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Recent Submissions

  • The Role of Frustration in Intensive Treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Maas, Edwin; Caspari, Susan; Alper, Rebecca (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Purpose: This study primarily investigates the effects and influence of frustration in children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in the setting of intensive treatment. Additionally, the study examines the interrater reliability of the frustration rating scale used in an intensive CAS treatment study. Methods: Frustration and treatment data obtained from 17 participants (between 4;0-9;11 years) with CAS in an intensive treatment research study were retrospectively used to determine potential relationships related to frustration in treatment (target complexity, temporal conditions, session number, CAS severity). Interrater reliability of the frustration rating scale was assessed with 34 randomly selected treatment session videos scored by a blinded second rater and compared to original scores. Results: Interrater reliability of the scale was poor to fair but had relatively close agreement within one scale point. Frustration levels were observed to decrease over the course of the treatment period but were typically greater in the afternoon sessions compared to morning. Participants in the complex target treatment condition with lower frustration also exhibited better outcomes than those with greater frustration. No other relationships were observed. Conclusions: Due to relatively poor interrater reliability of frustration scoring system used to obtain data used in the current study, results of the study should be interpreted cautiously. There may be a relationship between frustration levels in children with CAS and treatment conditions and outcomes, but other factors may influence both variables and further investigation into frustration is necessary to draw stronger conclusions.
  • More Success Than Meets the Eye: The Case of M&As in the High-Tech Industry

    Guillotin, Bertrand; Wray, Matt; Naveen, Lalitha; di Benedetto, C. Anthony (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Mergers and acquisitions are staples of the business landscape. On a global basis, companies engage in tens of thousands of deals each year, collectively valued in the trillions of dollars. At the same time, decades of research, predominantly grounded in the finance literature, predicts most deals will fail. These competing ideas of high transaction volume and high failure rate lead researchers to wonder why managers would continue to engage in these deals knowing most are predicted to fail. While some might argue agency theory issues are the answer, the problem is the commonly used assessment measures (e.g., CAR and ROA) are unreliable when trying to determine the success or failure of individual transactions. M&A are complex transactions that may take years to develop value and require a multi-faceted approach for assessment. Using an inductive, theory-building, case study methodology the overarching focus of this study asks, “How does the use of multiple acquisition success measures help to identify M&A success.” This research develops a random sampling of 50 completed Cisco Systems acquisitions and determines and then compares the CAR, ROA, and managers’ subjective assessment outcomes for each transaction. Primary and secondary objectives and insights concerning cultural fit and talent retention are also found. An additional sample of 600 acquisitions from twelve highly acquisitive firms is developed and CAR results for each transaction, each firm, and the whole sample are determined. I organize this research effort into two studies. The first considers limitations of the commonly used academic measures of acquisition assessment and the second considers how a strategy-focused, multi-faceted or holistic approach to acquisition performance assessment might produce a more reliable measure of acquisition success. During the second study I obtain due diligence checklists and primary data through practitioner interviews. The research produces several important findings. The CAR results are not statistically significant and cannot be used to provide an assessment of the sample acquisitions. CAR, which is often used to predict the effect or influence of a piece of information on stock price, is not an effective measure of the success or failure of an individual acquisition transaction and the oft-cited statistics are not an accurate representation of M&A success rates. ROA has limitations in highly acquisitive firms, especially when the acquiring company is larger than the target firm. These findings support the argument by other researchers that suggest the need for another measure and that overreliance on a single success measure produces unreliable results. Additionally, this research offers new insights regarding practitioner assessment criteria, when assessment criteria are developed, and how practitioners assess these deals. More specifically, practitioners determine acquisition assessment criteria during corporate strategy discussions or when developing the business case for a deal. These new insights reinforce the need for a holistic, ex-post assessment to effectively determine M&A success or failure.
  • SPIN-ORBIT COUPLING IN STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Riseborough, Peter S.; Metz, Andreas; Yan, Qimin; Matsika, Spiridoula (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    In materials with heavy elements, both strong spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb interactions are possible to exist. Both can significantly change the properties of materials. The coexistence of them can induce more interesting phenomena in solids. In this dissertation, three different cases involved with spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb interaction are separately studied. In the first case, impurity states in topological Kondo insulators are studied. Both in-gap and deep-bound impurity states are explicitly examined. The in-gap impurity states have properties similar to those of the topological surface states. It can explain some anomalous properties observed in SmB6, a possible topological Kondo insulator. In the second one, it is proposed that spin-orbit coupling can be strongly enhanced by Coulomb interaction in 5f metals. Modest values of the Coulomb interaction can induce up to a four-fold enhancement. In the third case, a model is presented to characterize spin-orbit enhancement in a strongly correlated two-dimensional system. By our calculation, it is shown that a possible nonlinear Rashba effect can emerge in such a system. It can explain the presence of giant Rashba constants in some two-dimensional devices.
  • Ma Sicong's Violin Artistry and Compositions

    Latham, Edward; Schmieder, Eduard; Abramovic, Charles; deVaron, Alexander (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Ma Sicong was a violinist, composer, and educator of the highest caliber in China who devoted his entire professional life to the instrument. Known for producing violin music in various styles and forms for more than fifty years, Ma Sicong contributed to the violin's popularization in China through his performance and composition with Chinese elements. His violin music incorporates principal melodies from Chinese folk music, and his talents as a mature Western composer talents blend these melodies into violin solos with a distinct national identity.The Inner Mongolia Suite and First Rondo by Ma Sicong, both of which are considered among the most outstanding violin solos ever written for the instrument, are examined in this dissertation, as is the composer's own playing experience, to gain a better understanding of the compositions and their meaning. There are several ramifications for Chinese composition for the violin due to the inclusion of national features that affected the design and development of the violin. The author also hopes that this dissertation can serve as a beneficial resource for future students interested in comparable topics.
  • Left-orderability of Dehn surgeries on knot complements

    Stover, Matthew; Futer, David; Miller, Allison; Taylor, Samuel (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Let M be a Q-homology solid torus. In this thesis, we give a cohomological criterion for the existence of an interval of left orderable Dehn surgeries on M. We apply this criterion to prove that the two-bridge knot that corresponds to the continued fraction [1,1,2,2,2j] for j >= 1 and the (-3,3,2j+1)-pretzel knot admit an interval of left orderable Dehn surgeries. These two families of knots gives some positive evidence for a question of Xinghua Gao.
  • IMPACT OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATION (IICTE): EVIDENCE FROM TWO FIELD EXPERIMENTS

    Pang, Min-Seok MP; Jung, Jaehwuen JJ; Bauman, Konstantin KB; Wang, Gang GW (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    The advance and ubiquitous use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have changed how humans learn and reform the education sector. Although related topics have been studied in other disciplines (e.g., behavioral science, economics, psychology, etc.), IS researchers have paid less attention to the impacts of information communication technology on education (IICTE). Recently, education in the post-pandemic world calls for further investigation on this topic since most of the traditional on-site teaching around the world have moved online. The proposed two studies aim to contribute to the IS and the economics research on the role of technology in education and the underlying mechanisms of how ICT affects learning through a series of field experiments and data mining methods. The first study examines in-class mobile device use effects on students’ learning performance via a field experiment. It explores students’ attention allocation at an individual level with live video feed data. We collaborated with a vocational school in China to examine the effect of using smartphones in the classroom on students’ academic performance. We randomly allocated students taking one lecture in Chinese verbal into three experimental conditions: (i) smartphone banned; (ii) smartphone allowed and used at will by students, and (iii) smartphone allowed, used at will by students and relied upon by teachers to assist instruction. We measure the performance gain of students by the change in the scores they obtained in identical tests taken at the beginning and the end of the lecture. We find that allowing students to use smartphones during the lecture at will reduced performance by 12% (6.3 points on a 100-point scale) compared to when students could not take the smartphones into the classroom. However, allowing smartphones into the classroom and asking teachers to actively use them to assist instruction increased their performance by 20% (10.6 points). These results are driven mainly by already strong students and students in IT-related majors. To unravel the underlying mechanisms that drive the observed effects, we use video feeds collected during our experiment, allowing us to code the time students spent learning versus being distracted, with or without their smartphones. We observed that students spent a similar amount of time learning versus being distracted across all three experimental conditions. Thus, the time students allocate to learning in each condition does not predict performance. Instead, what matters for their performance is the relative time they spent learning versus being distracted when using their smartphones. We show that the increase in performance when smartphones are used to assist instruction comes from students spending a larger percentage of the time learning during the lecture. Our findings contribute to the literature on technology-assisted learning and offer practical and policy implications that teachers and schools can follow to cautiously allow smartphones in the classroom to improve student success. The second study investigates the effects of different Internet access policies on student performance via a field experiment and examines the underlying mechanisms of its impact by mining students’ online and offline behaviors. While universities invest a considerable amount to keep up with the increasing demand for Internet connectivity on campus, sufficient doubt exists on the overall efficacy of information communication technologies (ICTs) in enhancing learning. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the Internet is used on campus and whether educational institutions can design their ICT policies to improve education. To answer this question, we seek to investigate the effects of different Internet policies on educational outcomes (i.e., grades, other evaluation results, etc.) by conducting a randomized field experiment at a national public university in China. Specifically, we randomly assigned students to five experimental conditions for a whole semester: low bandwidth and limited data, low bandwidth with unlimited data, high bandwidth with limited data, high bandwidth with unlimited data, and high-quality access (high bandwidth without data limit) yet limited data to entertainment. We then collect and compare the educational outcomes and each student’s online and offline behaviors across all five conditions. With our unique context and micro-level data, we investigate the overall effect of different policies as well as the dynamics of students’ online and offline learning behaviors (i.e., online learning time, online-offline behavior change, etc.) to understand the underlying mechanisms (i.e., online/offline learning patterns on performance). Our study is the first to investigate the effect of ICT policy design on educational outcomes using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We also offer practical guidelines to policymakers and educational institutions on optimizing campus Internet access to help improve students’ learning with the proper use of ICT. Ultimately, studies in this dissertation attempt to explore how ICT could boost learning and thus extend the boundary of IS research to the education sector. Results demonstrated in the dissertation offer clear and straightforward evidence for educators, parents, and students to make their own ICT use policies.
  • Translating Revolutionary Politics in the Atlantic World, 1776-1853

    Venuti, Lawrence; Salazar, James B.; Henry, Katherine; Brickhouse, Anna (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    This dissertation studies the role of translation in the emergence of political concepts as they traveled through the Atlantic world in various discourses, documents, and genres of writing. A practice vital to new revolutionary governments, exiled or internal dissidents, and international abolitionists alike, the translation of political writing supported movements and expanded their scope by, I argue, not merely circulating, but actively transforming the meaning of such concepts as “liberty,” “equality,” “emancipation,” “public feeling,” “the people,” and “abolition.” Our study of this phenomenon has been limited—even stifled altogether—by the still prevailing tendency, academically and colloquially, to misconstrue translation as transparent communication, as the transfer of meaning unchanged from one language to another. Against this tendency, my study proceeds from the understanding that translation is an interpretive act that necessarily varies the meaning, form, and effects of whatever materials are translated. I examine cases of translation that generatively intervened in two decisive moments for the transnational production of the ideas that would become foundational for so-called Western modernity: the Age of Revolutions and the abolitionist period. I offer close readings of the translation of state papers, political theory, and literature by African American educator Prince Saunders, Venezuelan diplomat Manuel García de Sena, Irish abolitionist R.R. Madden, and French writer Louise Swanton Belloc. They demonstrate how key insurgent ideas were forged through cultural exchange in more textured, dynamic historical complexity than we have yet grasped. As the project traces the resignification of political concepts that circulated the ports of the slaveholding Atlantic, into and out of French, Spanish, and English, it seeks to push the disciplinary boundaries of comparative Americanist or Atlanticist frameworks to treat translations as objects of study in their own right, worthy of sustained and systematic analysis.
  • Envisioning a Feminist Medical Education

    Loera, Providenza (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the patriarchal undertones and overt sexism that informs and takes place within undergraduate medical education (medical school). Using a feminist analysis, I will expose some of the ways in which sexism occurs. This includes at the levels of who is given authority to teach medical students, the biomedical research we are using as our primary knowledge source, what material is chosen to be prioritized vs what is left out of the curriculum, how this material is taught and interpreted, and what the larger cultural and value system is that medical education is embedded in. I will demonstrate how the patriarchal values of masculinity, objectivity, heroism, competition, technicality/procedurality, objectivity, rationality, and so on pervade each of these levels, devalue femininity and non-biomedical sources of knowledge, exclude women, and cause harm to all trainees and future patients.
  • Community-Based Health Interventions: An Ethical Approach to Bringing Healthcare to the Marginalized

    Rocco, Providenza (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Covid-19 shed a light on how disparities, influenced by institutional racism and social determinants of health, led to negative healthcare outcomes. This inspired community organizations such as the Black Doctor’s COVID-19 Consortium to take matters into their own hands and play their part in meeting the needs of the community. With evident gaps in healthcare for marginalized communities, I believe that community-based health interventions are an ethical approach to ensure care for marginalized communities. To ensure that a proper intervention is being crafted for these communities, it is important to define what community-based means. This paper explores four models for categorizing community-based: community as setting, target, resource, and agent. While traditional research focuses on the voice of the academic, using Community Based Participatory Research amplifies and recenters the voice of the community, while providing a means to increase their capacity, fostering agency, and promoting solidarity. This paper explores local community-based health interventions in North Philadelphia and emphasizes partnering with the community to determine their needs before creating an intervention. Using community-based interventions to increase access to healthcare for marginalized communities in tandem with existing models of healthcare, follows a utilitarian approach to ensure that the greatest number of individuals can benefit. Community-based health interventions are the most ethical approach to bringing healthcare to marginalized communities.
  • Defining Behavioral and Transcriptomic Signatures Associated with Opioid Craving in Male and Female Rats

    Wimmer, Mathieu; Bangasser, Debra; Murty, Vishnu; Briand, Lisa; Parikh, Vinay; Loweth, Jessica (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Opioid use disorder is a chronic, relapsing disease, with more than 85% of individuals experiencing a relapse episode within one year. One common reason patients relapse is due to intense cravings, which are defined as the compulsive urge to use the drug. In fact, craving was recently added to the DSM criteria for substance use disorder diagnosis. Counterintuitively, cravings intensify over the course of extended abstinence, especially in response to drug-paired cues, a phenomenon known as “incubation of craving”. This contributes to difficulty in maintaining long-term sobriety. The mesocorticolimbic reward pathway facilitates self-administration and cue-induced incubation of craving for drugs of abuse and natural rewards, such as sucrose. In particular, the shell sub-region of the nucleus accumbens is a critical brain region involved in context/cue-mediated reward seeking. In the experiments described here, we utilized an incubation of craving model, in which male and female rats self-administered opioids (morphine or heroin) or sucrose for 10 days. Sucrose served as an important control for delineating drug-induced changes from those caused in response to natural rewards, which are not the intended target of potential treatments. Reward delivery was paired with a cue light that was later used to elicit craving. After self-administration, rats underwent brief (one day) or extended (30 days) forced abstinence. One or 30 days later, they were returned to the chambers for a “cue test”, in which responses on the previously reward-associated lever triggered cue presentation, but no contingent reward. We used this model to further delineate behavioral and affective changes that accompany increased opioid craving in late abstinence, as well as molecular alterations underlying craving in rats that did not undergo a cue test. We found an opioid-specific behavioral signature in which peak opioid craving is accompanied by decreased grooming and hyperactivity in both sexes. We tracked the female estrous cycle throughout, as these fluctuations in reproductive hormones (akin to the menstrual cycle) are shown to affect cocaine- and nicotine-related behaviors. We found no differences between females in different phases of the estrous cycle in terms of self-administration, nor craving. RNA sequencing of the nucleus accumbens shell revealed robust changes in gene expression that occurred across extended abstinence, though the genes themselves were altered in a sex- and reinforcer-specific manner. In general, we found many behavioral and molecular changes that were unique to sex and reinforcer (sucrose versus opioids). This is promising in terms of identifying opioid-specific targets that are unlikely to affect the natural reward system in both sexes. Changes in gene expression in the brain are mediated in part by epigenetic processes that influence access of transcriptional machinery to DNA. Acetylation of histone tails, the proteins around which DNA is wrapped and packaged in the nucleus, have been identified as permissive marks that facilitate long-lasting changes in transcriptomics in response to environmental insults. Opioids promote increased acetylation, which may contribute to some of the reported changes here. We tested the efficacy of JQ1, a treatment that interferes with the read-out of opioid-induced acetylated marks, at attenuating heroin self-administration. When administered as an intracerebroventricular microinjection on self-administration day 11, JQ1 had no effect on subsequent heroin taking in either sex, suggesting that it may not be suitable as a systemic treatment at the dose given. These studies lay the groundwork for future studies to administer other treatments throughout abstinence, based on the opioid-specific genes and pathways identified here, to reduce cue-induced heroin craving and the accompanying suite of behaviors in males and females.
  • TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR NON-STATIONARY SIGNALS USING SPARSITY

    Zhang, Yimin D.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Obeid, Iyad; Hiremath, Shivayogi V. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Non-stationary signals, particularly frequency modulated (FM) signals which arecharacterized by their time-varying instantaneous frequencies (IFs), are fundamental to radar, sonar, radio astronomy, biomedical applications, image processing, speech processing, and wireless communications. Time-frequency (TF) analyses of such signals provide two-dimensional mapping of time-domain signals, and thus are regarded as the most preferred technique for detection, parameter estimation, analysis and utilization of such signals. In practice, these signals are often received with compressed measurements as a result of either missing samples, irregular samplings, or intentional under-sampling of the signals. These compressed measurements induce undesired noise-like artifacts in the TF representations (TFRs) of such signals. Compared to random missing data, burst missing samples present a more realistic, yet a more challenging, scenario for signal detection and parameter estimation through robust TFRs. In this dissertation, we investigated the effects of burst missing samples on different joint-variable domain representations in detail. Conventional TFRs are not designed to deal with such compressed observations. On the other hand, sparsity of such non-stationary signals in the TF domain facilitates utilization of sparse reconstruction-based methods. The limitations of conventional TF approaches and the sparsity of non-stationary signals in TF domain motivated us to develop effective TF analysis techniques that enable improved IF estimation of such signals with high resolution, mitigate undesired effects of cross terms and artifacts and achieve highly concentrated robust TFRs, which is the goal of this dissertation. In this dissertation, we developed several TF analysis techniques that achieved the aforementioned objectives. The developed methods are mainly classified into two three broad categories: iterative missing data recovery, adaptive local filtering based TF approach, and signal stationarization-based approaches. In the first category, we recovered the missing data in the instantaneous auto-correlation function (IAF) domain in conjunction with signal-adaptive TF kernels that are adopted to mitigate undesired cross-terms and preserve desired auto-terms. In these approaches, we took advantage of the fact that such non-stationary signals become stationary in the IAF domain at each time instant. In the second category, we developed a novel adaptive local filtering-based TF approach that involves local peak detection and filtering of TFRs within a window of a specified length at each time instant. The threshold for each local TF segment is adapted based on the local maximum values of the signal within that segment. This approach offers low-complexity, and is particularly useful for multi-component signals with distinct amplitude levels. Finally, we developed knowledge-based TFRs based on signal stationarization and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed TF techniques in high-resolution Doppler analysis of multipath over-the-horizon radar (OTHR) signals. This is an effective technique that enables improved target parameter estimation in OTHR operations. However, due to high proximity of these Doppler signatures in TF domain, their separation poses a challenging problem. By utilizing signal self-stationarization and ensuring IF continuity, the developed approaches show excellent performance to handle multiple signal components with variations in their amplitude levels.
  • VIVE LA RéSISTANCE: EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESISTANCE AND MANAGEMENT INNOVATION

    Guillotin, Bertrand; Anderson, Lynne M; Di Bennedetto, Anthony; Wray, Matt (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    This research examines the development of management innovation (MI) through resistance encountered in international settings. MI literature is at an embryonic stage and has been missing from the international business discipline even though it has been shown to be a sustainable competitive advantage for firms. This leads to the overarching research questions for this study: How is MI developed in international organizations? The underlying theoretical foundation is based on hybridization, which proposes mixing organizational climate and local culture creates mimicry and resistance. Resistance can be seen in adaptations of policies, practices, and procedures, also known as organizational climate. The initial study links the outcome of hybridization to the current MI process model. The second study delves into the attributes associated with resistance being converted to MI. These empirical studies show MI being created through resistance in international settings and lay the groundwork for additional discoveries. The methodological approach for these studies is nontraditional. The first study was a qualitative deductive case study with analysis including a priori coding, thematic analysis, and pattern matching. The results supported the proposition that resistance, through hybridization, can create MI in international organizations. Building on the initial findings, the second study used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), which goes beyond linear regression analysis, to identify combinations of attributes that result in MI. Theoretical cues from innovation and cross-cultural literature were referenced to select relevant conditions. The study setting was not a private firm but instead the U.S. Department of State (DOS). The data was composed of reports generated through qualitative methods by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) at 15 large embassies and consulates. This unique data source provides a plethora of rich context and a glimpse into the black box of resistance. The results of both findings contribute to the fledgling MI literature and create additional interdisciplinary research avenues. The theoretical contribution extends hybridization theory beyond simplistic outcomes of mimicry and resistance and further links it to the MI process and the creation model. This study also contributes to methodology literature since the methods of both studies are still scarce in business studies. The empirical findings build on proposed theories and bolster the methodological approaches. Practitioners will also find the results useful and operational. These findings support shifting the view of resistance as merely tolerated or as an obstacle to overcome, to a possible competitive advantage in developing MI. The overarching goal is to encourage a renewed look at resistance so that scholars and managers will embrace the forgotten view of “Vive la Résistance.”
  • Social Impact Program Evaluation

    Hill, TL; Andersson, Lynne M; Wray, Matt; Zinn, Jacqueline S (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Inadequate public and grant funding often inhibits social service agencies from covering all of their program participant and agency needs. Compounding this problem, funders now have greater expectations that agencies demonstrate a return on investment, document their success, and demonstrate benefits to the community. This has led agencies to seek or develop more effective tools to evaluate program impact. In this study, I drew from the literature a proposed approach of social impact measurement that was applied as a four-step blueprint for social impact program evaluation, also referred to as “blueprint” later in the study, in order to demonstrate greater effectiveness of program goals and outcomes, justify current and future funding needs, and ultimately validate social impact. My first and second studies explored 1) the usefulness of a new approach for identifying and quantifying the impact of social service programs and 2) the pros and cons of involving stakeholders throughout the social impact measurement process, and whether stakeholder involvement substantially changed the process and results. My third study further explored the social impact measurement process with additional consideration emphasizing funders and policy advocates as stakeholders and investigated their impressions and influence on the measurement process. This social impact measurement approach consists of four steps: applying the Theory of Change to assist with appropriately identifying the program’s long-term goals; initiating a Logic Model to improve the connection between inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact with the long-term goals; designing an Impact Measurement analysis to connect the specific outcomes with the intrinsic value each outcome creates for the well-being of the program participants; and the involvement of stakeholders throughout the impact-oriented program evaluation process to utilize published and program-specific evaluation studies to calculate the Social Return on Investment. To learn more about the potential and pitfalls of the proposed four-step model of social impact measurement, I partially applied this model to one program at my organization, the Philadelphia Corporation for Aging, for my first study. Following the application of the proposed blueprint at my organization, challenges emerged related to the lack of stakeholder involvement, which led to the inclusion of stakeholders in the blueprint application for my second study. Practitioner literature suggests that involving stakeholders in every step of impact-oriented program evaluation will strengthen the quality of the Impact Measurement. Utilizing action research, I sought to understand this contention by comparing levels of stakeholder involvement across programs and different organizations to explore the ways in which stakeholder involvement might help or hinder Impact Measurement. The results suggest that exclusively relying on homogeneous workgroups to provide deeper insights regarding program impact to the community, or solely relying on external stakeholders that lack the micro-level nuances of the program processes and procedures, does not lead to well-rounded social impact measurement. However, combining internal and external stakeholders in a workgroup seems to provide the best and most consistent path to effective social impact measurement by diversifying perspectives and leading to the development and application of metrics that are both reflective of community impact and practical to track. My third study focused on gaining additional insights regarding the usefulness of engaging funders and policy advocates in the design and implementation of the social impact measurement model and the usefulness of a new approach for identifying and quantifying the impact of social service programs. For this stage of my study, semi-structured interviews were completed with leadership from State Units on Aging throughout the nation with differing demographic compositions. Additional interviewees included leaders from the Aging Network with a broad perspective of the Area Agency on Aging (AAA) Network including an executive from a key trade association, a former cabinet level staff member within a former Governor’s administration, and key leaders from managed long-term service and support system payors in different states. To better understand the influence of funders as stakeholders, the Resource Dependence Theory, highlighting the delicate balance of power between funders and recipient organizations (Hung, C., and Berrett, J., 2021), and strategies used in the acquisition of resources, was further explored (Klein, L. L. and Diniz Pereira, B. A., 2016). While several challenges were presented regarding why impact measurement strategies have not progressed further, progress was noted when leadership identified successful strategies utilized by other industries or government agencies, or when they sought individuals with specific skillsets to strengthen their internal processes. Many of these strategies were possible due to the support of leadership and the addition of requisite state resources. However, the additional resources would often avoid duplicating resources that funders were initiating, and strategies would be considered if they did not significantly challenge funders or jeopardize funding. My study contributions include combining existing theoretical concepts into a proposed four-step blueprint for social impact program evaluation that focused on impact and outcomes for study one, which was further refined with the addition of stakeholders in study two, and study three continued to explore the role that stakeholders, including influential ones like funders, played in developing and applying social impact measurement tools. Additionally, study three further contributes to Resource Dependence Theory research by further assessing the balance of power between organizations and the leveraging of stakeholder partnerships to acquire resources from the external environment to minimize the dependence on funders. Strengthening the social impact measurement alignment between funders and funding recipients has the capacity to improve the consistency in the Impact Measurement processes. Utilizing the strategies from this study provides a pathway to align policies and procedures between funders and funding recipients; encourage the transition from measuring outputs to outcomes; lead to collaboration that increases organizational resources from external sources, which aids the balance of power between funding and funding recipient and minimizes dependence; and provides a potential for a replicable tool that can be used nation-wide and across different types of social service agencies.
  • A Concave Pairwise Fusion Approach to Clustering of Multi-Response Regression and Its Robust Extensions

    Dong, Yuexiao; Tang, Cheng Yong; Chitturi, Pallavi; Shen, CenCheng (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Solution-path convex clustering is combined with concave penalties by Ma and Huang (2017) to reduce clustering bias. Their method was introduced in the setting of single-response regression to handle heterogeneity. Such heterogeneity may come from either the regression intercepts or the regression slopes. The procedure, realized by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm, can simultaneously identify the grouping structure of observations and estimate regression coefficients. In the first part of our work, we extend this procedure to multi-response regression. We propose models to solve cases with heterogeneity in either the regression intercepts or the regression slopes. We combine the existing gadgets of the ADMM algorithm and group-wise concave penalties to find solutions for the model. Our work improves model performance in both clustering accuracy and estimation accuracy. We also demonstrate the necessity of such extension through the fact that by utilizing information in multi-dimensional space, the performance can be greatly improved. In the second part, we introduce robust solutions to our proposed work. We introduce two approaches to handle outliers or long-tail distributions. The first is to replace the squared loss with robust loss, among which are absolute loss and Huber loss. The second is to characterize and remove outliers' effects by a mean-shift vector. We demonstrate that these robust solutions outperform the squared loss based method when outliers are present, or the underlying distribution is long-tailed.
  • Redefining scheduling guidelines: a research protocol for testing the feasibility and impact of the revised patient scheduling guideline on patient-centered care and overall efficiency of dental clinics

    Ogwo, Chukwuebuka; Ogwo, Chukwuebuka; Dipede, Louis; Hossaini, Mehran (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    The dental health care system has long been challenged with defining the levels of care to create an accurate and reliable method for triaging patients. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the demand for organized care. As a response, the American Dental Association (ADA) developed one of its first authorized protocols on how to schedule patients according to their ailments. Despite this report, no known guidelines have been found that facilitate systematized patient triage within dental health care settings. In the climate of today’s health care system especially, it is imperative to implement a methodical approach to effectively predicting the need for emergent, urgent, or elective care. The goal of this Capstone Project is to develop a scheduling guideline for the triage of dental patients and a research protocol for testing the guideline.
  • Music Therapy to Facilitate Relationship Completion for Patients and Families at the End of Life: A Mixed Methods Study

    Shoemark, Helen; Magee, Wendy; Zanders, Michael; Reynolds, Alison (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Under the influence of Confucianism, Taiwanese people have always emphasized family values as an essential culture. The concept of relationship completion (Byock, 1996) was embodied as the core belief for end-of-life care in Taiwan, known as the Four Expressions in Life: Love, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Farewell. The palliative care team in Taiwan advocates the Four Expressions in Life to help patients at the end of life strengthen bonds with their families. However, the traditional and conservative culture in Taiwan often impedes relationship completion. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy to facilitate relationship completion for patients at the end of life and their families, and to understand the perceptions of patients at the end of life and families about their relationship completion during music therapy. This study took a further step in exploring how the perceptions of patients at the end of life, and their families about their relationship completion during music therapy helped to explain the effects of music therapy intervention.This study employed a convergent mixed methods design in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected in parallel stages, analyzed separately, and then the findings were merged. For the quantitative phase, a convenience sample of 34 patients at end-of-life care at a large teaching hospital in southern Taiwan and 36 of their family members were recruited in a single music therapy intervention with a one-group pretest-posttest design. Measures included the “Life Completion” subscales of the Quality of Life at the End of Life (QUAL–E) survey and a single-item global QoL indicator for patients as well as the QUAL-E (Fam) survey and a question of Overall Quality of Life for family members. In the qualitative phase, a nested sample of five patients and nine family members completed the semi-structured interviews about their experiences of the music therapy sessions. There were significant differences (p<.001) between the pre and post session scores for the Life Completion subscale of the QUAL-E and between pre-post scores for the global QoL Indicator for patient participants. The results also showed a significant difference (p<.001) in the scores for the Completion subscale of the QUAL-E (family) and a significant difference (p<.001) in the scores for Overall Quality of Life for families from before music therapy session to after music therapy session. Four themes emerged from the qualitative results: music therapy provides the opportunity for exploration, music therapy provides the opportunity for connection, music therapy provides the opportunity for expression, and music therapy provides the opportunity for healing. The integrated findings suggested that music therapy facilitated relationship completion and improved quality of life for both patients and their families. The use of songs in music psychotherapy had a significant contribution to relationship completion. Song interventions can accommodate a patient's physical weakness and life-limiting obstacles at the very end of life to achieve the ultimate goal to improve quality of life, by assisting relationship completion. The results suggested that the transformative level of music therapy within a single session for end-of-life care in Taiwan is both feasible and culturally acceptable.
  • Testing Challenges of Mobile Augmented Reality Systems

    Tan, Chiu C; Ling, Haibin; Bai, Li; Payton, Jamie (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Augmented reality systems are ones which insert virtual content into a user’s view of the real world, in response to environmental conditions and the user’s behavior within that environment. This virtual content can take the form of visual elements such as 2D labels or 3D models, auditory cues, or even haptics; content is generated and updated based on user behavior and environmental conditions, such as the user’s location, movement patterns, and the results of computer vision or machine learning operations. AR systems are used to solve problems in a range of domains, from tourism and retail, education and healthcare, to industry and entertainment. For example, apps from Lowe’s [82] and Houzz [81] support retail transactions by scanning a user’s environment and placing product models into the space, thus allowing the user to preview what the product might look like in her home. AR systems have also proven helpful in such areas as aiding industrial assembly tasks [155, 175], helping users overcome phobias [35], and reviving interest in cultural heritage sites [163]. Mobile AR systems are ones which run on portable handheld or wearable devices, such that the user is free to move around their environment without restric- tion. Examples of such devices include smartphones, tablets, and head-mounted dis- plays. This freedom of movement and usage, in combination with the application’s reliance on computer vision and machine learning logic to provide core function- ality, make mobile AR applications very difficult to test. In addition, as demand and prevalence of machine learning logic increases, the availability and power of commercially available third-party vision libraries introduces new and easy ways for developers to violate usability and end-user privacy. The goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to understand and mitigate the challenges involved in testing mobile AR systems, given the capabilities of today’s commercially available vision and machine learning libraries. We consider three related challenge areas: application behavior during unconstrained usage conditions, general usability, and end-user privacy. To address these challenge areas, we present three research efforts. The first presents a framework for collecting application performance and usability data in the wild. The second explores how commercial vision libraries can be exploited to conduct machine learning operations without user knowledge. The third presents a framework for leveraging the environment itself to enforce privacy and access control policies for mobile AR applications.
  • Electromagnetic Form Factors and their Interpretation

    Metz, Andreas; Constantinou, Martha; Surrow, Bernd (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    The electromagnetic form factors in elastic electron-proton scattering are used to determine the finite size of the proton. Through the use of Feynman Diagrams and Fermi's "golden rule", several key results for cross sections of elastic electron scattering will be re-derived. This will ultimately lead to the calculation for the Rosenbluth formula, that describes in detail the process of electron-proton scattering. Furthermore, the process used for determining the size of the proton from the form factors will be shown. In addition, a recent paper by R. Jaffe, which argues the validity of this process, will be discussed in detail.
  • THE POWER OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS: THREE ESSAYS INVESTIGATING THEIR INFLUENCE ON EXPERIENCE MEMORABILITY AND TOURIST BEHAVIOR

    Li, Xiang (Robert); Ok, Chihyung (Michael); Lu, Lu; Venkatraman, Vinod (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Through three standalone essays, this dissertation addresses the current gap in tourism and hospitality literature on negative emotions. Existing literature prioritizes positive emotions over negative emotions (Nawijn & Biran, 2019) even though tourists experience both types of emotions in their consumption of tourism and hospitality services. Moreover, a theoretical understanding of negative emotions is not as simple as dichotomizing findings regarding positive emotions as both emotion types are theoretically distinct (Taylor, 1991) and hence, warrants further investigation. Essay 1 focuses on negative memorable tourism experiences. It employed an exploratory, mixed-methods approach towards the understanding of negative MTEs by identifying their accompanying range of negative emotions, associated contexts of occurrence and relevant emotion appraisal criteria. Data utilized included online user-generated contents crawled from Reddit.com and survey responses collected via qualitative and quantitative survey questions. Essay 2 examines tourists’ emotional and behavioral responses to different types of hotel crises. In conceptualizing how tourists react to crises, essay 2 presumed the central role of crisis typology. It built upon brand harm literature to conceptualize and validate a model that incorporated (i) negative emotions and tourist attitude as parallel mediators of the relationship between crisis typology and behavioral intentions of tourists, and (ii) Schwartz’s (2012) personal values of hedonism and universalism as potential moderators. Results of an online experiment demonstrate that both negative emotions and tourist attitude significantly influence the relationship between crisis typology and behavioral intentions; however, only universalism significantly moderated the same relationship. With essay 1 demonstrating that negative emotions are remembered and essay 2 revealing the influence of negative emotions on tourist behavior, essay 3 evaluated the efficacy of emotion regulation strategies that tourists use to manage anger and fear while vacationing. Two emotion regulation strategies – i.e. reappraisal and suppression, each of which relate to specific steps in Gross’ five-step emotion generation process (Gross, 1998) – were assessed through five online experiments utilizing video and text stimuli. The first set of experiments was conducted within the context of destination crowding and then replicated via tourist harassment. Results across both contexts are consistent. Within-subject analysis revealed the efficacy of different emotion regulation strategies in improving subjective well-being: reappraisal (vs. suppression) significantly decreased (vs. increased) the intensity of anger and fear felt. Similar outcomes are noted in assessing tourists’ behavioral tendency with reappraisal (vs. suppression) significantly moderating the relationship between anger/fear and negative word-of-mouth such that the relationship is weaker (vs. stronger). Notably, both emotion regulation strategies did not moderate the relationship between fear and revisit intention.
  • ASSESSING L2 CHINESE LISTENING USING AUTHENTICATED SPOKEN TEXTS

    Wagner, Elvis; Toth, Paul; Liu, Di; Cai, Wei (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    This dissertation study explored the feasibility of using authenticated spoken texts to test L2 Chinese listening comprehension. The spoken texts used in the study were created using an “authenticating” technique, in which scripted spoken Chinese texts were infused with characteristics of real-world, unscripted spoken Chinese. In the first part of the study, 101 “naïve” L1 Chinese speakers reported their attitudes toward various characteristics of the scripted spoken texts and the authenticated spoken texts in a survey questionnaire. Comparisons of the L1 Chinese participants’ attitudes showed that they believed that the authenticated spoken texts were more authentic-sounding than the scripted texts in every measure. This indicates that the authenticity of scripted spoken texts normally used in L2 listening tests can be enhanced by using the text authentication technique. In the second part of the study, L2 listeners’ test performance and listening and test-taking processes during the post-test were examined. For the quantitative data, 184 intermediate and advanced adult L2 Chinese learners completed two listening tests (one pre-test assessing their listening proficiency and one post-test) and questionnaires tapping into their use of listening strategies and test-taking strategies. For the qualitative data, stimulated verbal recalls and verbal reports were employed to elicit another 16 L2 listeners’ verbalizations of their listening and test-taking processes. The comparison of the test scores showed that the listening test using authenticated spoken text as listening input was significantly more difficult than the same test using scripted spoken texts. The comparisons of the questionnaire results showed that the test-takers did not differ in their use of listening strategies and test-taking strategies. Aligned with the quantitative results, the verbal recalls showed that the two groups, despite hearing spoken texts with different degrees of scriptedness, did not adjust their use of listening strategies and test-taking strategies. However, the authenticated spoken texts elicited a greater reliance on lower-level processes compared to the scripted spoken texts. The last part of the study involving the same 16 L2 qualitative participants investigated text-related sources of bottom-up listening difficulties of the two experimental groups through a series of diagnostic listening procedures using L2 oral and written (typing) repetition tasks. It was found that, first, compared to the scripted group, the authenticated group had more phonological decoding difficulties due to connected speech; second, even though the authenticated group had more word segmentation difficulties, this type of listening difficulty seemed to be less severe for both groups compared to the difficulty of phonological decoding; and third, other features commonly found in unscripted spoken Chinese such as filled pauses and false starts did not seem to greatly impede participants’ bottom-up listening processes. The results from the three parts of the study and my experience creating authenticated spoken texts suggest that L2 Chinese test developers should include at least some authenticated spoken texts in their listening tests, because (a) they are more “authentic-sounding”; (b) high-proficiency L2 listeners with extensive Chinese second language learning experiences find them harder to comprehend than scripted texts; and (c) they elicit cognitive processes that better represent the processes in real-world listening. Additional practical and theoretical implications pertinent to test development and L2 Chinese listening instruction are also provided.

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