination of dissociations between participants' scores on self-report and implicit measures of dependency, and has implications for the significance of such dissociations. That is, the possibility that dissociations themselves are pathological was not supported, and it was found that dissociations between self-report and implicit dependency scores were associated with different patterns of responding on a broadband personality instrument. Finally, the present study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive sypmtomatology, and further identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in the prediction of past major depressive episodes.
    • Hanya Holm in America, 1931-1936: Dance, Culture and Community

      Bond, Karen E.; Kant, Marion; Kahlich, Luke C.; Dils, Ann (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Though she is widely considered one of the "four pioneers" of American modern dance, German-American Hanya Holm (1893-1992) occupies a shadowy presence in dance history literature. She has often been described as someone who fell in love with America, purged her approach of Germanic elements, and emerged with a more universal one. Her "Americanization" has served as evidence of the Americanness of modern dance, thus eclipsing the German influence on modern dance. This dissertation challenges that narrative by casting new light on Holm's worldview and initial intentions in the New World, and by articulating the specifics of the first five years of her American career. In contrast to previous histories, I propose that Holm did not come to the U.S. to forge an independent career as a choreographer; rather, she came as a missionary for Mary Wigman and her Tanz-Gemeinschaft (dance cultural community). To Wigman and Holm, dance was not only an art form; it was a way of life, a revolt against bourgeois sterility and modern alienation, and a utopian communal vision, even a religion. Artistic expression was only one aspect of modern dance's larger purpose. The transformation of social life was equally important, and Holm was a fervent believer in the need for a widespread amateur dance culture. This study uses a historical methodology and accesses traces of the past such as lectures, school reports, promotional material, newspaper articles, personal notebooks, correspondence, photographs, and other material--much of it discussed here for the first time. These sources provide evidence for new descriptions and interpretations of Holm's migration from Germany to the U.S. and from German dance to American dance. I examine cultural contexts that informed Holm's beliefs, such as early twentieth century German life reform and body culture; provide a sustained analysis of the curriculum of the New York Wigman School of the Dance; and consider how the politicization of dance in the 1930s--in both Germany and the U.S.--affected Holm and her work.
    • Gamma-Delta T-Cells in Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma

      Platsoucas, Chris D.; Ashby, Barrie; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Skorski, Tomasz; Monos, Dimitrios (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in the Western world and the most lethal of all gynecological cancers. The epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) represent approximately 90% of all human ovarian malignant neoplasm. The five-year survival rate for patients with EOC is attributed to late diagnosis and poor response to therapy. T-cells play an important role in tumor immunity of EOC, evidence includes infiltrating CD3+ T-cells in EOC lesions and a specific antigen driven immune response. Human gd TCR + T-cells are a minor subset of T-cells (1-10%) in the peripheral blood. The majority of the T cells in the peripheral blood are aß TCR + T-cells. Like the aß T-cells, gd TCR + T-cells bear a T-cell receptor that functions in antigen recognition. Most importantly most gd TCR+ T cells recognize mainly whole proteins. In contrast, aß TCR+ T cells primarily recognize peptide in association with MHC. Upon specific antigen recognition, these T cells undergo clonal expansion, generating multiple identical T cell clones. Previously in our lab clonal expansion of ab TCR+ T cells was observed in patients with EOC. Also preliminary data indicate that clonal expansion of gd TCR+ T cells in patients with EOC. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is whether clonally expanded gd TCR+ T-cells in patients with EOC, are able to recognize and kill EOC tumor cells. Data from recent studies show that tumor infiltrating gd TCR+ T cells recognize and have antitumor activity towards epithelial derived cancer cells. Following V-specific amplification of the various gd T-cell receptors (TCR) chains we observed the presence of statistically significant populations of oligoclonal g-chain and d-chain TCR+ transcripts in the EOC samples studied. To further characterize the gd TCR+ T-cells in EOC lesions, full-length transcripts of the most clonally expanded Vg(II)9- and Vd2-chain TCR transcripts from EOC tumors were constructed. These, as well as additional, full-length transcripts were transduced into a mutant TCR-negative Jurkat T cell line. The transduced cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS) for expression of gd TCR on the cell surface. gd TCR+ CD3+ transduced T cells were then incubated with the ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3, CAOV3 or OV2774. Following co-culture experiments of these cancer cells with gd TCR+ CD3+ transduced T cells we observed killing of the target cell (SKOV3, CAOV3 and OV2774) by various gd TCR + T cell transduced cell lines. This killing was not observed by control T cell lines transduced either with vector only or single chain of TCR. Furthermore, the production of cysteine proteases such as caspase 3/7, procaspase 8 and 9 involved in target cell death were also observed following co-incubation experiments. These data suggest that our gd TCR+ transduced T cells induce SKOV3, CAOV3 and OV2774 cancer cell death measured by cytotoxicity and activation of cell death proteases.
    • Chiasmatic Chorology: Nishida Kitaro's Dialectic of Contradictory Identity

      Nagatomo, Shigenori; Ayoub, Mahmoud; Mohanty, J. N. (Jitendra Nath), 1928- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      In this philosophical work I explicate Nishida Kitaro's dialectics vis-à-vis Mahayana non-dualistic thought and Hegel's dialectical philosophy, and furthermore in terms of a "chiasmatic chorology." Nishida's work makes ample usage of western philosophical concepts, most notably the terminology of Hegelian dialectics. Nishida himself has admitted affinity to Hegel. And yet content-wise the core of Nishida's thinking seem close to Mahayana Buddhism in its line of thought traceable to the Prajñaparamita sutras. The point of my investigation is to clarify in what regard Nishida's dialectic owes allegiance to Hegel and to Mahayana and wherein it diverges from them. Moreover to what extent is Nishida's appropriation of Hegelian terminology adequate in expressing his thought? The work explicates the distinctive aspects of Nishida's thinking in terms of a "chiasmatic chorology" to emphasize the inter-dimensional and placial complexity of the dialectic. In summary two overarching concerns guide the work: 1) The relation of Nishida's dialectic to its forebears -- Mahayana non-dualism and Hegelian dialectics --; and 2) The distinctness of that dialectic as a "chiasmatic chorology." The work concludes that while Nishida, in his attempt to surmount the dualism of Neo-Kantianism, was led to Hegel's dialectic, the core ideas of his dialectic extend beyond the purview of Hegelianism. Contentwise his dialectic is closer in spirit to Mahayana. While Nishida admits to such commensurability with key Mahayana doctrines, his thought nevertheless ought not to be confined to the doctrinal category of "Buddhist thought" both because of its eclectic nature that brings in elements drawn from western and eastern sources, thereby constituting his work as a "world philosophy"; and because of its creative contributions, such as the formulation of basho and its explication in dialectical terms. What cannot be expressed adequately in terms of Hegelian dialectics is the concrete chiasma of what Nishida calls his "absolute dialectic." Moreover its founding upon the choratic nature of basho not only escapes the grasp of Hegel's self-knowing concept but extends beyond previous formulations within Buddhism.
    • Determinants of compartmentalization of gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

      Piggot, Patrick; Buttaro, Bettina A.; Monestier, Marc; Ashby, Barrie; Masker, Warren (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Bacillus subtilis, a benign gram-positive bacterium, utilizes the strategy of sporulation, which enables it to survive stresses such as starvation, desiccation, and UV irradiation. The spore provides greatly heightened safety to heat and noxious chemicals and remains dormant until conditions become favorable to growth. Sporulation by Bacillus subtilis is a primitive example of cell differentiation. The study of sporulation by Bacillus subtilis has become a paradigm for the study of differentiation in prokaryotes. Central to this process is the establishment of distinct patterns of gene expression in the cell types involved. Our laboratory has developed a two-part sacB/SacY probe to study the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of gene expression. It utilizes the anti-terminator protein SacY to control the transcription of reporter lacZ, (cloned downstream of the sacB gene,) which is regulated by anti-termination. Expression of sacB and SacY is regulated by a pair of promoters specific for sF (prespore specific) and sE (mother cell specific.) Both SacY and sacB must be in the same compartment of the sporulating cell in order to obtain ß-galactosidase activity. Mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis was employed to identify determinants of compartmentalization of gene expression during sporulation. Mutants were screened for loss of compartmentalization using the two-part probe. In addition to the two-part sacB/SacY probe, a second method was developed; transposon mutagenesis was performed on strains where expression of gfp was regulated by promoters recognized by either sF or sE. Cells deficient in sporulation were isolated and evaluated by fluorescence microscopy for uncompartmentalized gfp expression. A rescue vector was developed that allowed for efficient cloning of Tn10 insertions. This plamid, pJP17, proved to be an essential tool. Mutations causing uncompartmentalized sF activity were identified in spoIIIE, spoIIIAA, spoIIIAB, spoIIIJ, spoIIE, spoIIAA, spoIID, spoIIM, kinA and ald. The spoIIIE mutation provides the most dramatic phenotype, and was the only mutation, that resulted in 100% loss of compartmentalization during stage II of sporulation. In contrast to all other mutants, the dramatic stage II loss of compartmentalized activity of sF indicates a regulatory role for SpoIIIE, which has yet to be elucidated. Taken together, these results indicate a central role for SpoIIIE in preventing activation of sF in the mother cell in addition to its DNA translocation activity.
    • Black Youth and the Boys in Blue: Associations Between Police Treatment, Mental Health, and Ethnic Identity in African American Juvenile Offenders

      Steinberg, Laurence D., 1952-; Xie, Hongling; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Taylor, Ralph B.; Knight, George P., 1950-; Mendez, Julia L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The present study was conducted to further our understanding of the correlates of and variations in perceptions of police treatment among African American adolescent offenders. Ethnic identity development can play a role in youths' sensitivity to stigma, but whether this finding applies to black youth involved in the juvenile justice system has not been explored. Although there is evidence for a robust association between perceptions of discrimination and negative psychological outcomes, there is a dearth of research that investigates a) the directional nature of these associations, and b) how associations vary as a function of perceptions of personal and group discrimination. Participants were 501 African American youth ages 14-18 who were adjudicated of a felony or serious misdemeanor in Philadelphia. Data were taken from annual interviews conducted over the course of four years. Increased ethnic identity exploration was related to the perception that police use biased behavior against people from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Furthermore, there was a relatively stronger association between psychological distress and perceptions of police behavior among youth who reported taking an active role in making meaning of their ethnicity,. Finally, the results of this study support drawing a distinction between personal and global perceptions of discrimination, in that their links to psychological distress differed with respect to the direction of effects. Specifically, whereas negative personal encounters with the police lead to higher levels of distress, being distressed led to more negative global perceptions of the police. This study provides evidence that normative processes in adolescence, like ethnic identity development, operate much the same way among high risk youth (e.g., juvenile offenders) as in more normative samples. This is especially important given that the consideration of normative developmental processes in high-risk samples like juvenile offenders can have implications for rehabilitation efforts. Finally, the present research highlights the need for the education of law enforcement agencies regarding adolescent development and factors that might increase or decrease young people's willingness to comply with the law.
    • A Qualitative Exploration of the Experiences of Mother-Athletes Training for and Competing in the Olympic Games

      Sachs, Michael L.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Napolitano, Melissa A.; LaVan, Sarah-Kate (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to provide a rich description of the experiences of mothering athletes training for and competing in the Olympic Games. Specifically, the study explored the post-partum return to training and competition, the integration of mothering and training responsibilities, the emotional and social experience of being a mother-athlete, and the Olympic experience. A purposive sample of eight athletes was utilized. All participants had competed in either the 2004 Summer or 2006 Winter Olympic Games and was mother to at least one child under the age of six at the time of their Olympic participation. Participants represented six different sports and two North American countries. In-depth interviews were conducted with the participants from September 2007 to April 2008. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, yielding eight major themes and 26 sub-themes. The themes that emerged included: (1) becoming a mother-athlete, (2) the initial return to training, (3) the effects of motherhood on training and competing, (4) the effects of the elite sport career on motherhood and the family, (5) social support, (6) organizational support, (7) the Olympic experience, and (8) advice and recommendations. In general, participants reported that their children and families enhanced their lives, both in and out of sport. They felt that motherhood gave their lives more balance and gave them a healthier perspective on their sport participation. For most, this resulted in increased enjoyment of sport, less pressure to perform, and in turn, enhanced performance. Participants faced struggles as well. They reported lack of time and energy as barriers to training (especially in the first year of motherhood), and found traveling with children to be logistically and financially difficult. The athletes in this study reported high levels of support, both physical and emotional, from their husbands/partners and immediate families. Within the athletic community, the participants found support from coaches, yet reported varying levels of support from athletic peers and sport organizations. Overall, the athletes reported positive Olympic experiences, with two discussing disappointing experiences. Recommendations for researchers and sport professionals based on the interviews are also discussed.
    • Christian Mysteries in the Italian Renaissance: Typology and Syncretism in the Art of the Italian Renaissance

      Hall, Marcia B.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Bolman, Elizabeth S., 1960-; O'Malley, John W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      My dissertation studies the typological juxtaposition and syncretic incorporation of classical and Christian elements-subjects, motifs, and forms-in the art of the Italian Renaissance and the significant meaning of classical subjects and figures in such contexts. In this study, I analyze the interpretative modes applied to extra-Biblical and secular literature in the Italian Tre- and Quattrocento and the syncretic philosophies of the later Quattro- and early Cinquecento and reevaluate selected works of art from the Italian Renaissance in light of the period claims and beliefs that are evident from such a study. In summary, my dissertation considers the use of classical subjects, motifs, and forms in the art of the Italian Renaissance as a means to gloss or reveal aspects of Christian doctrine. In chapter 1, I respond to the paradigm proposed by Erwin Panofsky (Renaissance and Renascences) and establish a new criteria for understanding the difference between medieval and Renaissance perceptions of classical antiquity. Chapter 2 includes a study of the mythological scenes painted in the Cappella Nova of Orvieto Cathedral, which are here shown to gloss and reveal aspects of the developing Christian doctrine of Purgatory. In chapter 3, I study the Renaissance use of representational ambiguity as a means of signifying the propriety of pursuing an allegorical interpretation of a work and specifically address the typological significance of figures in Botticelli's Primavera. In chapter 4, I examine the philosophical concepts of prisci theologii and theologicae poetae and their significance in relation to the representation of classical figures in medieval and Renaissance works of art. This study provides the necessary background for a reevaluation of syncretic themes in Raphael's Stanza della Segnatura, which is the subject of the final chapter. In chapter 5, I identify classical figures in the frescoes of the Stanza della Segnatura-among them, Orpheus in the Parnassus and Plato and Aristotle in the Disputa-and offer a new interpretation of the iconographic program of the Stanza della Segnatura frescoes as a representation of the means by which participants in the Christian tradition, broadly conceived, approach God through the parallel paths of dialectic and moral philosophy.
    • Mediation of special education disputes and the use of participant feedback: A multi-state study

      Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Folger, Joseph P., 1951- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Mediation of special education disputes varies between states. This study addressed the ways in which the practices and methods of evaluation differ between five states: Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. This includes such factors as provision of services, alternative dispute resolution procedures, mediation style, and mediator training. Data were examined regarding mediation rates, rates of agreement, and the types of students/issues involved. The research focused on the ways the states used participant feedback to assess their own performance. Extant data from two states, Iowa and Minnesota, were examined to determine which factors impacted overall evaluation of the mediation process and satisfaction with the outcome. States were similar regarding the provision of services, although the agency overseeing mediation differed. Methods of alternative dispute resolution varied greatly, and were strongly tied to the perspective of each state. Large differences were found between states relating to mediation usage and agreement rates. Content analyses were conducted on the survey instruments. The greatest number of questions addressed the impact on the relationship between participants, followed by fairness of the process, and then skills of the mediator. Overall, participants were satisfied with the mediation process. Satisfaction with the outcome was moderate to high, but diminished over time. There were no significant differences in satisfaction ratings between parents and school officials in either state, but individuals who reached a resolution were most satisfied with the mediation process. The ability to discuss and understand the important issues was the largest predictor of satisfaction. Improved communication in the long term was strongly related to satisfaction, but improved communication within the mediation session was not. Additionally, Iowa parents felt more satisfied when they were better able to understand their own perspective and their views were considered before any solutions or agreements were made. Iowa school officials were more satisfied when they were better able to understand the parents' perspective. In Minnesota, an improved relationship with the other party predicted greater satisfaction with the mediation outcome for the school officials, but not parents. Mediator skills and impartiality were important factors for the school officials only.
    • The Development of Social Competence from Early Childhood through Middle Adolescence: Continuity and Accentuation of Individual Differences Over Time

      Steinberg, Laurence D., 1952-; Weinraub, Marsha; Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A.; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Roisman, Glenn I. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      One of the fundamental concerns of developmental psychology is the nature of continuity and change across development. The present study investigated the continuity of social competence across developmental periods, paying special attention to the transition from middle childhood to adolescence. Using a birth cohort of youths (277 males, 315 females), I examined the stability of social competence across developmental periods, assessed the relation between quality of early parenting and later competence, and tested how timing of pubertal maturation and school transition impact the stability of social competence, using both variable-centered and person-centered analyses. It was expected that social competence would be highly stable across development, but less stable across the transition to adolescence, and that higher quality parenting would predict greater competence among males and females. Furthermore, I expected that pubertal maturation and school transition would deflect trajectories of social competence over time, accentuating individual differences (e.g., socially competent youths would become more competent, whereas incompetent youths would become less competent). As expected, the nature of social competence was fairly stable from early childhood to adolescence, although there is evidence that social competence is less stable as youth transition from early childhood to middle childhood and from middle childhood to adolescence. Moreover, individuals with warm parenting evinced greater social competence across time. Consistent with my hypothesis, off-time pubertal maturation and school transition accentuated individual differences in social competence, increasing social competence among more competent youths, and further diminishing social competence among less competent youths. Finally, I find evidence that experiencing both off-time pubertal maturation and a school transition simultaneously incurred more risk for females, particularly among less competent females, than experiencing only off-time maturation or a school transition.
    • A Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Perceptions of the Cognitive Abilities Underlying Basic Academic Tasks

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth; DuCette, Joseph P.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of cognitive functioning is a well-validated framework for intelligence. Cross-battery assessment is a means utilizing CHC theory in practice. School psychologists write recommendations with the assumption that teachers understand the cognitive abilities underlying basic academic tasks in the same way. Theoretically, the more similar the understanding of these two groups, the greater the likelihood of appropriate referrals and intervention fidelity. Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities impact the referrals that they make and intervention strategies that they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into the CHC broad abilities. The central research questions being asked are as follows: Are school psychologists and teachers equally proficient at identifying the broad cognitive ability demands of a basic academic task? How do the responses of the participants compare to the theoretical model presented? Do teachers and school psychologists become better at identifying the cognitive demands of a task with experience or higher levels of training? In order to answer the first research question, MANOVAs were performed. There was a significant overall difference between groups on their responses. While teachers and school psychologists differed significantly on five of the eight CHC broad ability scales. School psychologists were only significantly better at consistently identifying the basic academic tasks that utilized Fluid Reasoning. To answer the second research question, principal components factor analysis was performed. The factors created displayed limited similarity to the theoretical factors. Pearson correlations between the theoretical factors and the factors created through factor analysis revealed multiple positive correlations that accounted for more than 10% of the variance. The theoretical scales that were more significantly correlated were Fluid Reasoning, Auditory Processing, and Processing Speed. To answer the third research question, Pearson correlations were calculated. This analysis revealed that neither group develops a better understanding of the cognitive abilities required to perform academic tasks with experience. Level of education is not related to accuracy for teachers on any of the items. Level of education is significantly correlated with accuracy in identifying tasks that require Visual Processing for school psychologists.
    • Organically Grown: Emergent Power and Influence in Complex Issue Networks

      Murphy, Priscilla J.; Kitch, Carolyn L.; Morris, Nancy, 1953-; McKie, David, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      While issues management is an important area of research and practice in organizational communication and public relations, the literature focuses primarily on instrumental applications. Conceiving of issue networks--loose configurations of institutional actors, interest groups, organizations, technical specialists, and concerned citizens--as complex systems of interconnected agents offers a fresh perspective on the ways power and influence are exercised and negotiated among organizations, the media, and policymaking bodies. Combined use of social and semantic network analysis makes it possible to examine complex, dynamic linkages between social relationships and conceptual positions. This paper reports on a study of the organic foods issue network in the United States, based on the minutes of National Organics Standards Board meetings and media coverage of the issue. The use of textual as well as relational data allows for more sophisticated computations of patterns, providing insight on power structures as well as organizational and issue identities. This study is intended as a first step toward understanding the mechanisms of issue emergence and development as an aid for scholars and practitioners of media communication, organizational issues management, cultural economy, and policy studies.