• A Development of Orthogonal Functions as Series Solutions of the Partial Differential Equations of Physics

      Kaigh, Irvin (Temple University. Libraries, 1949)
      Introduction. Statement of problem: The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the manner in which a Boundary Value problem in Physics leads to the solution in generalized Fourier Series. The conditions to be met in problems of this sort are generally the Partial Differential Equation and several unique physical conditions which are imposed on the distribution sought after. The problem is solved when a mathematical solution of the Differential Equation is found which satisfies all of the restrictions levied by the physical considerations. The secondary purpose of this study is to obtain a view of the generalized problem which leads ultimately to the Sturm-Liouville theory.
    • A study of the cooperative office work experience program in New Jersey, 1958-1959

      Martin, Charles Wilford, Ed. M. (Temple University. Libraries, 1962)
      Introduction. Statement of the Problem: It was the purpose of this study to determine the current status, practice, and problem of the cooperative office work experience programs that existed in the public high schools in the State of New Jersey with implications for those who plan to organize and develop such programs. It is generally believed that a cooperative office work experience program is a learning device which will provide more effective training for office jobs.
    • Statistical Analysis of Biological Interactions from Homologous Proteins

      Obradovic, Zoran; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Vucetic, Slobodan; Latecki, Longin; Coico, Richard (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Information fusion aims to develop intelligent approaches of integrating information from complementary sources, such that a more comprehensive basis is obtained for data analysis and knowledge discovery. Our Protein Biological Unit (ProtBuD) database is the first database that integrated the biological unit information from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), Protein Quaternary Server (PQS) and Protein Interfaces, Surfaces and Assemblies (PISA) server, and compared the three biological units side-by-side. The statistical analyses show that the inconsistency within these databases and between them is significant. In order to improve the inconsistency, we studied interfaces across different PDB entries in a protein family using an assumption that interfaces shared by different crystal forms are likely to be biologically relevant. A novel computational method is proposed to achieve this goal. First, redundant data were removed by clustering similar crystal structures, and a representative entry was used for each cluster. Then a modified k-d tree algorithm was applied to facilitate the computation of identifying interfaces from crystals. The interface similarity functions were derived from Gaussian distributions fit to the data. Hierarchical clustering was used to cluster interfaces to define the likely biological interfaces by the number of crystal forms in a cluster. Benchmark data sets were used to determine whether the existence or lack of existence of interfaces across multiple crystal forms can be used to predict whether a protein is an oligomer or not. The probability that a common interface is biological is given. An interface shared in two different crystal forms by divergent proteins is very likely to be biologically important. The interface data not only provide new interaction templates for computational modeling, but also provide more accurate data for training sets and testing sets in data-mining research to predict protein-protein interactions. In summary, we developed a framework which is based on databases where different biological unit information is integrated and new interface data are stored. In order for users from the biology community to use the data, a stand-alone software program, a web site with a user-friendly graphical interface, and a web service are provided.
    • Characteristics and Predictors of Ecstasy (MDMA) Use During College

      Brown, Ronald T.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Kendrick, Zebulon V.; Segal, Jay S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This cross-sectional investigation examined characteristics of ecstasy use during college and associations between ecstasy use during college and demographic factors, family functioning, mental health, and stage of change for ecstasy use. In addition a multivariate model was developed to predict characteristics of ecstasy use during college. An electronic survey was sent to all undergraduate students enrolled at a large urban university in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States during the spring of 2007. Demographic factors and characteristics of ecstasy use were examined using standardized measures employed in national drug use surveys and by the World Health Organization. Measures associated specifically with ecstasy use during college were developed for this investigation. Family functioning was measured with the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale. Mental health was measured with the K6 screening instrument for nonspecific psychological distress. Stage of change was measured with a five-stage algorithm. The final sample for analysis consisted of 194 participants who reported ecstasy use during college and 2849 participants who reported no ecstasy use during college. Data were described using conventional descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics and non-parametric statistics. A logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with ecstasy use during college. Based on the results, the following generalized conclusions were drawn: ecstasy continues to be used by college students at large urban universities in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States; because the majority of college students reported using ecstasy for the first time during college and also reported using ecstasy for up to two years, it appears that the college environment is a contextual factor for ecstasy use; lower family communication is associated with ecstasy use during college; psychological distress is associated with ecstasy use during college; being white (versus non-white), male (versus female) and having low or moderate (versus high) family communication each is independently associated with ecstasy use during college; differences in stage of change for ecstasy use among ecstasy users and the demographic profile of ecstasy users compared to non-ecstasy users suggest that prevention, education and intervention efforts should be designed to match the unique factors associated with ecstasy use during college.
    • Rembrandt's Artful Use of Statues and Casts: New Insights into His Studio Practices and Working Methods

      Hall, Marcia B.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Dolan, Therese, 1946-; Silver, Larry, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Although Rembrandt van Rijn owned over eighty pieces of sculpture, studies regarding his use of the collection are in short supply and tend to be either formal, tracing the few images of sculpture in Rembrandt's oeuvre to those listed in his 1656 bankruptcy inventory, or else they refer to his use of classical sculpture in general terms as an inspiration for his history paintings. This study shifts emphasis from formal and iconographic issues to Rembrandt's studio practices and working methods. It examines his manipulation of the border between reality and illusion (what Ovid termed "the art that conceals art"): his effort to "incarnate" his sculptural sources by wrapping them in textiles and giving them the appearance of flesh. Seventeenth-century theory provides the foundation for this hypothesis: artists/theorists such as Karl van Mander, Peter Paul Rubens, and Philips Angel promoted the judicious use of sculpture and encouraged artists to transform its marmoreal surface into pliant flesh; Van Mander advised painters to make the thin garments of classical statues more appropriate for Northern paintings by wrapping them in woolen cloth; he also encouraged artists to "steal arms, legs, hands, and feet" from works of art and synthesize them into new creations. Esteemed precedents also support the hypothesis: recent studies of Cornelis Cornelius van Haarlem, Hendrick Goltzius, and Bartholomeus Spranger examined their use of Renaissance bronzes, an inexpensive and plentiful source that Rembrandt also seems to have tapped. Paragone, a popular debate in both Amsterdam and Leiden, is another facet of this study. Empirical observations reveal patterns in Rembrandt's use of sculpture: several etchings of his studio show busts adorned with hats or wrapped in fabric (a practice also described in a seventeenth-century poem about Rembrandt); a number of his head studies, genre, and history paintings suggest that he used busts of Roman emperors for models. The less subtle artistry of his students and his colleague Jan Lievens also exposes their use of clothed statues and thereby corroborates the hypothesis that Rembrandt's reliance on sculpture for models was more prevalent and artful (in the sense of covert) than has previously been noted.
    • Objectivity and Autonomy in the Newsroom: A Field Approach

      Garrett, Paul B., 1968-; Jhala, Jayasinhji; Kitch, Carolyn L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation provides a better understanding of how journalists attain their personal and occupational identities. In particular, I examine the origins and meanings of journalistic objectivity as well as the professional autonomy that is specific to journalism. Journalists understand objectivity as a worldview, value, ideal, and impossibility. A central question that remains is why the term objectivity has become highly devalued in journalistic discourse in the past 30 years, a puzzling development considered in light of evidence that "objectivity" remains important in American journalism. I use Bourdieu's notion of field to explore anthropological ways of looking at objectivity, for instance, viewing it as a practice that distinguishes journalists from other professionals as knowledge workers. Applying notions of field to the journalistic field through anthropological methods and perspective permits the linkage of microlevel perspectives to macrolevel social phenomena. The dissertation demonstrates how qualitative research on individuals and newsroom organizations can be connected to the field of journalism in the United States. Additionally, it offers insight into why journalists continue to embrace objectivity, even as they acknowledge its deficiencies as a journalistic goal.
    • Life at the Extreme: An investigation into the experiences of professional sailors competing in a fully crewed around the world race

      Sachs, Michael L.; Folger, Joseph P., 1951-; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Participants were 15 professional sailors, ranging in age from 23-49 years (M age = 35.9 years; SD = 7.4), who competed in the 2005/06 VOR. After receiving approval from the Temple University Institutional Review Board, the researcher recruited participants who were subsequently required to provide informed consent to participate in the study. Using a semi-structured interview format, face-to-face interviews were completed with three sailors in Miami, FL, and with nine sailors in Valencia, Spain (three interviews with individual participants, one interview with two participants, and a focus group with four participants). Three interviews were completed via telephone. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Each transcript was then analysed through an inductive open coding process. Data analysis revealed nine major themes (Background, Skiffs on Steroids, Boat Breakdowns, Managing Self, Pressure, Tragedy, Extreme, Team, and Reflecting) with associated subthemes, and three dimensions (Resonance, Edgework, and Performance Capacities) with associated subdimensions. A framework for understanding the experiences of the sailors was conceived in the form of a model depicting the dimensions of resonance (a passion for adventure and the VOR in particular), edgework (a desire and ability to perform in high-risk, life threatening situations), and performance capacities (team, individual, and boat). The model suggests an interplay between the dimensions of edgework and resonance, against which is set the performance dimension. This study is the first to take a glimpse inside the experiences of professional ocean racing sailors who compete in fully crewed around-the-world races. Findings confirm the widely held belief that the VOR is an extreme and unique event in the world of sport.
    • An analysis of taxpayer attitudes toward a local income tax to support public schools

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Ikpa, Vivian W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      While states have traditionally relied almost solely upon local property taxes for the main support of public education, other revenue sources have included sales, bank shares and occupational taxes at the local level. With the passing of the Local Tax Enabling Act in 1965 at the state level, most Pennsylvania school districts were empowered to collect non-real estate taxes (General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1965). On November 11, 1986, an earned income tax resolution was approved and adopted by the Township of Upper Dublin with an effective date of January 1, 1987. On June 1, 1993 the School District of Upper Dublin and the School Board of Directors followed suit and approved and adopted an earned income tax resolution. Currently, all School District of Upper Dublin residents pay a one-percent earned income tax (Lukoff, 1986). The earned income tax revenues are shared equally between the township and school district. The major aim of this study was to assess real estate property taxpayer attitudes in the School District and Township of Upper Dublin towards the earned income tax. More specifically, did taxpayers believe that the earned income tax held steady, or reduced, real estate property taxes? The study employed one primary data collection strategy: a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of real estate property taxpayers in the School District of Upper Dublin. This methodology allowed the researcher to gain a more thorough understanding of the issue and to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The study revealed that taxpayers in the school district and township did not generally believe the earned income tax had reduced and/or held steady real estate property taxes. When the tax was instituted two decades ago, reducing real estate property taxes was one purpose, as was finding an additional source of revenue for the school district and township. Additionally, taxpayers in the study viewed the earned income tax as a "good" or "fair" tax and certainly recognized the purpose of the tax to fund education and township services via another source of revenue. Accordingly, school district and township officials must recognize that taxpayer's feelings translate into implications for public policy. These implications include recognizing the mistrust and misinformation associated with the tax and developing a better informed public. Officials must recognize that taxpayers seem to believe that the earned income tax is a "good" and/or "fair" tax, but are required to pay it like any other tax.
    • A Study of the Relationship Between and Among Scheduling, Grouping, Grading, Curriculum, and Mathematics Achievement in Pennsylvania Secondary Schools

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Schifter, Catherine; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Fitt, David; Walker, Thomas J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Widespread access to technology facilitates the sharing of effective classroom practices across disciplines. The implementation of successful practices is essential; particularly in this era of educational accountability, most notably the adequately yearly progress (AYP) goals of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. In addition to bottom-up classroom practices, teachers and other educational stakeholders are entitled to information about top-down policies to enhance teaching and learning. This study examines the correlation between policies in four areas and outcomes on one specific component of AYP in Pennsylvania public secondary schools. The policies considered herein are scheduling (traditional or block), grouping (homogeneous or heterogeneous), grading (weighted or not), and secondary math curriculum (U.S. Department of Education cited standards-based or traditional). This study quantifies the correlation between school district polices in these areas and results on the 11th grade mathematics portion of the 2006 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). Standard and Poor's recognizes school districts in Pennsylvania and across the country whose students have achieved NCLB testing outcomes that exceed expectations. In 2005, 55 Pennsylvania districts were cited by Standard and Poor's as being "outperforming school districts." The 60 secondary schools in these districts served as the population for this study. The study quantifies the correlation between the specific combinations of the four policies utilized by the 40 participating high schools and PSSA results. Evidence is discovered that, of the four policies, only block scheduling correlated with higher PSSA 11th grade math outcomes.
    • Explicitly rejecting an implicit dichotomy: An integration of two contrasting approaches to assessing dependency

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Karpinski, Andrew; Fauber, Robert L.; Bornstein, Robert F.; Overton, Willis F.; Drabick, Deborah A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Proponents of self-report and projective assessment traditions have approached the assessment of interpersonal dependency quite differently, in ways that are only recently becoming more aligned. The present study aimed to address the increasing convergence between the two sides, administering both self-report measures and a newly developed implicit measure of dependency in an attempt to characterize more precisely the relations between these seemingly disparate approaches. The study was moderately successful in validating the implicit measure using criteria proposed by two independent groups (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mucke, 2002; Bornstein, 2002). The implicit measure was found to be reliable, orthogonal to two self-report dependency instruments, and predictive of external criteria such as other personality constructs and past depression. This success, however, was hampered by the study's inability to replicate prior findings using a task assessing help-seeking, identified as a behavioral indicator of dependency. All implicit and self-report dependency indices were unrelated to all measures of help-seeking, which prevented any further analyses; potential explanations for the failure of this task are proposed in the Discussion. This study also provided an examination of dissociations between participants' scores on self-report and implicit measures of dependency, and has implications for the significance of such dissociations. That is, the possibility that dissociations themselves are pathological was not supported, and it was found that dissociations between self-report and implicit dependency scores were associated with different patterns of responding on a broadband personality instrument. Finally, the present study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive sypmtomatology, and further identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in the prediction of past major depressive episodes.
    • Hanya Holm in America, 1931-1936: Dance, Culture and Community

      Bond, Karen E.; Kant, Marion; Kahlich, Luke C.; Dils, Ann (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Though she is widely considered one of the "four pioneers" of American modern dance, German-American Hanya Holm (1893-1992) occupies a shadowy presence in dance history literature. She has often been described as someone who fell in love with America, purged her approach of Germanic elements, and emerged with a more universal one. Her "Americanization" has served as evidence of the Americanness of modern dance, thus eclipsing the German influence on modern dance. This dissertation challenges that narrative by casting new light on Holm's worldview and initial intentions in the New World, and by articulating the specifics of the first five years of her American career. In contrast to previous histories, I propose that Holm did not come to the U.S. to forge an independent career as a choreographer; rather, she came as a missionary for Mary Wigman and her Tanz-Gemeinschaft (dance cultural community). To Wigman and Holm, dance was not only an art form; it was a way of life, a revolt against bourgeois sterility and modern alienation, and a utopian communal vision, even a religion. Artistic expression was only one aspect of modern dance's larger purpose. The transformation of social life was equally important, and Holm was a fervent believer in the need for a widespread amateur dance culture. This study uses a historical methodology and accesses traces of the past such as lectures, school reports, promotional material, newspaper articles, personal notebooks, correspondence, photographs, and other material--much of it discussed here for the first time. These sources provide evidence for new descriptions and interpretations of Holm's migration from Germany to the U.S. and from German dance to American dance. I examine cultural contexts that informed Holm's beliefs, such as early twentieth century German life reform and body culture; provide a sustained analysis of the curriculum of the New York Wigman School of the Dance; and consider how the politicization of dance in the 1930s--in both Germany and the U.S.--affected Holm and her work.
    • Lines in the Sand: An Environmental History of Cold War New Mexico

      Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian); Farber, David R.; Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Immerman, Richard H.; Warren, Louis S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation explores the complex interactions between the Cold War military-scientific apparatus, the idea of a culture of the Cold War, and the desert environment of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico. During and after World War II, the War Department and then the Department of Defense established several military reserves in the region. The massive White Sands Missile Range (at 3,200 square miles the largest military reserve in North America and larger than Rhode Island and Delaware combined) and other military attachés would increasingly define the culture and economy of the Tularosa Basin. Historians have cast places such as White Sands Missile Range as cratered wastelands. Yet the missile range and surrounding military reserves became a contested landscape that centered on the viability of the nonhuman natural world. Diverse communities sought to find their place in a Cold War society and in the process redefined the value of a militarized landscape. Undeniably, missile technology had a profound impact on south-central New Mexico and thus acts as a central theme in the region's postwar history. However, in the years after 1945, environmentalists, wildlife officials, tourists, and displaced ranchers, amongst many others, continued to find new fangled meanings and unexpected uses for the militarized desert environment of south-central New Mexico. The Tularosa Basin was not merely a destroyed landscape. The design and sheer size of the missile range compelled local, national, and transnational voices to not just make sense of the economic implications of the missile range and surrounding military sites, but to rethink its cultural and environmental values in a changing Cold War society. It was a former home to ranchers still tied to the land through lease and suspension agreements. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish personnel cast the site as perfect for experimentation with exotic big game. Environmentalists and wildlife biologists saw the site as ideal for the reintroduction of the Mexican wolf. Tourists came to know the landscape through the simple obelisk at the Trinity Site. While missiles cratered the desert floor, the military bureaucracy did not hold absolute power over the complex interactions between cultures, economies, and the nonhuman natural environment on the postwar Tularosa Basin.
    • Therapy and Punishment: Negotiating Authority in the Management of Drug Addiction

      Condran, Gretchen; Delaney, Kevin; Kidder, Robert L.; Dowdall, George W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Throughout the twentieth century, many behaviors previously considered criminal or immoral were instead defined as medical problems. This process is often referred to as the medicalization of deviance. Like many other behaviors once considered deviant, drug and alcohol abuse has been medicalizing, in a process that accelerated during the latter half of the twentieth century. Despite this movement along the path toward medicalization, drug use, and alcohol use to a lesser extent, are still also sanctioned and managed by the criminal justice system, resulting in a medical-legal-moral hybrid definition of these issues. Today we find instances where these two institutions overlap significantly. At the same time, their mutual involvement in defining and managing drug use is inconsistent. This research uses a qualitative research design to study how this medical-legal-moral hybrid definition of drug use and addiction is discussed and negotiated by various institutions that label and manage individuals who use drugs. I examined this issue by conducting interviews and observations in Philadelphia's Drug Treatment Court as well as in two outpatient drug treatment programs. Results indicate that individuals in both settings frame addiction as a "disease," although the definition is ambiguous and inconsistent. The court and the treatment programs use similar language and methods for assessing substance abuse and how to deal with it. Both also extend the definition of "addiction" to include aspects not directly related to the consumption of drugs or alcohol but to the "drug lifestyle" that includes selling drugs. Still, in neither location is a comprehensive, clear definition of "addiction" promoted and used consistently. This ambiguity results in an overlap of therapeutic and punitive methods to handle the individual's drug usage. In addition, both settings benefit from their interaction and cooperation in managing individuals with substance abuse problems, indicating that rather than moving toward a purely "medical" way of dealing with substance abuse, or placing the issue more firmly in the realm of the criminal justice system, the current mix of moral, criminal and medical methods of labeling and managing substance abuse problems may be more stagnant than the medicalization of deviance thesis suggests.
    • The Gender Politics of Contemporary Sport: Ethics, Power, and the Body

      Taylor, Paul C. (Paul Christopher), 1967-; Wilcox, Shelley; Morgan, William J., 1948-; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Gendered power relations in sport pose important problems for mainstream feminist and ethical arguments for the alleviation of gender-based oppression. Though mainstream feminist theorists and applied ethicists have largely left sport undertheorized, some multi- and inter-disciplinary scholarly attention has been devoted to analyzing gender and sport. However, this scholarship encompasses disparate lines of thought with a range of philosophical, political, disciplinary, methodological and theoretical commitments, which translate into conflicting and competing normative views on how to best conceptualize, theorize, and practically navigate gender relations in sporting contexts. My dissertation remedies the tensions between these conflicting normative views by excavating and critically evaluating the political and philosophical assumptions that ground these views of gender relations in sport. I define 'sport feminism' as the normative views and consequent practical strategies that are concerned with interpreting, navigating, and eliminating the unjust restrictions on women's freedom in sporting contexts. I identify and critically evaluate four sport feminist views: liberal, radical, somatic, and post-structuralist. These views are distinct from one another as they differ in their conceptualizations and interpretations of three elements: (1) the nature of gender and the significance of physiological difference; (2) the function of sport and fitness practices; and (3) the ethical grounds and strategies for defining and alleviating gender-based oppression. Drawing from the merits of these views, my project develops a feminist framework for ethical action with regard to unequal gendered power relations in sport.
    • Counting to Four: Assessing the Quaternity of C.G. Jung in the Light of Lacan and Sophiology

      Bregman, Lucy; Swidler, Leonard J.; Nagatomo, Shigenori (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This thesis is a critical examination of the question of the fourfold, or quaternities, in the thought of C.G. Jung, as well as an in-depth comparison with the four-fold structures of Jacques Lacan and Sergius Bulgakov. I define quaternities as visual or structural formations conceived in four parts, and I center this study on Jung because I see him as the first thinker to seriously examine the place of quaternity in psychology and modern thought. Part of the work of this thesis will be to give a clear view of Jung's quaternal theories, distinguishing the novelty and authenticity of his work from what has been made of it by subsequent New Age and Jungian thinkers. Jacques Lacan, who uses the term "quadrilateral" to describe his formations, will be contrasted with Jung on several counts. First of all, whereas the Jungian quaternity aims to perfectly integrate its various elements, especially when viewed from the perspective of the fourth element of the quaternity, the Lacanian fourth works in the opposite direction, putting into question any reading of the structure which demands resolution and integration. Lacan's quadrilaterals also avoid the complementarity which is always an important aspect of Jungian quaternity, instead opting for a supplementary logic. Sergius Bulgakov avoids, at least in his later work, referring to quaternities, but, in his reading of Sophia (Wisdom), she clearly functions as something of a fourth within the Christian Trinity. Bulgakov's primary contribution is to provide an answer to Jung's complaint that the Christian Trinity has suppressed its fourth and become unbalanced. The fourth that Bulgakov articulates in the form of Sophia is very different from what Jung had argued for. That is, instead of changing the Trinity into a Quaternity Bulgakov maintains that Sophia underlines the "tri-unity" of the Trinity, and functions not a fourth amidst its members, but as a necessary element in order to both bring out the distinctiveness of each person of the Trinity as well as communicate their common identity.
    • "The thick dark current runs": As I Lay Dying -- A Multi-Theoretical Approach

      Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Williams, Roland Leander; Orvell, Miles; Burns, Christy L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation focuses on one of the greatest, yet most problematic, novels in William Faulkner's canon. As I Lay Dying, Faulkner's self-proclaimed "tour de force," is a multilayered, multi-voiced text that leaves many critics wondering how to approach it, which has led to there being only a handful of full length critical texts devoted entirely to the book. The narrow approach used by most articles and critical texts leads to a necessarily cursory glance at the novel. The complexity of this narrative demands a multi-theoretical approach where no one theory is the primary voice or ultimate authority. The structure of the novel has dictated the order in which the theories are presented in the dissertation. The story follows members of a poor farm family as they journey to bury their matriarch. The family journeys from a private isolated space to a public outer space. The chosen theories are ordered in this same inner to outer fashion. The study begins with Freudian theories which consider how the inner workings of the mind affect the individual and moves steadily to Marxist critiques which focus on the effect of society on the individual. In this manner, the discussion grows from individual concerns to communal concerns. Spanning the theoretic gulf between Freud and Marx are Lacanian theories and Race issues using Appiah's theories, each a certain step from the inner to the outer. An important factor in the dissertation is the discourse between the theories as each theory sounds a note of meaning that builds toward a unified chord of meaning. I hope this exercise in literary criticism will add to a fuller understanding of Faulkner's novel.
    • School Choice and Segregation: How Race Influences Choices and the Consequences for Neighborhood Public Schools

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Elesh, David; Saporito, Salvatore; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation examines the relationship between school choice and race. I examine whether the racial composition of schools influences choices and whether choices of private and public choice schools lead to greater segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. I improve on existing research by adopting the theoretical framework used in neighborhood preferences literature to distinguish between race and race-associated reasons as motivations for avoiding racially integrating schools. This study utilizes geocoded data from the Philadelphia Area Study (PAS) and elementary school catchment maps to examine families' preferences and behaviors in the context of the actual conditions of their assigned schools. Catchment maps are integrated with Census data to determine whether choice schools have a role in white flight and segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. The findings suggest that families are most likely to avoid neighborhood schools with high proportions of racial minorities. However, attitudes regarding racial climates are more consistent predictors of preferences than the actual racial composition of local schools. Highly segregated neighborhood schools satisfy families who desire racially homogeneous school climates, as do private schools. Families who seek diverse environments are more likely to look to charter and magnet schools. The white flight analysis shows that whites are more likely to leave schools that have modest proportions of black students, and less likely to leave schools that are already integrated. These results suggest that whites react especially strongly to schools with low levels of integration, and those who remain in the few racially balanced schools do so out of a preference for diversity or because they do not have the resources to leave. Public choice schools spur white flight in urban areas, but actually reduce flight in suburban schools. Finally, I find that choice schools do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups are spatially segregated from whites, and they also do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups attend more or less disadvantaged schools than whites. This suggests that segregation and stratification are two distinct aspects of racial inequality and should be considered separately when evaluating the effectiveness of choice programs.
    • Economic Determinants and Consequences of Voluntary Disclosure of Internal Control Effectiveness: Evidence from Initial Public Offerings

      Krishnan, Jagan; Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Gordon, Elizabeth A. (Associate professor); Krishnan, Jayanthi; Sarkar, S. K. (Sanat K.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation investigates the economic determinants of firms' decisions to voluntarily disclose internal control weaknesses, and the economic consequences of such disclosures, in the context of companies' initial public offerings (IPOs) of equity securities. I find that IPO firms with greater potential litigation risk and restated pre-IPO financial statements are more likely to disclose internal control weaknesses over pre-IPO financial reporting. In addition, I find that voluntary disclosure of internal control weaknesses and the related remediation procedures is negatively associated with underpricing, indicating that ex ante uncertainty about the new issues' value is reduced. Further, IPO firms benefit from such voluntary disclosure through increased IPO proceeds. The results also suggest that the new internal control disclosure requirements under SOX sections 302 and 404 have induced IPO firms to voluntarily disclose internal control weaknesses, contributing to lower information asymmetry between IPO firms and uninformed investors.
    • The interaction of angiocidin and tissue transglutaminase

      Tuszynski, George P.; Sheffield, Joel B.; Giordano, Antonio, MD; Lelkes, Peter I. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the endothelium of pre-existing vasculature and is the main mechanism of vascularization during physiological processes such as embryonic development, growth, regeneration, and wound healing and pathological process of vascularizing tumors. The major source of these environmental signals is the interactions between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell adhesion molecules are found on the surface of all cells and play a role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Tissue transglutaminase is ubiquitously expressed in various tissue types, occurs in both an intracellular and extracellular form, and is highly expressed in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the vasculature. Tissue transglutaminase is secreted from cells externally and binds to the cell surface or extracellular matrix. It has been implicated in the stabilization of the extracellular matrix and in cell-ECM interactions by cross-linking matrix proteins. In 1993, angiocidin was isolated from lung carcinoma extracts by affinity chromatography using a peptide fragment of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matrix protein that has been implicated in mechanisms of tumor progression. The recombinant protein was expressed and shown to be a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis but the mechanism of action was not characterized. Affinity chromatography showed that tissue transglutaminase binds to recombinant angiocidin. Our studies have shown: Angiocidin binds to tissue transglutaminase in situ and in vitro through different binding studies. Recombinant angiocidin was also a substrate for the enzymatic activity of tissue transglutaminase. Both endogenous and exogenous angiocidin were able to crosslink to themselves. This interaction with angiocidin inhibits transglutaminase function by inhibiting amine incorporation, crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins, and the promotion of cell-matrix interactions. Additionally, the monomeric and crosslinked angiocidin have different biological activity. Polymeric angiocidin is more adhesive, inhibits, migration, and is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Our studies suggest that angiocidin inhibits angiogenesis by its ability to bind to tissue transglutaminase and crosslink to itself, thereby destabilizing the cell- extracellular matrix interactions through its interaction with tissue transglutaminase. These studies may help to understand the mechanism of recombinant angiocidin in inhibiting tumor vasculature, as well as understanding the significance of these post-translational modifications of endogenous and exogenous proteins in cellular biology.
    • Insurance Market Equilibrium: Contract Formation, Heterogeneity, and Operational Efficiency

      Powers, Michael R.; Weiss, Mary A.; Cummins, J. David; Mao, Connie X.; Sarkar, S. K. (Sanat K.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The three essays of this dissertation investigate the insurance equilibrium from various perspectives. The first essay uses Cournot game-theoretic model to study the insurance contract formation and provides theoretical justification for policy limit. The second essay introduces buyers' heterogeneous risk aversion into Wilson's equilibrium, derives new equilbria, and provides the conditions under which those new equilibria will hold. The third essay studies the operational efficiency of life insurers in China. Through comparing the efficiency of domestic and foreign life insurers, decomposing their efficiency scores, figuring out the directions and potential they could improve, and analyzing the change and driver of productivity, the essay gives insights of the fast-developing life insurance industry in China.