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Recent Submissions

  • Barriers to HIV and HCV Screening in the TRUST Buprenorphine Clinic

    Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    As the opioid epidemic continues in Philadelphia, buprenorphine clinics are becoming a necessary mainstay in treatment of these patients. HIV and HCV rates are rising throughout the city due to injection drug use, and buprenorphine clinics could be a bridge to therapy for these conditions as well. This thesis explores the current data about HIV and HCV rates, their connection to injection drug use, and how these overlapping epidemics might be addressed in a comprehensive manner. Historical data, current trends, and first person reflections from clinicians in the TRUST buprenorphine clinic are used to inform our understanding of barriers to integrated screening and treatment. The thesis concludes with a discussion of a better integrated model of care.
  • YOU ARE WHAT YOU BELIEVE: LEVERAGING IMPLICIT THEORY TO FOSTER HEALTHY BEHAVIORS

    Wadhwa, Monica; Mudambi, Susan; Wattal, Sunil; Hill, Theodore L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The rising cost of healthcare remains mystifying on a global scale. Some of the main factors contributing to the exorbitant costs in healthcare are doctors' visits and hospital readmissions, many of which result from preventable diseases, such as obesity. Adoption of simple health practices, such as reducing unhealthy food consumption, could help prevent these diseases. Despite this, a considerable number of adults fail to adopt preventive behaviors. In the current research, we explore how people can be nudged toward adopting healthy practices. Specifically, drawing upon implicit theory (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong1995), we argue and show that people who have a fixed mindset (also known as entity theorists) are likely to engage in more unhealthy consumption, compared with those who have a growth mindset (also known as growth theorists). Our findings show that priming people with a growth mindset, a mindset where people perceive that people and their behaviors can change, reduces unhealthy consumption. The research presented here has significant managerial implications because it could change how we encourage and approach individuals to adopt healthier behaviors through persuasive messaging, resulting in improved health outcomes. Finally, the study results add to the current literature on implicit beliefs can impact people’s behaviors, as well as to literature on persuasive messaging.
  • Design of Apparatus for a Sterile Neutrino Search Using 131-Cs: the HUNTER Experiment

    Martoff, Charles Jeffrey; Metz, Andreas; Surrow, Bernd; Stanley, Robert J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The unveiling of neutrino oscillation from observing the change in solar neutrino flux triggered physicists’ interest in studying the nature of the neutrino mass. The prevailing theory of explaining the tiny neutrino mass is called the “see-saw” mechanism, which postulates that the neutrino flavor eigenstate is the mixing between mass eigenstate of active neutrinos of a small mass and (left-) right-handed “sterile” (anti-)neutrinos of a large mass. The sterile neutrino is believed to be a new physics beyond the Standard Model, which can explain many other outstanding physical problems, like warm dark matter, asymmetry of baryon, etc. The HUNTER (Heavy Unseen Neutrinos from the Total Energy-momentum Reconstruction) experiment is a collaboration for searching for keV-mass range sterile neutrinos, and brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Temple University, UCLA, Princeton University and the University of Hustonto develop an apparatus capable of searching for sterile neutrinos with high precision. In the HUNTER proposal, the radiation source generating neutrinos will be a cloud of atoms laser cooled and suspended by laser beams, the decay products except neutrinos will be detected by corresponding detectors, and their initial vector momenta will be reconstructed from the data recorded by the corresponding detectors. The missing mass in the decay, taken away by the neutrino, can then be evaluated from the energy and momentum conservation. The radiation sources of electron-capture decay are preferred for laboratory neutrino experiments because of the absence of energetic electrons in the decay products. 131-Cs is chosen by HUNTER to study the sterile neutrino mass and the mixing between sterile neutrinos and active neutrinos because of its short lifetime, simply decay products, and its alkali element spectral structure which enhances laser cooling and trapping. The Phase 1 HUNTER experiment targeting sterile neutrinos in the range 20-300 keV/c^2 requires the design of spectrometers with momentum resolution of a part in a thousand or better. To detect a 131-Xe ion, a spectrometer consisting of numbers of annular electrodes has been designed. The potentials of the electrodes of the ion spectrometer were carefully optimized to form an electrostatic lens, with time focusing and spatial focusing to achieve a high momentum resolution for ions despite the extended source presented by the magneto-optical trap. The optimization algorithm presented in this dissertation achieves a momentum precision of ∼0.12% (∼0.03%) for the high acceptance (high resolution) tune. An electron spectrometer was designed without “double focusing” for detecting the electrons produced in 131 Cs decays. The electron trajectories are guided by a uniform electric and magnetic field. An octagonal shaped, magnetic shield was designed to diminish the influence of external magnetic fields on the electron trajectories. The achieved electron momentum resolution is ∼0.1 keV including extended source effects, sufficient for the desired missing mass resolution. Other issues like the systematic errors of the ion spectrometer and the eddy current induced in the electrodes by periodically switching on/off the anti-Helmholtz coils of the magneto-optical trap were studied. The deformation of the spectrometer under its gravity was simulated using Autodesk Inventor.
  • Growing Open Data: A Guide to Making Open Historic Data for Community Gardens

    Lowe, Hilary Iris; Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Historic open data can be an asset to community gardens in land use disputes, the preservation and sharing of cultural traditions, and adaptation to climate change. Yet scholarship has not yet provided an accessible guide to the many issues of labor and technology involved in producing open data. This thesis addresses this gap by offering a guide to producing, preserving, and interpreting open data oriented toward community gardens from a public history perspective. This thesis examines the history of community gardens and related community data stretching to the Progressive Era, drawing comparisons to to that of historic open data in the gallery, library, archives, and museum (GLAM) world. The thesis also considers the worth of crowdsourcing and other volunteer labor models in data production, offers basic considerations for structuring and maintaining historic open datasets, and reviews the role of data visualization as a means of data communication and interpretation. Ultimately, I contend that open data is doable in public history and urgently worthy of consideration for gardens.
  • BANKING CYBERSECURITY CULTURE INFLUENCES ON PHISHING SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Vance, Anthony; Andersson, Lynne Mary; Dawson, Maurice, 1982-; Thatcher, Jason Bennett (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The banking industry faces an unprecedented number of phishing attacks as cybercriminals circumvent security and technical countermeasures to deceive banking employees. There is a lack of scholarly research on the causes of phishing susceptibility in the U.S. banking sector. The literature review analysis highlighted the following gaps: (a) studies on information security and organizational culture failed to link theoretical underpinnings to information security results, (b) the lack of scholarly studies on the banking sector impedes academic perspective on the business problem, and (c) there is a need to investigate banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. This study consists of two qualitative inquiries; the initial study was an interpretive inquiry that resulted in a conceptual framework and highlighted a need for theory on banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. The qualitative interpretive study only included interviews from security and technology executives. This study yielded the following three major themes: (a) continuous security awareness, (b) executive-driven security climate, and (c) human-centered security operations. From the inductive analysis, a reducing phishing susceptibility through executive influence and culture conceptual framework emerged. From this study, the basis of a grounded theory study was necessary to develop theory to address phishing in the banking sector. The second inquiry was a grounded theory inquiry that expanded the initial study by interviewing (a) security and technology executives, (b) cybersecurity professionals, and (c) non-technical employees and executing a rigorous data analysis process. This study resulted in the following five major themes: (a) lack of executive coordination and support, (b) security awareness, (c) stronger security resiliency, (d) positive security behavior and environmentalignment, and (e) phishing strategy confusion. Theses findings derived from the data analysis resulted in the development of the Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory, an organizational approach for solidifying phishing countermeasures through banking cybersecurity culture. The Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory reinforces phishing countermeasures with a robust approach due to the hyperactive threat environment and constant changing of tactics. Keywords: Banking, cybersecurity culture, phishing susceptibility, organizational culture
  • Using chemogenetics and novel tools to uncover neural circuit and behavioral changes after spinal cord injury

    Spence, Andrew J.; Lemay, Michel A.; Smith, George M.; Hsieh, Tonia (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in persistent neurological deficits and significant long-term disability. Stimulation of peripheral afferents by epidural electrical stimulation (EES) has been reported to reduce spasticity by reorganizing spared and disrupted descending pathways and local circuits. However, a current barrier to the field is that the plasticity mechanisms that underly improved recovery is unknown. Using the power of hM3Dq Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), we aim to accelerate the dissection of the mechanisms underlying enhanced recovery. In these studies, we identified the effect of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) on the H-reflex of naïve animals; investigated the baseline influence of hM3Dq DREADDs in peripheral afferents in the intact animal using a novel behavioral tool, an addition of angled rungs to the horizontal ladder walking task; and began to uncover the neural and behavioral changes that accompany hM3Dq DREADDs activation in peripheral afferents after SCI. We observed no significant differences in the H-reflex with 4 mg/kg dosage of CNO administration (pre-CNO vs. CNO-active: p=0.82; CNO-active vs. CNO wash-out: p=0.98; n=6). On our novel ladder, we found significant differences in correct hind paw placement (p=0.0002, n=7) and incorrect placement (p=0.01) when DREADDs were activated with CNO (4 mg/kg). In our SCI study, we report that acute and chronic DREADDs activation may activate extensor muscles about the hip (32 cm/s: p=0.047; controls: n=6; DREADDs: n=8 and hereafter unless otherwise stated) as well as induce sprouting and synaptogenesis within motor pools and Clarke’s column in the lumbar spinal cord (motor pool: p=0.00053; Clarke’s column: p=0.021; controls: n=4; DREADDs: n=6). This muscle recruitment may have long-term effects such as increased hindquarter heights (e.g., 16 cm/s: p=0.017) and more frequent hindlimb coordination (p=0.002). Results from this study suggest hM3Dq DREADDs may have the potential to recapitulate EES-activation of afferents as well as provide a platform with which to functionally map changes that occur both within targeted afferents and second order neurons they effect. Future work, such as using C-Fos to examine and map changes in interneuronal networks, could seek to more directly tie changes in kinematics to observed changes in plasticity.
  • Bridging the Gap: The Practical Application of Post-Tonal Musical Analysis to Performance Practice Using George Crumb's Ancient Voices of Children

    Anderson, Christine L.; Gratis, Lorie; Latham, Edward David; Abramovic, Charles (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Post-tonal repertoire can prove to be a challenging musical endeavor for performers and listeners alike. However, that does not mean that performers should avoid programming this music. If musicians undertake new repertoire with an open mind and a willingness to discover new avenues of musical expression, it creates a fulfilling experience for both the performers and the audience. Where performers are uncertain of how to proceed, musical and textual analysis can help them understand a piece’s structure and engage with audiences on a deeper level. Using George Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children, I will analyze elements of the cycle that are salient to performers with the goal of creating a compelling, cohesive narrative for audiences. For those who are new to post-tonal repertoire, Crumb’s compositions offer an ideal opportunity for musicians to employ analysis as a tool for guiding performance choices. The musical structure of Crumb’s compositions is easily discernible when analyzed and is often deeply symbolic and spiritual in nature. His music, while meticulously notated, presents ample opportunity for individual interpretation and expression. Since its premiere in 1970, Ancient Voices of Children has become one of Crumb’s most celebrated pieces, largely due to his incredibly expressive setting of the poetry of Federico García Lorca. After a brief overview of both the composer and poet, I will explore the textual content, pitch content, melodic contour, harmonic structure, ensemble, and rhythm to provide performers with a clearer understanding of the work. This paper further investigates the relationship between Federico García Lorca’s poetry and George Crumb’s music and offers performance suggestions to convey that narrative. In outlining this process through Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children, this paper gives performers a guide to approaching post-tonal music and making it accessible to a broader audience.
  • ADVANCED MACHINE LEARNING MODELS IN PREDICTION OF MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Shi, Xinghua Mindy; Rubin, Daniel J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The primary goal of Machine learning (ML) models in the prediction of medical conditions is to accurately predict (classify) the occurrence of a disease, or therapy. Many ML models, traditional and deep, have been utilized for the prediction of disease diagnosis, or prediction of the most optimal therapeutic approach. Almost all categories of medical conditions were subject to ML analysis. When creating predictive ML algorithms in medicine, it is pivotal to consider what problems are intended to be solved and how much and what types of training data are available. For challenging prediction (classification) problems, the understanding of disease pathogenesis makes the selection of an adequate ML model and accurate prediction more likely. The hypothesis of the research was to demonstrate that the optimal and adequate selection of model inputs as well as the selection and design of adequate ML methods improves the prediction accuracy of occurrence of diseases and their outcomes. The effectiveness and accuracy of created deep learning and traditional methods have been analyzed and compared. The impact of different medical conditions and different medical domains on optimal selection and performance of ML models was also studied. The effectiveness of advanced ML models was tested on four different diseases: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2), Influenza, and Colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of the first part of the thesis (AD study) was to determine could prediction of AD from Electronic medical records (EMR) data alone be significantly improved by applying domain knowledge in positive dataset selection rather than setting naïve filters. Selected Clinically Relevant Positive (SCRP) datasets were used as inputs to a Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) deep learning model to predict will the patient develop AD. The LSTM RNN method performed significantly better when learning from the SCRP dataset than when datasets were selected naïvely. Accurate prediction of AD is significant in the identification of patients for clinical trials, and a better selection of patients who need imaging diagnostics. The objective of the DM2 research was to predict if patients with DM2 would develop any of ten selected complications. RNN LSTM and RNN Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) models were designed and compared to Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptron traditional models. The number of hospitalizations registered in the EMR data was an important factor for the prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy of complications decreases over time. The RNN GRU model was the best choice for EMR type of data, followed by the RNN LSTM model. An accurate prediction of the occurrence of complications of DM2 is important in the planning of targeted measures aimed to slow down or prevent their development. The objective of the third part of the thesis was to improve the understanding of spatial spreading of complicated cases of influenza that required hospitalizations, by constructing social network models. A novel approach was designed, which included the construction of heatmaps for geographic regions in New York state and power-law networks, to analyze the distribution of hospitalized flu cases. The methodology constructed in the study allowed to identify critical hubs and routes of spreading of Influenza, in specific geographic locations. Obtained results could enable better prediction of the distribution of complicated flu cases in specific geographic regions and better prediction of required resources for prevention and treatment of hospitalized patients with Influenza. The fourth part of the thesis proposes approaches to discover risk factors (comorbidities and genes) associated with the development of CRC, which can be used for future ML models to predict the influence of risk factors on prognosis and outcomes of cancer and other chronic diseases. A novel social network and text mining model was developed to study specific risk factors of CRC. Identified associations between comorbidities, CRC, and shared genes can have important implications on early discovery, and prognosis of CRC, which can be subject to predictive ML models in the future. Prediction ML models could help physicians to select the most effective diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic choices available. These ML models can provide recommendations to select suitable patients for clinical trials, which is very important in searching for medical solutions in health emergencies. Successful ML models can make medicine more efficient, improve outcomes, and decreases medical errors.
  • Teachers' Choices to Use Movement in Elementary General Music Class: Examining Influencers

    Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.); Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Confredo, Deborah A.; Bond, Karen E.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Harris, Jillian (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Because no government body has mandated a national or state curriculum for music education in the United States, elementary general music teachers can vary widely in their curricular choices about whether and how to include movement. To contribute to an understanding of children’s experiences engaging in movement during their elementary music education, the purpose of this research was to examine influencers on pre-Kindergarten through 8th grade general music teachers’ choices to use movement in elementary general music classes. With a pragmatic worldview, I approached the study through a lens of embodied teaching and learning, acknowledging a person’s bodily movements as connected ways of musical knowing. I used a mixed methods, explanatory sequential design in two phases of the research. In Phase I, I posed four research questions. Research questions one through three: For two types of movement (i.e., non-locomotor, locomotor), to what extent does variance in (a) school socioeconomic status (i.e., Title I, Non-Title I), (b) physical classroom space, and (c) class size significantly relate to the use of movement by type in elementary general music classes? Research question four: (d) To what extent do school socioeconomic status, physical classroom space, and class size in combination explain the variance in the use of movement in elementary general music classes? In Phase II, I posed four additional research questions to explain the results of Phase I. Research questions five through seven: How do music teachers describe the (e) purpose, (f) benefits, and (g) challenges in their use of different movement types in elementary general music classes? Research question eight: (h) What results emerge from comparing the quantitative data on influencers to the use of movement by type with the qualitative data that describes teachers’ choices in movement instruction? For that question, I examined the results from Phase I and Phase II to complete the mixed methods design of this study. In Phase I, pre-Kindergarten through 8th grade general music teachers (N = 251) teaching in the United States voluntarily completed a researcher-designed web-based survey. For research questions one through three, I conducted independent t-tests on the survey data for each of the related variables. For research question one, participants in Title I schools (n = 163) used non-locomotor steady beat gestures (t = 1.99) and locomotor choreography (t = 2.37) statistically significantly more than participants in non-Title I schools (n = 88). For research question two, participants without a dedicated physical music classroom space (n = 30) used non-locomotor movement for showing pitch relations and melodic contour with hands (t = 2.21) statistically significantly more than participants with a dedicated music classroom (n = 221). Participants with a dedicated music classroom (n = 221) used locomotor choreography (t = 3.87) statistically significantly more than participants without dedicated music classroom (n = 30). For research question three, participants with large class sizes (n = 107) used non-locomotor dramatizing (p = -.132) and locomotor creative/exploratory movement (p = -.198) statistically significantly more than participants with medium (n = 108) or small (n = 36) class sizes. For research question four, I conducted a multiple regression on the survey data to examine the influence of school socioeconomic status, physical space, and class size on use of movement by type. Results indicated one statistically significant correlation for the variables in combination: participants in Title I schools with dedicated music rooms statistically significantly used non-locomotor moving with flow (t = 2.303). In Phase II, I purposefully sampled 17 of 106 interested Phase I survey participants based on their responses to demographic information in relation to five conditions established a priori: Self-Reported Frequency of Movement Use, School Socioeconomic Status, Class Size, Physical Classroom Space, and Professional Development Experience. To answer research questions five through seven, I conducted a thematic analysis of those 17 Phase II participants’ transcribed and member-checked individual, semi-structured interviews. From their interview data, I identified 31 representative meaning units, 10 lower order themes, and four higher order themes (i.e., Who I Am, Who My Students Are, Where We Are Together, and What We Do Together). For research question eight, I compared the quantitative data on influencers to the use of movement by type with qualitative data that describes participants’ choices in type of movement. Participants’ choices to use locomotor movement were constrained by their physical classroom space and large class sizes but not by school socioeconomic status. Teachers’ choices to use movement in general music settings are also influenced by teacher identity and body image. Since participants volunteered for this study, results need to be applied with caution. By examining the results of Phase I and Phase II, I concluded that teachers in this study connected their choices of whether and how to use movement in elementary general music to their own identity, understandings of students’ identities, school context, and students’ musical engagement. Teachers desire students’ engaging movement experiences that lead to students’ empowerment through embodied learning. Teachers’ choices to use movement potentially connect teachers’ and students’ embodied experiences with teachers’ personally formational instruction, regardless of their school socioeconomic status, physical classroom space, or class size. Implications for the field of music education include widening our understanding of the role of identity at various junctures of a music teacher’s career. Because administrators assign physical teaching spaces and determine maximum class sizes, they play an important role ensuring general music teachers can teach in a dedicated space that is physically and socioemotionally safe for students and their teacher. By contemplating ways to engage in personal movement experiences beyond their practice in their classrooms, teachers may boost their self-confidence, and expand possibilities for using movement instruction in less-than-ideal teaching spaces. Future researchers might investigate the (a) role music-teacher body image plays as it influences teachers’ choices to use movement, (b) ways teachers connect students’ dance cultures to music learning, (c) use of movement in remote, cyber, or virtual general music classes. Depending on the status of the COVID-19 pandemic, future researchers may explore general music teachers’ choices to use movement relative to social distancing practices.
  • Go Into All the World: Moral-Subject Formation through Evangelical Short-Term Missions from the United States to the Dominican Republic

    Garrett, Paul B., 1968-; Rey, Terry; Stankiewicz, Damien, 1980-; Elisha, Omri, 1972- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Each year, four million Americans travel abroad as participants in short-term missions (STMs), the religious branch of the billion-dollar volunteer-tourism industry. Rooted in 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research, this dissertation examines evangelical STMs in the Dominican Republic as vehicles for evangelization and voluntarism in the contexts of postcolonial tourism and the production of sugar for the global market. In doing so, it also examines STMs as important sites of religious socialization for American participants, particularly, socialization of moral ideologies. These moral ideologies, expressed and performed through the discursive practices, religious rituals, and routinized cross-cultural interactions that are characteristic of STMs, (re)create and justify unequal power relations between Americans and Dominicans. STMs expose American volunteers to striking socioeconomic and racial inequalities, which could powerfully (re)shape their worldviews by raising their awareness, for example, of the exploitative working and living conditions behind a ubiquitous commodity, sugar. However, STM leaders and volunteers conceptualize these inequalities in ways that are inconsistent or contradictory, disconnected from their understandings of inequality back home, and decontextualized from broader processes and systems, including colonialism and contemporary global capitalism. The personal narratives and the religious and economic discourses that are (re)produced during STMs shape American participants’ understandings of inequalities and cultivate a moral subjectivity in which they are divinely charged with the responsibility of ameliorating others’ poverty, lack of social welfare, and poor living conditions. STM discourses and practices thus legitimize forms of charitable giving that may actually contribute to poverty and inequality by concealing Americans’ pre-existing socioeconomic relations with Dominicans. Amid heightened efforts to dismantle social welfare in the US, it is increasingly important to deconstruct ideologies and practices of giving in order to understand why evangelical Christians prefer charity, which provides only partial and temporary relief at best, over other methods that could provide more sustainable and transformative solutions to poverty and inequality. The research presented in this dissertation reveals that, despite what participants believe to be their moral intentions and good works, STMs work in various ways to perpetuate inequalities between sending and receiving countries.
  • LITERATURE REVIEW ON PARENT-IMPLEMENTED PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING

    Fisher, Amanda Guld; Tincani, Matt; Dowdy, Arthur; Travers, Jason C.; Axelrod, Saul; Hineline, Philip Neil (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is an intervention that was originally developed by Koegel & Koegel (2006) that teaches pivotal behaviors to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Research places a significant emphasis on teaching parents and other caregivers to implement these procedures with their children. However, PRT is often implemented and trained with wide variability. The purpose of this literature review was to critically review the literature on parent-implemented PRT and evaluated the issues identified within the literature. A multiple step search procedure is conducted for this literature review and eighteen articles were selected based on the inclusionary criteria. Results of the review identify trends in the current literature of how parents have been trained to implemented PRT. This review also highlights the need for future research on parent implemented PRT to assess parent’s treatment integrity once initial competency with the PRT intervention has been met, and the need for future research to focus on assessing social validity in several ways.
  • POLITICAL DEEPFAKES: CULTURAL DISCOURSES OF SYNTHETIC AUDIO-VISUAL MANIPULATIONS

    Iliadis, Andrew; Lombard, Matthew; Baym, Geoffrey (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    This study analyzes cultural discourses around political deepfakes through mediaarchiving. Deepfakes use deep learning techniques to edit authentic media content and are currently impacting online political communication. To assess the field of discourse around political deepfakes, the study involved the creation of a database of digital media artifacts, including texts and audio-visual documents. The study relies on cultural analytics method to establish the patterns contained in media used to portray political deepfakes and their effects. Deepfakes continue to threaten democracies and erode trust in public institutions. Thus, studies that focus on the discourses around political deepfakes stand to increase and promote literacy about this important subject.
  • TYPE I INTERFERON MEDIATED JCV SUPPRESSION THROUGH C/EBP-BETA LIP ISOFORM

    Wollebo, Hassen S.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Kaminski, Rafal (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The Polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection by JCV is very common in childhood after which the virus enters a latent state, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Under conditions of severe immunosuppression, especially acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), JCV may reactivate to cause PML. JC viral proteins expression is regulated by the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR), which contains binding sites for cellular transcriptional factors which regulate JCV transcription. Our earlier studies indicate that reactivation occurs within glial cells due to the action of cytokines such as TNF-⍺, which stimulate viral gene expression. In this study, we have examined the role of cytokines interferon-⍺ or -β which, in contrast, have a negative effect on JCV transcriptional regulation. Treatment of glial cells with interferon-⍺ or -β increased the endogenous level of C/EBPβ-LIP in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the negative regulatory role of interferon-⍺ or -β in JCV early and late transcription and viral replication was more pronounced in the presence of C/EBPβ-LIP. Knock-down of C/EBPβ-LIP (liver inhibitory protein) by shRNA targeting C/EBPβ-LIP reversed the inhibitory effect on JCV viral replication. Therefore, these data suggest that interferon-⍺ or -β negatively regulates JCV through induction of C/EBPβ-LIP, which together with other cellular transcriptional factors may control the balance between JCV latency and activation leading to PML. This balance may be regulated by proinflammatory cytokines in the brain, such as IFN-?.
  • The Spirit-Lyre and the Broken Radio: The Medium as Poet From Sprague to Spicer

    Henry, Katherine, 1956-; Newman, Steve, 1970-; Osman, Jena (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The origins and ongoing legacies of American Spiritualism in their relations to mainstream religion, science, and politics are by this point well-charted. As a vector between, on one side, esoteric philosophy and diffuse pseudo-scientific and occult disciplines, and, on the other, exoteric mass culture and the 19th century groundswell of popular progressive rhetoric, Spiritualism as a historical phenomenon has in the past decades become more legible than ever as a religious, political, and social movement. Less thoroughly studied, however, is the enormous mass of print culture left behind by Spiritualists. Spiritualist newsletters, journals, and small presses printed vast quantities of written matter, running from the obvious sermons, lectures, and seance transcriptions to Spiritualist novels, Spiritualist hymns, and, in particular, Spiritualist lyric verse. While critics like Helen Sword in Ghostwriting Modernism have begun to approach this archive as literary matter and not merely as the incidental byproduct of the movement, much work remains to be done. In this dissertation I want to draw connections from this mass of widely read, but little remembered, Spiritualist poetry to the late 19th century and early 20th century’s proliferation of occult and metaphysical poetry. In doing so I hope to illuminate the recurring esoteric streak running from high modernism to, in fits and spurts, the present. The crux of this dissertation pursues the trail of breadcrumbs leading from Spiritualist poet-mediums like Achsa Sprague and Lizzie Doten to the mediumistic elements of 20th century poets H.D. and Jack Spicer, before arriving in the conclusion at the 21st century and its fresh proliferation of esoterically inclined medium-poets. I propose that there is a meaningful thread wending from the 1850s to the present, and that this thread can be tracked by taking seriously the claims made by these poets regarding the composition of their verse, no matter how outrageous or unlikely those claims may at first seem. What would it mean to interrogate in earnest the logistics of authorship when a poem is attributed to a ghost? How do Spicer’s extraordinary claims about Martians and angels inflect how we read his body of work? What complications emerge from H.D.’s World War II-era poems of grief and trauma if we grant her the premise that their composition was saturated with the tangible presence of the dead? These allowances-- or at least the agreement to take these writers seriously in their compositional, metaphysical, and aesthetic claims-- reveals intriguing and consistent fissures in the normative understanding of the lyric. While Sprague and Doten, along with other Spiritualist poets, largely sought to write verse recognizable in terms of form and content as “lyric verse,” they began from first principles seemingly dramatically opposed to the received 19th century wisdom regarding what constituted the lyric and how it functioned. By contrasting these poets, who sought to write and publish from a position of authorial multiplicity and supernatural collaboration, with the lyric philosophy of thinkers such as John Stuart Mill, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Hegel, and Poe, I hope to demonstrate the theoretical radicalism quietly bubbling away under the sometimes deceptively staid and conventional surface of these poems. I track these fissures as they widen and grow more unruly in their contours, underlying the daring and experimental poetry of H.D. and Spicer, for whom the grounds staked by the category of the “lyric” exist in productive tension and conflict with the desire to complicate, subvert, and sidestep the attending assumptions about subjectivity, audience, and the stability of the figure of the author. By rejecting the Millsian atomism of the writing self, and opening the position of authorship to both supernatural gnosis and abject supplication, these practices of the “mediumistic lyric” offer an apophatic poetics embraced by over a century of poets eager, for one reason or another, to locate alternatives to the model of the lyric subject as persistent, singular, masterful, and solitary. In doing so I propose that it becomes an attractive, durable, and remarkably flexible model for queer writers, writers orienting themselves against the subject of colonialism, and writers otherwise displaced from lyric stability and sovereignty. Chapter One: “Voices From the Other Sphere”: The Poet in Emerson and Sprague: This chapter begins by offering a comparison between two near-contemporary texts with identical titles but drastically different aspirations. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s “The Poet” provided a sturdy blueprint for American Romanticism by drawing on the example of European poets as well as esoteric philosophers contemporaneously in intellectual circulation such as Swedenborg and Boehme. Achsa Sprague’s verse drama “The Poet,” on the other hand, is a full-throatedly Spiritualist didactic narrative, offering amidst its supernatural and allegorical narrative, a domestic plot strikingly attuned to class and gender-based inequalities. I use these two texts as a springboard to begin to delineate the differing trajectories of their respective authors-- Emerson the public intellectual and religious progressive, Sprague a rural school teacher turned radical activist and spirit medium-- as well as the considerable overlap in their essential reference points. Chapter Two: “The Harp-Strings of My Being”: Lizzie Doten and the Phenomenology of Spirits: The next two chapters focus on major Spiritualist woman poets who in quite different ways drew on the mythic figure of Poe as compositional grist, offering two disparate models of how a Spiritualist metaphysics could inform an aesthetic orientation towards imitation, influence, and the knotty category of “originality.” Chapter Four takes up Lizzie Doten, whose 1863 Poems From the Inner Life contains a mix of original poems and poems allegedly dictated by controlling spirits, including Poe. I discuss how imitation functions in these poems, and in particular how the desire to replicate the stylistic and formal tics of well-known authors interacted with the desire to produce didactic religious verse in which the post-mortem reform and uplift of seemingly morally vexed poets like Poe, Burns, and Byron. In this verse, deceased poets were represented as writing not as themselves but as better versions of themselves, creating a rich juxtaposition between the formal challenge of imitation and the didactic demands of poetic content. I also discuss her essay “A Word to the World,” a strikingly thorough prose exposition of what, in her framing, mediumship felt like and how the linguistic output of spirits filtered through the mortal hands of the poet. Chapter Three: Sarah Helen Whitman’s Poe: Performing Spiritualism: This chapter juxtaposes Doten’s explicitly supernatural and metaphysical understanding of imitation with the more socially mediated practice of Sarah Helen Whitman, a poet who maintained a somewhat wider distance between her poetics and her participation in Spiritualist mediumship and seances. A former lover of Poe and one of his primary early literary executors, Whitman’s Spiritualism can be read in the context of her widely circulated “secular” Poe imitations, situating them, after the pattern of Eliza Richards’ Gender and the Poetics of Reception in Poe’s Circle, in a social and aesthetic milieu in which mimicry and virtuosic copy-catting was not only expected of woman poets but imposed as a closed formal horizon. I argue that Spiritualism offered an avenue in which female poets could leverage the formal games of imitation so foregrounded in contemporaneous practices of poetic reading and writing towards wider modes of didactic and polemical expression, a method, in other words, of “hijacking” imitation’s limits and turning these assumed voices towards their own ends. Chapter Four: “Why Should We Not, At a Certain Stage, Remember?”: H.D. and the Echoing Other: Here I turn from the 19th century to the 20th, beginning with H.D. and concluding with the Berkeley Renaissance poet Jack Spicer. Chapter four offers a brief overview of H.D.’s history in esoteric and occult research and a survey of her contemporary milieu. It revolves around the 1919 prose work Notes on Thought and Vision, an intense description of an early visionary experience and a sustained exegesis of her thinking, at that time, on the intersection of visionary experience and privileged, quasi-mediumistic states of knowing. I read these texts and other early explorations of these themes as H.D.’s experimental studies on writing the self seemingly overdetermined by socialization and history, as well as on fashioning a generative middle-ground between spiritual supplication and modernist theories of mastery. I then track these motifs through the vision of gnosis described in her later text, the World War II-era The Flowering of the Rood. In short, I propose that H.D. leveraged the language and practices of mediumship as a vehicle for a novel species of autobiographical writing, one which might simultaneously privilege to a heightened degree the phenomenology of knowing, thinking, and perceiving, while offering a vantage point from which to observe the position of selfhood from a distance. Chapter Five: “The Ghost Is a Joke”: Jack Spicer and the Bathos of Outside: Chapter five centers on Jack Spicer and broadly, his mediumistic theory of poetic dictation (what his peer Robin Blaser dubbed his “practice of Outside”) and the playful, punning language of Martians, angels, and ghosts in which he scaffolded it. I argue that for Spicer, “dictation” provides not only a means for him to explore an abject, apophatic queer poetics, but to articulate his sense of longing for a poetics of proximity between the world and the word that was otherwise impossible, repeatedly linking the linguistic communion between poet and received language as a fantasized analogue to the gulf between signifier and signified, desirer and object of desire, and life and death. Chapter Eight introduces the figure of the “Martian” in Spicer’s poems and lectures, along with the models of bodily sovereignty he inherited from his early studies with Kantorowicz, arguing that the loss of physical agency and the absence of semantic meaning are two elements of a broader poetics of absence throughout his career. Conclusion: “A House That Tries to Be Haunted”: The conclusion revisits the arguments of the dissertation as a whole, retracing the line of lyric development and subversion from the 19th century Spiritualists to Spicer, before ending with a brief survey of the continuing diffusion of mediumistic lyric into the 21st century. First I gesture to the mediumistic writing of several 20th century poets not included in this project-- e.g., Robert Duncan, Nathaniel Mackey, Hannah Weiner, and James Merrill-- before describing the influence of mediumistic ideas on contemporary poets such as CA Conrad and Ariana Reines, for whom the occult and metaphysical themes of mediumship are just as important as its potential for lyric modes outside of the discourse of mastery and agential authorship. I thus end by positing this new flourishing of poet mediums as not only a continuation of a long tradition, but as a final example of such mediumship’s position at the intersection of lyrical and vanguard writing practices.
  • The Ethical Decision Making Practices of k-12 Administrators in an Urban Setting

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; McGinley, Christopher W.; Hall, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The decisions that administrators make can ultimately enhance or impede theculture of a school setting. When faced with situations, whether simple or arduous, the decision-making should be done in an ethical manner that brings about productive results. On a day-to-day basis, there may be situations that arise that require administrators to problem solve quickly or on the other hand requiring time to include reflective practice. How an administrator responds is the central focus of this project. This phenomenological study explored how administrators in a large city problem solve when faced with difficult decisions. According to Mertens (2015), phenomenological research seeks the individual’s perceptions and meaning of a phenomenon or experience. I learned a great deal from the participants’ decision-making practices. In particular, there were various parts of the multiple ethical paradigms aligned to the decision-making practices of the ten principals interviewed in this study. In particular, the ethics of care and profession were evident in each of the difficult decisions that all ten principals shared. Out of the twenty difficult decisions shared, the ethic of critique was evident in seventeen scenarios and the ethic of community was evident in fourteen out of the scenarios shared. Although the ethics of care, critique, profession, and community were prevalent in this study, the ethic of justice was not. This was an unexpected outcome of this study that will be discussed further.
  • THREE ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS’ APPROACHES TO SINGING WITH THEIR STUDENTS

    Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.); Confredo, Deborah A.; Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Instructional processes comprise three basic components: planning, delivery of instruction, and assessment. Educators frequently reflect on the relationships among those components to choose the most effective approaches to increase student learning. Teachers’ continual assessment of student knowledge and understanding through reliable, valid measures critically propels teachers’ effective instruction forward. Constraints on funding for public education have resulted in larger class sizes and smaller budgets for the arts, as well as a heightened focus on standardized testing, less instructional time, and fewer resources (Slaton, 2012). How, then, are music teachers effectively assessing student achievement while grappling with those challenges? To fill a gap in the research literature, the purpose of this research was to explore singing voice development assessment practices that public-school elementary-general-music teachers use with their students. The following overall question guided this research: What can we learn from three kindergarten through fifth grade general music teachers about their approaches to singing with their students? I sought to document three teachers’ singing voice development processes and assessment techniques. Recognizing that this study took place during the COVID-19 pandemic, I also sought to document participants’ perceptions of the benefits and challenges of the techniques they shared, especially as they grappled with teaching singing in new learning models that were emerging; and adaptations they were using to safely and effectively guide students’ singing voice development—whether they were teaching their students virtually and/or in person. For this study, I chose symbolic interactionism as a theoretical lens and an interview-only design. Upon approval from Temple University Institutional Review Board, I invited the three participants who consented to engage in three semi-structured individual interview conversations to explore singing voice development assessment techniques, and benefits, challenges, and adaptations of those techniques, especially as they grappled with teaching singing in new instructional models that emerged as a result of COVID-19. After participants completed member checking of each of their transcripts, I used a content analysis approach to the data to identify emerging codes. Four themes summarized participants’ approaches to singing voice development assessment: teachers rely on their (a) personal philosophy formed from influences and values, (b) planning processes and objectives, (c) interactions with their students through selected techniques and tools, and (d) having time to make necessary adaptations in their singing voice development assessments. The key idea emerging from the study: the three teachers prioritized providing worthwhile musical experiences for their students. They situated singing voice development and assessment as one piece of their broader general music curriculum. A symbolic interactionist lens informed my themes and key idea by placing the context of teachers’ interactions in the forefront, and my understanding of how their experiences have shaped their views. While findings from this study are not generalizable, readers may find them transferable. Potential applications for other music teachers’ assessment practices include the following six examples: using a variety of tools to model appropriate use of singing voice, implementing pattern instruction to develop and assess singing voice, incorporating opportunities for individual singing, providing students with performance experiences, maintaining consistency in changing instructional models, and focusing on informal assessment through observation and questioning techniques. Future researchers can continue to shed light on how teachers approach singing with their elementary general music students by learning about factors outside of teachers’ instructional processes that impact singing voice development assessment, and how music teachers adapt their processes for singing voice development assessment in emerging instructional models.
  • Adaptability in Lighting: A Reflection Thesis

    Norris, Jason; Duer, Fred M.; McShaffrey, Brandon (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The subject of this thesis is to look back at my entire time in the Theater Department at Temple University, to reflect and see how my design process has changed and grown during my time in graduate school. I also look at three of my lighting designs and reflect what I learned, what I would change, and challenges I faced along the way. In addition, I look at four of my classes I have taken that I would call essential to my degree and reflect on them as well. I reflect on my semester of teaching at the undergraduate level. Finally, I take a look at how COVID has changed our world and the world of theatre, and what I have learned from it, and how I have grown.
  • “Whose Streets? Our Streets!”: Social Memory and Contentious Politics in a Democracy

    Kitch, Carolyn L.; Darling-Wolf, Fabienne; Creech, Brian; Lohmeier, Christine, 1978- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    In 2019, protests rippled across six continents affecting democracies and autocracies alike with such fervor that journalists repeatedly declared it the year of the street protest. Despite globalization and mobile technologies, contentious politics largely continue to take shape through the performances, narratives, and materialities of the street. That is, contentious politics take on particular place characteristics and thus must be studied in diverse places. This dissertation examines the contentious politics of Germany, a western democracy with a convoluted political history and memory culture. With its cautionary tale of the Nazi movement turned regime, Germany provides an especially valuable context within which to study social memory’s relationship with contentious politics. Based on ten months of fieldwork in Dresden, Berlin, and Munich, this dissertation demonstrates how contentious political actors engage in memory politics and perform, narrate, and employ the materialities of place to (re)mediate multiscalar memories. Inspired by Charles Tilly’s repertoires of contention, the stock of performances and tactics available to contentious political actors, the dissertation examines the role of place memories in present-day contentious politics through corporeal, spatial, and representational repertoires. Corporeal repertoires refer to repeat performances in which meaning making is achieved through the protesting body. As captivating as its visuality may be, it is often the protesting body’s aurality that first signals its presence to passersby. Music, from spontaneous to studio creations, are core to protest soundscapes and the efforts of contentious political actors to reconstruct place. Illustrated through original and appropriated songs, protesting bodies can wield music’s tripartite of meaning making—musical composition, lyrical content, and performance context—to build solidarity, recall a social memory, move bodies to desired political actions, or reimagine geographies. Spatial repertoires shift from the protesting body’s corporeality to its meaning making through mobility in urban space. Protesting bodies, as remembering bodies, occupy or weave together memory places to create new spatial narratives and in turn to (re)construct urban memoryscapes. As placelings, protesters mediate the connections between memory and place and engage in memory work for themselves, for the cities they envision, and/or for a larger imagined community. As exemplified through a historical spatial analysis of Munich digitally mapping 170 years of protest actions (1848–2019), certain places within a given locality become centers of contentious political action because of the deep histories they signify. Shifting from the visible protester to the concealed street artist, representational repertoires refer to meaning making through visual media intimately engaged with the materiality of place. Street art sometimes interacts with institutional memory sites (memory site interactant), but more often floats freely in the larger urban memoryscape thereby transforming liminal spaces into memory places (floating mnemonic actant). Already acknowledged for its placemaking capacity, street art’s mnemonic capacity to push, pull, and play with place memories is demonstrated through various examples commemorating anniversaries, drawing historical analogies, time-shifting historical figures, returning to “better” times, and crafting nascent memories. Evidenced by these chapters, German contentious politics, whether working for a cause or for a political identity, are steeped in social memories and rooted in the meaning making of place. Understood within the wider context of the present democratic crisis, I argue that social memory has become unmoored from the historical past and increasingly mythic in character, especially on the right. Just as democracy suffers from post-truthism and tribalism, so too does social memory. In fact, the memory problem may very well be exacerbating the democratic one. The presence of this problem in Germany, a nation so praised for its memory culture and handling of its dark past, casts great doubt on what constitutes a healthy memory culture. To restore the health of liberal democracies, societies must revisit their relationship to the past.
  • MEDICAL PROCEDURES AT THE END OF LIFE IN A PANDEMIC: A SPECIAL FOCUS ON THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (SARS-COV-2)

    Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Helping patients and their families prepare for the end of life is a privilege for physicians. Often these discussions are very sensitive; one must be able to navigate the complexities of dying while maintaining the strong, intimate relationship with a person who has entrusted the doctor with his or her final care. Many of the same principles of medical ethics still apply such as informed consent, acknowledging different degrees of health literacy, and cultural humility. With end-of-life care, physicians are responsible for providing their patients dignity in death. In doing so, it is important to decide how aggressive or intense medical treatment should be. There is evidence to suggest that early involvement of palliative care, foregoing invasive procedures or surgeries, and honest communication with families can improve the dying experience. The COVID-19 pandemic has only added more challenges to an already difficult art that physicians spend entire careers working on perfecting. Nevertheless, this provides even more reason to be proactive in determining what is most important for every individual in their final days. 
  • The Effectiveness of the PACE Method to Teach Grammar

    Toth, Paul D.; Toth, Paul D.; Merino, Adriana; Holmquist, Jonathan Carl; Lorenzino, Gerardo (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Traditionally, the explanation of grammatical rules of a second language has been done in an explicit and deductive way. This means that the instructor explains the rules, and these grammatical explanations are followed by communicative practice activities. This case study will analyze the results obtained in the grammatical teaching of a Spanish rule using the PACE method (Adair-Hauck and Donato, 2016). This method is explicit and inductive, which means that the instructor who teaches the grammar rule guides the discussion of that rule to see if students are able to extract it from the text presented to them. Then, communicative activities of linguistic production follow.This study assumes that there is a connection between explicit and implicit knowledge of grammar (Ellis, 2005). This study teaches three lessons using the PACE method. One lesson teaches impersonal se, another teaches the passive se, and another lesson teaches the inchoative se to students who have studied three years of Spanish at an urban public school in Madison. This structure is complicated both syntactically and semantically for Spanish students as a second language. For this study, I fully transcribed the conversations about the grammar rule of three groups of students in the three lessons they received. I counted the amount of time they spent discussing the grammatical rule of the lesson of the day, and I also divided that conversation into four levels of increasing depth of analysis. I then fully transcribed all the communicative activities they had practicing the rule they previously discussed. Thus, I counted the number of cases that each student performed the correct or incorrect use of the rule. Finally, I counted the cases in which the activity stops being of a communicative nature because of problem or challenge arises. In order for students to solve the problem, they need to pay attention to the form. Therefore, I counted these interruptions and then divided such interruptions in four different categories, so that I could analyze the nature of the challenges students face when they communicate using the target rule. The results of my study did not count on the individual variability I found. In order to explain this unexpected variability, I used Storch's group dynamics (2002). According to his study, collaborative and expert/novice dyads are the ones that produce the best results in linguistic accuracy. The results of my study show that the collaborative dyad is the one that gets the best results in accuracy using the target rule, while in the other two groups that are an expert/novice dyad, the results obtained were positive as well, despite two texts missing in the communicative activities. This study concludes that the PACE method is a valid one, and an alternative to the traditional deductive way of teaching of grammar. Although this study makes no comparison with deductive teaching, the results point to a positive connection and impact between explicit grammatical explanations that are developed through PACE, and their subsequent realization in communicative activities where students speak spontaneously. In addition, this study proposes to encourage and analyze mutuality in groups that discuss the rule in future studies. It is the common element of the two most productive dyads, and it seems to be the easiest variable to control.

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