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Recent Submissions

  • Mantle-Derived Basanite Features And Their Inclusions From The North Rim Of The Grand Canyon National Monument, Arizona

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1989)
    Over one hundred and fifty basanite features are located in a 12.1 square kilometer (4.73 square mile) area on the north rim of the Grand Canyon National Monument, at the southern edge of the Toroweap Valley. Thirty-six of these were analyzed to determine their origin. The features, previously described as "Pressure blisters" (Hamblin and Best, 1970), are believed to be direct mantle orifices that have erupted under an ash or lava cover. Green and red colored peridotite xenoliths of varying dimensions are found enclosed within these features on the Toroweap Valley as well as on the adjacent cinder cone Vulcan's Throne. The unique red coloring, observed primarily in forsteritic olivine (Fo90-92), is believed to be a result of precipitation of a ferric rich phase within individual olivine grains. Results obtained from a theoretical single-pyroxene geothermobarometer (Mercier, 1980) suggest pressures of at least 15 kilobars and temperatures of at least 940°C, corresponding to a depth of origin of at least 52 kilometers for the Toroweap Valley features. A genetic model developed suggests that the basanite lava carrying green colored olivine originated from a magma chamber at least 52 kilometers below the ground surface, transected a shallower magma chamber in which red colored xenoliths are suspended and punctured the crust in the Toroweap Valley.
  • A Study Of The Hydrothermal Stability Of Copper For Use As A Container Material For Nuclear Waste At The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 1988)
    The hydrothermal stability of copper has been studied to assess its suitability as a container material for disposal of nuclear waste in the proposed repository site at Hanford, Wa. The experiments were conducted using titanium reaction cells at 200° and 300°C, 30 MPa, using Dickson rocking autoclaves for up to 3000 hours. Three of the experiments contained a quartz normative Columbia River Basalt (RCE-3), synthetic low salinity groundwater (ca. 400 mg/L Cl-), and "purified" copper powder. The results of these experiments prompted a fourth to determine the suitability of titanium as a reaction cell. The results of the copper bearing experiments suggest that: (1) the use of copper as a container material would not significantly alter basalt-water reactions in the short term; (2) care should be taken to minimize oxygen contamination of the copper as this could adversely affect the redox conditions in the repository; (3) copper does not appear to affect the solution pH although any small changes would have been masked by reactions with the titanium reaction cell. The data from the titanium cell experiment showed significant differences (in comparison to similar previous gold cell experiments) in calculated high temperature pH values and dissolved sulfide concentrations; chloride concentrations were also slightly different. The results of this experiment suggest that titanium is not inert and should probably not be used in experiments containing low ionic strength solutions.
  • The Origin And Implication Of The Steep Gravity Gradient In The Vicinity Of The Martic Zone, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Hill, Mary Louise (Temple University. Libraries, 1987)
    A long, narrow, straight belt of closely spaced Bouguer gravity contours and lithologic boundaries coincides with the Martic shear zone, southeastern Pennsylvania. The most likely cause of the steep gravity gradient is sought by checking the influence of the density of surface lithologies, mass distribution associated with the topography, and the isostacy model. 15-20 km difference in crustal thickness across the Martic Zone is calculated using Sharma's data and maximum depth equation. Based on a shear zone geometry, gravity anomaly parallelism, and crustal thickness contrast, the Martic Zone is proposed to be the western boundary of the Piedmont terrane. The Martic Zone is compared with other areas such as the San Andreas Fault and the Alpine Fault to evaluate possible plate boundary features. This tectonic interpretation of the Martic Zone may contribute to a new view on the central Appalachian orogenic belt.
  • Stratigraphic Analysis Of The Lower New Scotland Formation: An Episodic Perspective

    Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939-; Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1987)
    Application of the PAC Hypothesis to the deep shelf carbonate facies of the lower New Scotland Formation (Lower Devonian) results in the complete division of this interval into IO PACs that may be correlated throughout the Hudson Valley of Eastern New York State. These deep water PACs primarily consist of terrigenous black shale alternating with limestone beds, the black shale being concentrated at the bases of PACs. Sedimentological analysis suggests that the shales represent "background" deposition of fine suspended sediment and the limestones are event deposits, possibly turbidites and/or tempestites. In contrast to PACs recognized in much shallower facies, a shallowing-upward motif is absent in lower New Scotland PACs. The absence of a shallowing facies pattern suggests that abrupt base-level rises had little direct depth related impact on the deep lower New Scotland shelf. Instead facies change within these PACs was an indirect response related to the supply of transported carbonate sediment into the deep shelf. Comparative analysis of the magnitude of facies change at the base of each lower New Scotland PAC indicates that the sequence of PACs in the study interval is the result of 1 major punctuation event followed by 10 minor punctuation events. General vertical patterns of facies change from PAC to PAC suggest that the deepest point in the lower New Scotland is reached at the base of PAC 7. Lateral facies analysis within PACs leads to the recognition of a proximal to distal trend from Kingston to Callanan Quarry (south to north), a distance of approximately 50 miles. Lower New Scotland PACs at Kingston are characterized by relatively shallower facies, while at Callanan Quarry, these PACs are characterized by deeper, more basinal facies. The lateral persistence of the 10 New Scotland deep water PACs over 50 miles precludes an autogenic origin of these cycles. Rather, accumulation of the deep shelf facies of the lower New Scotland, like the shallower facies of the Kalkberg, Coeymans, and Manlius Formations was principally controlled by small-scale base-level fluctuations as predicted by the PAC hypothesis.
  • Hydrothermal Reaction Of Groundwater Witgh Basalt From The Entablature Of The Cohassett Flow, Grande Ronde Formation, Hanford, Washington: The Effect Of The Introduction Of Fresh Solution To The System At 200 Degrees And 300 Degrees Celsius, And 30 MPA

    Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 1988)
    Basalt from the Cohassett flow of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Southeast Washington) was reacted with synthetic Hanford groundwater in Dickson rocking autoclaves at 200° and 300°C, 30 MPa, with initial water:rock mass ratios of 50. During the experiments fresh solutions were re-injected into the reaction cells using a high-pressure chromatography pump. The re-injection experiments are intermediate between closed-system Dickson experiments and flow-through tests in that the fluid and solids can remain in contact for extended periods of time before the solution is replaced. This allows more time for equilibrium to be approached. Data from these experiments suggest the following interpretations: (1) After re-injection many solution parameters quickly (hrs-days) return to near pre-injection values. (2) The redox buffer capacity of the basalt was not exceeded, i.e. fO2 values remained near magnetite-hematite, although nominal water:rock mass ratios as high as ca. 140 were achieved by re-injection. (3) After re-injection the stable high-temperature pH value was only slightly less than the initial pH value, particularly at 300°C. (4) The silica concentration stabilized near apparent quartz saturation in one 300°C experiment, rather than the cristobalite saturation value found in closed-system experiments. (5) Ca­Na-K, quartz, and alpha-cristobalite geothermometer values from the re-injection experiments more closely model the actual experiment temperature than do values from closed­ system Dickson experiments. (6) Short-term relationships between cations appeared to be controlled by ion-exchange between the solutions and secondary clay minerals. Reaction products identified from the re-injection experiments include: Fe-smectite, illite, hematite, very minor cristobalite and possibly Ti-maghemite at 300°C, plus K-spar and analcime in 200°C and variable temperature (300° to 200°C) experiments.
  • The Geometry And Conditions Of Deformation Of The Rosemont Shear Zone, Southeastern Pennsylvania Piedmont

    Hill, Mary Louise; Goodwin, Peter W.; Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 1988)
    Re-examination of the Rosemont Fault (southeast Pennsylvania Piedmont) using the ductile shear zone approach reveals a large (1.5-3.0 km wise) ductile shear zone. The Rosemont shear zone strikes parallel to the Rosemont fault line (N30-40°E) and is moderate to steeply dipping. Numerous perpendicular transects across the Rosemont zone reveal a complex geometry. Unlike a classic tabular-shaped shear zone the boundaries of the Rosemont zone are not parallel. The eastern boundary strikes approximately N35°E and is very steeply dipping (70-90°E) while the western boundary has a similar strike but a variable dip between 40-60°E. In cross-section the Rosemont zone has a semi-wedge shape that widens in the upward direction. The variability i the horizontal width of the zone as well as the orientations of the boundaries are most likely the result of large competency difference between different lithologies associated with the Rosemont zone. Consistent dextral shear sense was determined using 1) asymmetric tails around porphyroclasts in thin-section, 2) numerous small (meter scale) parasitic shear zones with obvious right lateral displacement, and 3) dextral transposition of earlier structures into the zone as seen on the regional scale. Correlation of a sliver of mafic gneiss with the Wilmington Complex supports a model of dextral displacement with a minimum offset of 20 kilometers. Six phases of deformation were recognized. The first phase was a postulated overthrusting of the Wilmington Complex onto the Wissahickon Group. This thrusting event was followed by four phases of transcurrent ductile shearing and finally a weak phase of reverse ductile displacement possibly as a result of uplift. Retrodeformation of the largest ductile structures (phase 5: Martic zone; phase 3: Rosemont zone) suggests that the Baltimore Gneiss was once adjacent to the Wilmington Complex.
  • Punctuated Aggradational Cycles And Their Stratigraphic Implications In The Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian Carbonate Sequence (Tonoloway And Keyser Formations) In Central Pennsylvania

    Goodwin, Peter W.; Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939- (Temple University. Libraries, 1986)
    An application of the Hypothesis of Punctuated Aggradational Cycles to the Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian carbonate sequence (Tonoloway and Keyser formations) at seven localities in central Pennsylvania reveals that the interval is entirely divisible into as many as 22 PACs which are correlative throughout the study area. Of these 22 PACs, 5 groups of PACs of similar facies are recognized in the interval. These groups of PACs are initiated and terminated by major deepening events which produce the primary surfaces of correlation in the interval. Paleoenvironments develop episodically throughout the interval, each punctuation event initiating and terminating a unique spectrum of small-scale environments. The Tonoloway portion of the interval represents a sequence of tidal-flat PACs. The transition to the shelf environments of the Lower Keyser Formation occurs episodically through 2 PACs consisting of nearshore, subtidal facies. The Upper Keyser is a shallowing sequence of PACs representing the episodic return from shelf to tidal-flat facies. Correlations reveal that as much as 13.5 meters of stratigraphic section, representing seven PACs, is missing at the Tonoloway-Keyser formation boundary at Tyrone, Pennsylvania. This missing section is interpreted to be the result of non-deposition because of differential uplift to the north of a proposed crustal-block boundary, represented by the Tyrone-Mt. Union lineament, while the basin to the south was differentially subsiding and PACs 1-7 were being deposited. Recognition of two paleoisotopographic surfaces (sea-level surfaces) at the base of PAC 1 and the top of PAC 22 facilitates the discernment of 17.5 meters of stratigraphic thickness difference attributable to differential subsidence between Tyrone and Cessna, Pennsylvania.
  • A PAC Analysis Of The Manlius-Coeymans Formational Boundary Helderberg Group Of New York State

    Goodwin, Peter W.; Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939- (Temple University. Libraries, 1985)
    Application of the PAC hypothesis to the Thacher Member of the Manlius Formation has resulted in its di­vision into eleven correlative PACs, shallowing-upward cycles produced by sedimentary aggradation following rap­id episodic base-level rises. The eleven Thacher PACs are organized into two sequence so Manlius PACs 1-5 contain predominantly intertidal facies; Manlius PACs 6-11 are comprised mainly of subtidal and supratidal facies. These sequences are discernible at all locali­ties in the Hudson Valley and central New York State. This study demonstrates that certain distinctive facies found in PACs of the upper Thacher sequence de­veloped laterally persistent horizons, an observation made earlier by Rickard (1962), The PAC 8 algal laminite horizon, which corresponds to the waterlime datum of Rickard (1962, figure 2), provides the primary time and environmental datum for the upper Thacher PAC sequence. Correlation of upper Thacher PACs demonstrates that the Manlius-Coeymans formational contact is unconformable. in eastern New York State. The thickness of section and number of PACs in the upper Thacher decreases progressively from west to east. Erosion responsible for the missing section and PACs is attributed to differential tectonic uplift of the eastern basin margin prior to any Coeymans deposition.
  • A Study Of the Petrography, phase Chemistry, Volatile Inclusions And Intrinsic Oxygen Fugacity Of Composite Group II Ultramafic Xenoliths From San Carlos Arizona

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1984)
    Composite ultramafic xenoliths were collected at Peridot Mesa, San Carlos, Arizona. These nodules were analyzed petrographically, by electron microprobe, and for intrinsic oxygen fugacity (IOF). Textures proved to be transitional between those of igneous and those of metamorphic petrogenetic environments. Phase chemistry interpretations were not totally consistent with either igneous or metamorphic models of formation. IOF data could not be used to unravel equilibrium relationships between solid phases, but were overprinted by reactions with volatiles contained in the minerals, chiefly CO2. These results indicate that the nodules were derived from a complex upper-mantle source region characterized by multi-phase igneous events with important intervening, probably sub-solidus, i.e. metamorphic, reactions between phases.
  • Intrinsic Oxygen Fugacities Of Some Inclusions From The Allende Carbonaceous Chondrite, A Primitive Meteorite

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1987)
    The redox states of phases in primitive meteorites provide constraints for the composition of the early nebu­lar gas in which the planets and asteroids formed. The bulk composition nebula from solar spectra abundances and equilibrium condensation theory predicts that oxygen was bound up in CO at high temperatures so that the H2/H20 ratios of the early solar nebula were high (100-2000) and thus the nebular gas was very reducing. Equilibrium calcu­lations and experimental extrapolations of fO2-composition equilibria for primitive, Ca, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) and chondrule phases in the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite show a range of oxidation states, with fassaite, a Ti-rich clinopyroxene, possibly equilibrating with the inferred reduced nebular gas while other phases and components equilibrated with more oxidized gases, 1 to 4 orders of magnitude more oxidized than the inferred, reduced nebular gas. Intrinsic oxygen fugacity (IOF) measurements using the double-cell, solid electrolyte technique developed by Sato (1971) and modified by Ulmer et al., (1976) were taken for whole rock samples of one olivine porphyry and two CAI in the Allende meteorite at temperatures of 800°to 1150° C. Results show their oxidation states to be 5-8 orders of magnitude more oxidized than the inferred nebu­lar gas at these temperatures. Melilite separates from the two CAI gave IOF measurements 8-10 orders of magnitude more oxidized than the calculated, reduced nebular gas and act as a strong oxidation buffer to the redox state of Ti3+-rich fassaite in the whole rock samples. The high oxidation state of melilite is due to its equilibration at high temperatures (>700°C) with a relatively oxidized gas and is also due to its high oxygen exchange and diffusion rates (Hayashi and Muelenbachs, 1986). IOF measurements of fine-grained alteration mineral clumps in one CAI yield an oxidation state more oxidized than the whole rock CAI IOF but more reduced than melilite from the same CAI. IOF measurements show that melilite and alteration minerals are in disequilibrium with respect to fO2 yet these phases are close to equilibrium with respect to oxygen isotope composition. CAI alteration minerals have cores of a Ti­rich phase which is reduced and inferred to be fassaite. IOF experiment results indicate either heterogeneity in the composition of the nebula across time and/or space or disequilibrium between primitive material and the nebu­lar gas.
  • Analysis Of The Distribution Of Pump Discharge In A Two Aquifer Groundwater System Via Mathematical Models With Application To A Study Area In Pennsylvania

    Adams, John K., 1939- (Temple University. Libraries, 1986)
    The determination of the aquifer parameters of transmissivity and storativity from pump test data of a two layer confined aquifer system is not possible due to the indeterminacy of the discharge from each aquifer to the pumping well bore. To resolve this theoretical problem and analyze pump test data from a groundwater system in the Triassic Brunswick Formation of northeastern Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, the Darcy Weisbach model of turbulent flow in pipes or conduits was coupled with the Theis model of confined aquifer flow to produce a mathematical model that simulates the distribution of discharge within a pumping well bore and the accompanying distribution of hydraulic head throughout the two aquifer layers. Two analytic models and one finite difference model were developed, tested and applied to the analysis of the study area pump test data. Analysis of the models showed that approximations of the transmissivities of the two aquifer layers could be determined from pump test data via a method similar to the Jacob straight line method. The models demonstrated that the distribution of discharge between the two aquifer layers is a variable function of time, that the change in the distribution of discharge over time is small in reference to the initial distribution and decreases in magnitude over time. Model simulation runs based on the transmissivity (T) calculation and a range of storativities (S) and boundary conditions yielded a good fit to pump test drawdown data for lower aquifer layer values of 4900 gal/ft/day (T) and 5.SE-6 (S) and upper aquifer layer values of 400 gal/ft/day (T) and lE-4 (S), plus a single barrier boundary in the lower aquifer located 2500 feet updip from the pumping well. The simulation results provide theoretical evidence in support of the interpretation of the study area groundwater system as a two layer system. The models demonstrated theoretically that two layer aquifer systems can produce distributions of drawdown data in observation wells that appear to evidence non-Theisian conditions, though in fact the individual layers are Theisian aquifers. As such, pump test data from Triassic Brunswick aquifers that exhibit non-Theisian distributions of drawdown may result from the distribution of pump discharge within the pumping well bore to vertically separated Theisian aquifer layers.
  • Determination Of Groundwater Recharge To The Triassic Brunswick Formation Of Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Adams, John K., 1939- (Temple University. Libraries, 1986)
    The Triassic Brunswick Formation is an important aquifer in south­eastern Pennsylvania and northern and central New Jersey, an area where rapid development is producing increased groundwater use. In order to prevent groundwater mining, it is necessary to have knowledge of the rate of groundwater recharge. Based on streamflow data during periods of baseflow recession, Moody and Associates, Inc. (1975) estimated the average annual recharge rate for the Brunswick Formation to be between 300,000 and 400,000 gallons/day/square mile. In this study the groundwater recharge rate for the Brunswick Forma­tion was calculated by the baseflow recession and hydrologic budget methods using streamflow and climatic data from three small water­sheds. The baseflow recession method yielded annual groundwater recharge rates which ranged from 441,000 gallons/day/square mile to 663,000 gallons/day/square mile. Annual groundwater recharge rates calculated using the hydrologic budget method ranged from 321,000 gallons/day/square mile to 424,000 gallons/day/square mile. Based on the results of both methods, the average annual recharge rate is 447,000 gallons/day/square mile. Although the baseflow recession method yielded reasonable annual recharge rates, it does not produce accurate results for shorter time periods. Monthly groundwater recharge rates calculated using the hydrologic budget are much more representative of actual seasonal variations than those calculated using the baseflow recession method. The primary advantage of the baseflow recession method is that it is simpler to use and requires much less data. The results of this study illustrate that groundwater recharge is controlled by both the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and climatic conditions. During the winter months, when there is a precipitation excess, the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer determine the maximum potential recharge rate. However, during the summer months when there is less precipitation and greater evapotranspiration, the maximum potential recharge rate is not attained.
  • Stratigraphic Analysis Of The Binnewater Sandstone: An Episodic Perspective

    Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939-; Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1984)
    Application of the Hypothesis of Punctuated Aggradational Cycles to the stratigraphic analysis of the Binnewater Sandstone in southeast­ern New York reveals that the formation was deposited as a sequence of PACs (thin shallowing-upward cycles) in response to a series of six small-scale transgressive episodes. Each successive transgression ex­tended farther to the northeast resulting in an onlapping sequence which is conformable with the High Falls Formation to the southwest and unconformable with the Ordovician Normanskill Formation to the northeast. Within the study area the Binnewater Sandstone sequence is unconforma­bly overlain by the Rondout Formation. At each locality the Binnewater Sandstone consists of PACs repres­enting nearshore, shallow subtidal to high intertidal elastic paleo­environments. These PACs are laterally traceable and can be correlated amongst localities. To the southwest at High Falls the sequence consists of six PACs; to the northeast at South Wilbur the sequence is much thinner because only the third and fourth PACs in the sequence were deposited and preserved. That is, deposition did not begin in the northeast until the area was inundated by the third transgressive event. Then, following deposition of PACs 4, 5 and 6, the sequence was differentially truncated by erosion which eliminated PACs 5 and 6 at Wilbur. Following erosion of the Binnewater sequence the resulting erosional surface was flooded throughout the area by the first Rondout trangressive event indicating the near horizontality of this surface. These detailed strat­igraphic relationships of the Binnewater Sandstone between High Falls and Wilbur can be explained either by differential subsidence of a few meters accompanied by a minor sea-level fall or by differential uplift of a few meters causing greater erosion to the northeast.
  • Punctuated Aggradational Cycles In The Thacher Member Of The Manlius Formation, Hudson Valley Region, New York

    Goodwin, Peter W.; Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939- (Temple University. Libraries, 1984)
    In the Hudson Valley region the Thacher Member of the Manlius Formation consists entirely of PACs, thin shallowing­ upward cycles separated by correlative sharp non-depositional surfaces. Vertically, within each PAC, facies represent aggradational shallowing; laterally adjacent facies in each PAC represent contiguous paleoenvironments. Between PACs facies change abruptly at PAC boundaries in response to rapid episodic base-level rises. This small-scale stratigraphic framework permits detailed paleoenvironmental analysis of specific facies with respect to depth and lateral position relative to other facies. In this analysis, the Manlius Formation consists of 11 PACs each of which contains variable but coeval subtidal facies in its lower portion and intertidal or supratidal facies in the upper portion. In previous studies (e.g. Laporte, 1967), the assumption of a gradualistic model of stratigraphic accumulation resulted in the conclusion that the Manlius Formation comprised a disordered facies mosaic in which any facies could occur at any time. In contrast, this analysis, which assumes episodic stratigraphic accumulation at a small scale, has produced a highly ordered interpretation. Specifically, the PAC approach indicates that facies patterns were controlled by abrupt allogenic events (base-level rises) followed by sedimentary aggradation resulting in a series of correlative PACs containing predictable facies patterns.
  • Punctuated Aggradational Cycles (Small-Scale, Upward Shallowing Units) Of The Thacher Member, Manlius Formation (Lower Devonian) In New York State

    Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1984)
    The facies mosaic within the Thacher Member of the Manlius Forma­tion in central New York State can be subdivided into a sequence of ten upward-shallowing carbonate units. Each unit or Punctuated Aggradational Cycle (PAC), is bounded by non-depositional transgressive (deepening) surfaces. Between these surfaces, basal subtidal facies grade upward into shallow subtidal, intertidal and/or supratidal facies. These PACs exhibit facies which were deposited in several environments including an open shelf, a subtidal stromatoporoid patch reef, a restricted shelf, a bioclastic sand shoal and sand shoal fringe, and gradational shallow subtidal environments into intertidal and supratidal flat environments. Each PAC can be correlated between closely spaced outcrops by tracing key beds, facies lithosomes, cycles of similar thickness and internal facies arrangement. Longer distance correlation across the study area can be accomplished by matching shallowing sequences of PACs, matching major vertical facies changes across transgressive surfaces (indicating major deepening events) and by matching laterally persistent facies lithosomes. Analysis of the facies mosaic within a PAC provides a detailed interpretation of the paleogeographic changes accompanying its deposition. The Thacher Member consists of a sequence of ten paleo­environmental units consisting of facies which exhibit gradational transitions within and distinct facies changes at their boundaries.
  • PAC Analysis Of The Discoelosia Epibole In The Lower Devonian Kalkberg Formation Of Eastern New York State

    Anderson, E. J. (Edwin Joseph), 1939-; Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1983)
    Application of the PAC Hypothesis (Goodwin and Anderson, 1981) to shallow shelf facies containing the Dicoelosia Zone (Rickard, 1962) in the Lower Devonian Kalkberg Formation, reveals the presence of three PACs that are correlated throughout the Hudson Valley. Microfacies and paleoenvironmental analysis demonstrates that, in vertical succession, each of these PACs was deposited in a successively deeper environment of deposition. This eposodic deepening is interpreted to have occurred as a result of a sequence of two minor punctuation events and two major punctuation events. A comparison of the stratigraphic position of the Dicoelosia epibole with PACs shows the epibole to occur in two successive PACs at different locali­ties, and therefore not to be an accurate time-stratigraphic unit. The first and lower PAC contains Dicoelosia only at the basin axis near Catskill. The PAC immediately above the first PAC contains Dicoelosia only at the areas flanking the basin axis to the north and south and not at the basin axis. Therefore, since the occurrence of Dicoelosia is laterally discontinuous in both PACs, the Dicoelosia epibole does not exist as a chronostratigraphic horizon of Dicoelosia abundance.
  • An Oxygen, Iron, Carbon Geochemical Study Of Selected Merensky Reef Potholes And Their Possible Role In Merensky Reef Petrogenesis

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1983)
    Oxygen, iron, magnesium, and carbon are the principal geochemical parameters employed to elucidate the chemical relationship between the Bushveld Merensky Reef and associated structures termed "potholes". Potholes are large (hundreds of meters wide and tens of meters deep) depressions in the footwall filled with Merensky equivalent materials. Three potholes were analyzed in this study. The concentration of inorganic carbon was found to range from 1,835 ppm to 131 ppm. The fO2 analyses at 1150 C have a range from 10^-11.9 to 10^-13.9 atmospheres. In particular, stratigraphically equivalent basal chromites show a decrease from 10^-12.1 in the Normal Merensky Reef to 10^-13.9 in the pothole bottom. The ratios of Total Fe (as FeO/MgO + Total Fe (as FeO)) in these basal chromites show a range of 0.779 to 0.839 from pothole bottom to Normal Merensky Reef, respectively. Finally, Fe^+3 concentration in basal chromites, relative to Fe^+2 concentration, shows a depletion in the bottom of potholes. Parameter analyses indicate that geochemical gradients not only exist along stratigraphically equivalent horizons (lateral gradients) but also exist along stratigrpahic units (vertical gradients). Various hypotheses which address the genesis of pothole formation are reviewed in light of the above mentioned gradients. The author has found that the plutonic fumarole hypothesis as proposed in Ulmer et al. (1981) is best suited to explain the lateral and vertical geochemical gradients. Potholes acting as plutonic fumaroles releasing reducing carbonaceous and/or sulfurous gases are discussed as a possible mechanism for Merensky Reef petrogenesis. The author's geochemical data and published research from the literature are integrated into a discussion of new ideas for the platinum-reef petrogenesis in the Bushveld Complex.
  • Geologic Setting And Xenoliths Of The Lodgepole Intrusive Area: Implications For The Northern Extent Of The Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Ulmer, Gene Carleton, 1937-2015 (Temple University. Libraries, 1983)
    Northerly dipping compositional layering in the central and western portions of the Stillwater Igneous Complex, the moderate northward slope of the Beartooth Front north of these outcrops, as well as gravity data (Bonini, 1981) provide structural evidence for the continuation at depth of the Complex north of the middle Cambrian unconformity along its northern boundary. The Lodgepole, Enos Mountain and Susie Peak plutons represent multiple intrusions of intermediate magmas at emplacement depths ranging from 2 km to near-surface conditions during late Cretaceous time. These intrusions lie respectively 8, 9, and 12 km north of the nearest outcrops of the Stillwater Complex. The Lodgepole Intrusion consists of an early dacite phase and a later diorite phase, the latter containing abundant xenoliths (up to 31 cm in diameter) in the area north of Clover Basin near its western margin. These xenoliths include foliated mafic amphibolites, gneisses, Paleozoic sediments, and cumulate textured basic rocks. Smaller xenoliths of similar lithologies are found in the Enos Mountain and Susie Peak intrusions. The cumulate textured xenoliths have magmatic textures, basic silica contents, and tholeiitic normative rnineralogies. The euhedral to subhedral, medium to coarse grained, tabular plagioclase in the xenolith sample suite has a total span of An62 to An86 (mole %) with variability in a single sample generally 1 to 5 mole % An. Minor primary-appearing augite is found in anorthositic specimens, but most of the primary mafic minerals have been altered to calcic amphibole and chlorite. The external habit and mineralogy of some mafic mineral domains suggest that they are pseudomorphic after primary pyroxenes and olivine. Based on interpretation of mineralogy and texture, cumulate xenoliths were classified as anorthosites, gabbros, norites, gabbronorites, troctolites, and altered ultramafic lithologies. One xenolith contained chromite, one contained graphite, and a few contained minor Fe and Cu sulfides. Mineral compositions and textures lead this author to conclude that the xenoliths were brought up from the underlying Stillwater Complex. Based on estimate of the fluid properties of the andesitic magma above its liquidus, ascent rates of greater than 1.7 m/second were needed to have raised the cumulate xenoliths. The lack of xenoliths with plagioclase compositions <An62, as well as structural space constraints imposed by the existence of non-cumulate basement lithologies north of the East Boulder Fault lead this author to question the existence of the thick differentiated Hidden Zone postulated by Hess (1960).
  • Upward-Shallowing Cycles (PACS) Of The Olney And Elmwood Members, Manlius Formation, New York

    Goodwin, Peter W. (Temple University. Libraries, 1981)
    Application of the PAC hypothesis to the Olney and Elmwood Members of the Manlius Formation in central New York supports the general hypothesis that this portion of the Helderberg Group accumulated episodically. This limited stratigraphic interval consists of small-scale upward­ shallowing cycles (PACs) which strongly resemble well­documented ancient and Recent upward-shallowing tidal cycles. PACs of the Olney and Elmwood Members constitute a shallowing PAC sequence which developed as a result of eastward prograd­ation of tidal facies. Within this shallowing PAC sequence, paleoenvironments and paleogeography evolved episodically in response to widespread punctuation events at PAC boundaries. Within each PAC of the sequence, paleoenvironments developed gradually as a result of sedimentary aggradation; between PACs paleogeographic patterns were abruptly altered by punctuation events.
  • The Mechanical Factors Which Influence The Semi-Random Behavior Of Great Earthquakes

    Bishke, Richard E. (Temple University. Libraries, 1981)
    The apparent randomness in patterns of earthquake activity are modeled using a quasi-static, truss-fault block analogy of earthquake occurrence. The earthquake belt is modeled utilizing a series of fault blocks along a seismic belt can experience either enhanced or suppressed seismic activity immediately after and during the years that follow a modeled earthquake. However, the regions that adjoin the block which has experienced a modeled earthquake, are primarily affected by the enhancing or the suppressive effected of a modeled earthquake. Seismic gaps are attributed to the complex interaction between fault blocks and the manner in which modeled earthquakes redistribute forces to an elastic truss, which represents the oceanic lithosphere. Due to the enhancing and suppressive seismic effects, seismic gaps within the model are filled by earthquakes that occur in a different order from one modeled earthquake to another. Thus the truss-fault block model produces a semi-random pattern of earthquake occurrence, although there are similarities between modeled earthquake cycles. Model behavior is not unlike the space-time distribution patterns observed in nature. Owing to the semi-random character of the model, the recurrence interval within each fault block is different and the recurrence interval changes from cycle to cycle. Also the recurrence interval increases if a fault block is interrupted by the suppressive effects of earthquakes in adjacent areas.

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