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Recent Submissions

  • A study of the cooperative office work experience program in New Jersey, 1958-1959

    Martin, Charles Wilford, Ed. M. (Temple University. Libraries, 1962)
    Introduction. Statement of the Problem: It was the purpose of this study to determine the current status, practice, and problem of the cooperative office work experience programs that existed in the public high schools in the State of New Jersey with implications for those who plan to organize and develop such programs. It is generally believed that a cooperative office work experience program is a learning device which will provide more effective training for office jobs.
  • IDENTITY AND EMPOWERMENT: GANGS IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY PHILADELPHIA

    Kusmer, Kenneth; Waldstreicher, David (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
    This is a study of the gangs that inhabited Philadelphia and its neighboring districts in the mid-nineteenth century. In discussing the drastic societal shifts taking place in major American cities during this period--industrialization, immigration, urbanization, and the solidifying of class lines, this work paints a chaotic scene. Within this tumultuous setting, gangs emerged in working-class neighborhoods to meet two basic needs of their members and the communities they occupied. First, gang membership allowed working-class boys and men to establish shared identities. Utilizing a gender analysis, this study will demonstrate how working-class males developed a distinct version of masculinity. Set in defiance of middle-class values of self-control, wealth accumulation, and respect for the social hierarchy, this brand of masculinity embraced rowdiness, intemperance, and libertinism. Participation in activities such as assault, drinking, and battling rivals allowed gang members to assert their working-class manhood. Additionally, gang membership helped working-class boys and men carve out identities within their own neighborhoods. In the rapidly changing urban landscape, native-born whites, immigrants, and African Americans often lived alongside one another. By forming gangs along ethnic, religious, and political lines, these young men developed a sense of community and camaraderie in a sea of strangers. The second function mid-nineteenth century Philadelphia's gangs served was to empower their members and communities. Through violent attacks, gangs could establish a degree of control over which ethnic, racial, or religious groups lived and worked within their neighborhoods. Second, gangs empowered their members and communities politically. Recognizing their skill in using force, politicians in the mid-nineteenth century allied themselves with gangs in order to win elections. In return for their services, gang members received patronage positions and a degree of protection from the law. To Philadelphia's ruling elites, the poorer masses' increased participation in politics was unacceptable. In an effort to curb the influence of the city's and surrounding districts' gangs, reformers fought to establish a more effective system of law enforcement and to bureaucratize local government. As this thesis argues, the consolidation of Philadelphia and its neighboring districts in 1854 represents the traditional authorities' attempt to wrangle political power from the ward bosses of less affluent communities.
  • FAITH OVER COLOR: ETHIO-EUROPEAN ENCOUNTERS AND DISCOURSES IN THE EARLY-MODERN ERA

    Tibebu, Teshale; Cassanelli, Lee V., 1946-; Northrup, David, 1941-; Spodek, Howard, 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
    This dissertation explores multiple episodes of interaction between Ethiopians and Europeans throughout the early modern era. After overviewing the Ethiopian exploration of Europe in the 15th century and the first Catholic attempts to reconnect to the Ethiopian Church at the turn of the 16th century, it focuses on the Ethio-Lusophone encounter by considering the emergence of Ethiopian studies in early modern Lisbon, the Portuguese military intervention in the Ethiopian-Adal War (1529-1543) and the Jesuit mission to Ethiopia (1555-1632). This dissertation argues that in the context of the early-modern Ethio-European encounter, faith trumped skin color in the discourse on sameness and otherness: throughout the 15th and 16th centuries Europeans and Ethiopians perceived each other as belonging to the same Christian world and collaborated to defy the perceived Muslim threat. Starting in the late 16th century however, Counter-Reformation Catholicism and Jesuit proselytism transformed Ethiopians into others, and--in Ethiopian eyes--Europeans became a threat. The Jesuit mission engendered an era of turmoil that crippled both the Ethio-European encounter and the Ethiopian monarchy: in its aftermath, the Ethiopian elites maintained a policy of isolation from Europe, barred Europeans from entering their country and redirected their attention to the Muslim societies of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean basins.
  • BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF LOCKED PLATING AND SPIRAL BLADE RETROGRADE NAILING OF SUPRACONDYLAR FEMUR FRACTURES

    Darvish, Kurosh; Rehman, Saqib; Pillapakkam, Shriram (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    Background: Comminuted supracondylar femur fractures in the elderly are often treated with either retrograde femoral nailing or locked plating. Early weight-bearing is typically restricted after fixing supracondylar fractures, thereby impairing the patient's mobilization. In general, surgeons are more comfortable allowing early weight-bearing of long bone fractures after nailing rather than plating, but early studies of retrograde nails for supracondylar fractures using standard distal locking showed poor fixation compared with locked plating. Newer generation distal locking techniques, such as the spiral blade, may demonstrate improved fixation, potentially allowing early weight bearing. The purpose of this study is to biomechanically compare locked plating with retrograde nailing of osteoporotic supracondylar femur fractures with simulated physiologic weight-bearing in the post-operative period. Methods: The Locking Condylar Plate (LCP) and Retrograde/Antegrade EX Femoral Nail (RAFN) with spiral blade locking were tested using 10 paired elderly cadaveric femurs, divided into normal and low BMD groups, with a simulated AO/OTA type 33-A3 supracondylar femur fracture. Each specimen was subjected to 200,000 loading cycles simulating six weeks of postoperative recovery with full weight-bearing for an average individual and the construct subsidence and axial stiffness were measured. Results: LCP fixation compared to RAFN showed higher axial stiffness for normal and low BMD groups (80% and 57% respectively). After cyclic loading, axial stiffness of both constructs decreased by 20% and RAFN fixation resulted in twice as much subsidence (1.9±0.6 mm). Two RAFN constructs with low BMD failed after a few cycles whereas the matched pairs fixed with LCP failed after 68,000 and 100,000 cycles. Conclusions: The LCP construct was stiffer than RAFN construct. Early weight bearing may cause 3-4 mm of subsidence in elderly patients with low BMD. However, because of the observed failures in two of the samples treated with RAFN in the low BMD group, early weight bearing is not recommended in osteoporotic bones treated with RAFN.
  • REFRAMING THE METROPOLITAN GROWTH PROPOSITION: PREDICTING METROPOLITAN GROWTH AND PROSPERITY THROUGH AN ECONOMIC INCLUSION SIMULATION

    Chinloy, Peter, 1950-; Mudambi, Ram; Wray, Matt, 1964-; Cole, Bruce (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Abstract In terms of income, the cities of the United States now have the greatest income inequality than any other democratic nation in the developed world. However, if you assess the economy of the United States through the lens of traditional indicators—inflation, unemployment, increases/decreases of the Dow Jones average, and gross domestic product—the country in general, along with great cities of the country display optimistic economic growth (Pre-Covid-19). The disconnect between traditional notions of economic growth and many families’ well-being/prosperity remains a by-product of an inefficient wealth distribution eco-system. This study/simulation at its core attempts to assess various causal conditional propositions and increase the knowledge regarding these relationships in regards to the creation and distribution of income. The intent of the study is to provide policy makers with needed insight to assist with the development of a solution to these social and economic problems by taking an in-depth look at the historical business investment and income distribution of two geographical sectors of the country—Michigan and New Mexico metropolitan regions. By creating an unique economic inclusion simulator that links correlation with quantitative based models, the question presented is whether a correlation exists between various growth, prosperity, and economic inclusion variables and the potential future impact on the economic growth of various metropolitan statistical areas, federal, state and local tax revenue receipts. The most important contribution of this research is the reframing of the issue that the business phenomena (metropolitan economic low growth) rest in the markets failure to effectively incorporate/include a large share of the cities’ population into the wealth and capital creation process—a business proposition for long-term growth and prosperity for metropolitan areas could be impacted significantly by public policies that enhance economic inclusion. This simulation will demonstrate various levels of impact with the goal to enhance the knowledge and practical application of economic and taxation growth models at the metropolitan level. This model will use growth and prosperity variables as they relate to economic inclusion variables to achieve this goal, quantifying why or why not successful economic inclusion will increase the economic growth of the metropolitan sectors of America.
  • Examining the Effects of a High Fat, High Sugar Diet in Adolescence on Memory and Executive Functioning in Young Adulthood

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Olson, Ingrid; Alloy, Lauren B.; Olino, Thomas; Giovannetti, Tania; Jarcho, Johanna (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that diets high in fats and sugar lead to poorer cognitive functioning. Importantly, animals exposed to a high fat, high sugar (HFHS) diet during adolescence show more pronounced deficits in cognitive performance than animals given this diet during adulthood, suggesting an age-specific vulnerability for diet-induced cognitive impairments. Given that the three primary sources of daily caloric intake for children and adolescents in the United States are dessert, pizza, and soda, translational research is needed to better understand the link between diet during development and cognitive function. Some studies demonstrate long-term effects of adolescent exposure to HFHS diets, highlighting a need for longitudinal research in this area. The current study sought to investigate whether unhealthy dietary habits during adolescent development predicts performance on tasks of memory and executive function using publicly available data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health study). Using three separate linear regressions, we tested whether HFHS intake in adolescence predicts memory and executive function in young adulthood using the following outcomes as dependent variables: total word recall score (immediate trial), total word recall score (delayed trial), and total number recall score. We also tested whether a robust indicator of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), which was measured in adulthood, mediates the relationship between HFHS intake in adolescence and cognitive performance in adulthood. Finally, we tested whether physical activity in adolescence moderates the relationship between HFHS intake in adolescence and hsCRP as well as cognitive performance in adulthood. The results of the regression analyses reveal that HFHS scores in adolescence significantly and negatively predict performance on both the immediate and delayed word recall trials in adulthood, even after controlling for relevant covariates such as SES and BMI. The effect of HFHS scores on number recall scores was trending toward significance. The relationship between diet and memory was mediated by hsCRP, though HFHS scores was negatively associated with hsCRP. Physical activity did not moderate the effect of diet on hsCRP or cognitive performance. These findings support animal and human studies showing a relationship between HFHS intake and poorer cognitive performance. Importantly, the results of the current study extend the existing literature by suggesting that HFHS intake during adolescent development may affect cognitive performance later in life. Replication of this study is needed along with further research to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between HFHS and cognition as well as factors that modify this relationship.
  • LEGAL INTENSITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, AND FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY

    Krishnan, Jayanthi; Krishnan, Jagan; Byzalov, Dmitri; Su, Barbara; Zhao, Zhigen (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This study examines the association between the extent of legal intensity in firms’ financial reports and their financial reporting quality. Firms’ financial reports contain embedded legal content arising from contracts and agreements underlying their operations. Accountants interpret the contract provisions and conditions to determine the timing and amounts recognized in financial reports. Legal content is technical and complex, creating a potential for misinterpretation and errors in accounting for transactions, thus adversely affecting financial reporting quality. Using legal tags in companies’ 10-K XBRL filings, I construct a measure of the legal intensity of financial reports. I document an inverse association between legal intensity of financial reports and financial reporting quality, proxied by accruals quality, analyst earnings forecast errors and dispersion, earnings informativeness, and accruals informativeness. The inverse association is driven by firm-specific legal content rather than common legal content. There is also some evidence that the inverse association is strengthened by high operational uncertainty and attenuated by accounting experts on the audit committee. Collectively, this study increases our understanding of challenges in translating legal content into financial reports and the benefit of audit committee accounting experts in this setting.
  • Therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral and supportive psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Fauber, Robert L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Kendall, Philip C; O'Hayer, C. Virginia (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Therapeutic alliance is widely considered one of the factors most associated with treatment success in psychotherapy across a variety of outcomes. However, these effects may differ based on treatment approach or who is rating alliance (client, therapist, or third-party observer). Notably, research on this relationship among individuals with primary aggression problems is limited, with no study to date investigating therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy among individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED), the only psychiatric disorder for which affective aggression is pathognomonic. The current study sought to fill this gap by exploring the role of therapeutic alliance on a range of outcomes among 51 adults with IED who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral and supportive psychotherapy. Therapeutic alliance was assessed by clients, therapists, and an observer at week four of treatment, and outcomes included time in treatment, anger, aggression, emotion dysregulation, and IED remission status. Results showed that alliance was positively associated with reduced anger and aggression at post-treatment. Although alliance was more highly rated in the cognitive-behavioral condition, the alliance-outcome relationship did not differ based on treatment condition. There were no differences found between raters of alliance. These findings support the importance of developing and maintaining a strong relationship in psychotherapy with individuals diagnosed with IED.
  • Neurodevelopmental Pathways to Depression in Adolescence: Socioeconomic Status, Cortical Structure, and Depression Symptoms

    Olino, Thomas; Giovannetti, Tania; Alloy, Lauren B.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Schofield, Hannah-Lise (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a key predictor of a multitude of health and functional outcomes, and growing up in low SES contexts is associated with poor neurocognitive outcomes and mental health problems across the lifespan. Recent studies of the links between SES and brain development suggest that associations between low SES and poor neurocognitive and health outcomes are likely accounted for by impacts on neurodevelopment. Low SES is associated with structural brain development, including reduced cortical thickness in frontal regions relevant to higher-level cognitive functions. However, understanding of how the impacts of SES on neurodevelopment contribute to developing psychopathology is limited. The study of how neurodevelopmental processes may contribute to depression is of particular interest given numerous neural correlates of depression, including reduced cortical thickness in frontal regions. Whereas both SES and depression independently have demonstrated associations with grey matter maturation, no studies to date have examined how the associations between SES, depression, and cortical structure interrelate. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining associations between SES at both household and neighborhood levels, depression symptoms, and cortical structure in adolescence. Furthermore, exploratory analyses investigated specific pathways of SES effects on depression symptoms and cortical structure through exposure to psychosocial stress. Data were drawn from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study of reward function development. Participants included 232 youth ages 9-13 (57.03% female; 46.59% White, 39.36% African American, 11.24% Multiracial, 2.81% Other; 11.24% Hispanic) and their primary caregivers who completed assessments of depression symptoms and stress at baseline and a 9-month follow-up, as well as an MRI assessment between baseline and follow up. Regression analyses examined associations between 1) SES to cortical structure, 2) SES to depression symptoms, 3) baseline depression symptoms and cortical structure, and 4) cortical structure to depression symptoms at follow-up. Structural equation models examined indirect effects of 1) SES on depression symptoms through cortical structure, 2) SES on cortical structure through depression symptoms, and 3) SES on cortical structure and depression symptoms through experiences of psychosocial stress. Neighborhood SES was positively associated with mean cortical thickness, and household SES was inversely associated with depression symptoms at follow up, controlling for baseline symptoms. No indirect effects were identified. Findings suggest that different aspects of SES may confer unique risks for neural and psychosocial development in early adolescence, such that SES of the neighborhood appears to have global effects on neurodevelopment that are not mediated by mood or proximal stress, whereas SES of the household appears to be associated with increasing mood symptoms and heightened stress experiences in early adolescence.
  • The Relationship Between Therapist Behaviors During Exposure Tasks and Treatment Outcomes for Anxious Youth

    Kendall, Philip C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Giovannetti, Tania; McCloskey, Michael; Gosch, Elizabeth A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Background: Exposure tasks—where an individual confronts a feared stimulus or situation—are known to be a key element of the treatment for youth anxiety. However, optimal therapist behaviors during these exposure tasks and the specifics of how therapist should conduct exposure tasks have not been determined. The current study examined the relationship between therapist behaviors that (a) increased, (b) decreased or (c) maintained the youth’s anxiety during exposures and treatment outcomes. Methods: Participants were youth (N = 107) ages 7 to 17 who received cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety. Youth and their primary caregiver(s) completed a diagnostic interview and self- and parent-report measures pre- and post-treatment. Exposure session videos were rated by observers trained to reliability on a coding system evaluating therapist behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the role of therapist behaviors in predicting treatment outcomes. Logistic regression assessed the ability of therapist behaviors to predict treatment responder status (i.e., being a treatment responder versus a non-responder). Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between the individual therapist behaviors (within the three overall categories of behaviors) and treatment outcomes. Results: Youth showed significant improvement over the course of treatment. The three categories of therapist behaviors used during exposure tasks (increase, decrease and maintain the youth’s anxiety) were not associated with treatment outcomes. Discussion: Findings indicate that so long as exposure tasks are conducted, the therapist behaviors during the exposures may not be as important for predicting outcomes. Clinical implications, study limitations, and future directions are discussed.
  • Group identity versus Relational Identity: The influence of Identity Primes on Socio-political Attitudes

    Hardy, Bruce W.; Holbert, Lance; Arceneaux, Kevin (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    While numerous studies have examined the role of group identity, particularly partisan identity, in influencing individuals’ socio-political attitudes and policy preferences, the impact of relational identity — individuals’ self-concept rooted in interpersonal relationships, roles, and responsibilities — is rarely examined. This dissertation outlines the different effects of group identity and relational identity on message processing and attitude change in socio-political contexts. This dissertation first draws on the social identity approach and motivated reasoning to understand how categorizing oneself in terms of group membership contributes to group polarization. Next, building on Brewer and Gardner’s (1996) notion of a relational self and interpersonal relationship literature, this dissertation examines the influence of relational identity on attitudes toward socio-political issues. Additionally, this dissertation offers a relational identity-based strategic communication solution that could potentially mitigate polarization resulting from group identity. Three online survey experiments were conducted in three different contexts, including immigration, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic. These three studies primed different group identities (e.g., partisan identity and national identity) and relational identities (e.g., being a friend and being a parent) and then presented issue-specific factual information. Results suggest that individuals’ partisan identities bias a broad range of judgments and lead to polarization over politicized issues, even when presented with factual information. However, linking a controversial socio-political issue and an issue-relevant relational identity has the potential to mitigate polarization resulting from group identity such as partisanship.
  • OWNER OF A BROKEN HEART: STEM CELL THERAPY, INFLAMMATION, AND WOUND HEALING IN THE INFARCTED HEART

    Houser, Steven R.; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Gallucci, Stefania; Kishore, Raj; Lindsey, Merry (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Acute damage to the heart, as in the case of myocardial infarction (MI), triggers a robust inflammatory response to the sterile injury and requires a complex and highly organized wound healing processes for survival. Cortical bone stem cell (CBSC) therapy has been shown to attenuate the decline in cardiac function associated with MI in both mouse and swine models. However, the cellular changes brought about by CBSC treatment and their relationship to inflammation and the wound healing process are unknown. We observed that CBSCs secrete paracrine factors known to have immunomodulatory properties, most notably Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) and Transforming Growth Factor-b, but not IL-4. Macrophages treated with CBSC medium containing these factors polarized to a hybrid M2a/M2c phenotype characterized by increased CD206 expression but not CD206 and CD163 co-expression, increased efferocytic ability, increased IL-10, TGF-b and IL-1RA secretion, and increased mitochondrial respiration in the absence of IL-4. Media from these macrophages increased proliferation and decreased a-Smooth Muscle Actin expression in fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, CBSC therapy increased macrophages, CD4+ T-cells, and fibroblasts while decreasing myocyte, macrophage, and total apoptosis in an in vivo swine model of MI. From these data, we conclude that CBSCs are modulating the immune response to MI in favor of an anti-inflammatory reparative response, ultimately reducing cell death and altering fibroblast populations resulting in smaller scar and preserved cardiac geometry and function.
  • Mitochondrial response to axonal injury

    Gallo, Gianluca; Smith, George M.; Thomas, Gareth; Li, Shuxin; Selzer, Michael E.; Ma, Le (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    The failure of axonal regeneration is due to myriad reasons both cell intrinsic and extrinsic. In this thesis, I sought to investigate an intrinsic reason for regeneration failure in the CNS. Specifically, I investigated the role of axonal mitochondria in the axonal response to injury. A viral vector (AAV) containing a mitochondrially targeted fluorescent protein (mitoDsRed) as well as fluorescently tagged LC3 (GFP-LC3), an autophagosomal marker, was injected into primary motor cortex, to label the corticospinal tract (CST), of adult rats. The axons of the CST were then injured by dorsal column lesion at C4-C5. We found that mitochondria in injured CST axons near the injury site are fragmented and fragmentation of mitochondria persists for two weeks before returning to pre-injury lengths. Fragmented mitochondria have consistently been shown to be dysfunctional and detrimental to cellular health. Interestingly, transection of axons within the sciatic nerve resulted in mitochondrial fission but did not result in the fragmentation of mitochondria. Inhibition of Drp1, the GTPase responsible for mitochondrial fission, using a specific pharmacological inhibitor (mDivi-1) blocked fragmentation. Additionally, it was determined that there is increased mitophagy in CST axons following spinal cord injury based on increased colocalization of mitochondria and LC3. In vitro models revealed that mitochondrial calcium uptake is necessary for injury induced mitochondrial fission, as inhibiting mitochondrial calcium uptake using RU360, a mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor, prevented injury induced fission. This phenomenon was also observed in vivo. These studies indicate that following injury, both in vivo and in vitro, axonal mitochondria undergo increased fission, which may result in an ATP deficit that contributes to the lack of regeneration seen in CNS neurons.
  • ENTHRONING HEALTH: THE NATIONAL NEGRO HEALTH MOVEMENT AND THE FIGHT TO CONTROL PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY IN THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY, 1915-1950

    Collier-Thomas, Bettye; Simon, Bryant; Berman, Lila Corwin, 1976-; Downs, James (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    In the early 1900s, African Americans died at higher rates, got sick more often, and had worse health outcomes for almost all diseases when compared to whites. This disparity was due to a combination of racism, discrimination, and segregation. Most blacks could only afford to live in unhealthy conditions and had little or no access to medical professionals. Problematically, poor black health led many whites to think of blacks as being inherently diseased, promoting the segregation and discrimination that contributed to black ill health in the first place. This project examines Negro Health Week (NNHW), which became National Negro Health Week (NNHW), a public health campaign designed by African Americans as a systematic effort to improve their health that lasted between 1915 and 1950. The dissertation reveals the strategies African Americans used to empower themselves to combat ill health and the ways medical ideas became accessible to blacks. The racism of the white medical establishment limited the ability of African Americans to enter the medical profession. The small number of black doctors and nurses meant that NHW had to rely on non-medical professionals to teach health practices. Originally begun as a local campaign in Savannah, Booker T. Washington adopted Negro Health Week as a program to teach formerly enslaved blacks in Tuskegee, Alabama how to live. Working as sharecroppers and living in the small cabins they had inhabited as enslaved people, the majority of blacks lived in squalor. Margaret Murray Washington, who co-founded the National Association of Colored Women in 1896, laid the groundwork for NHW at Tuskegee. During her tenure as Lady Principal of Tuskegee, she created the Tuskegee Woman’s Club and brought together local organizations and women’s clubs to work with women in improving their homes by providing advice on basic hygiene and sanitation that they could implement with little cost. Booker T. Washington coopted the TWC program and brought Monroe Work from Savannah to Tuskegee to head up a more ambitious program which he envisioned expanding throughout the rural South. In 1900 Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) which included key black business men from throughout the nation, especially the South. The NNBL was instrumental in helping Washington to expand and publicize Negro Health Week. Under the leadership of Booker T. Washington and his successor, Robert Moton, NHW continued to focus on providing advice on basic hygiene and sanitation in one’s home and neighborhood. The emphasis on low-cost individual health practices, such as basic privy sanitation or proper whitewash technique, gave African Americans the ability to take ownership of their health. The Week explained how blacks could improve their health and that of the community even without medical professionals. After Booker T. Washington’s death in 1915, Moton succeeded in getting the support of the national Public Health Service (PHS) and National Negro Health Week came into existence in 1921. The Service’s vast network of health professionals and connections with state and local health departments allowed the campaign to expand out of the South. However, with the involvement of the PHS, the Week began to change. As hygiene practices became more accepted, the Service reframed NNHW to focus on vaccinations and regular physician and dentist visits. As medical professionals became NNHW leaders, the campaign’s message transformed from emphasizing how individuals could improve health on their own to describing how much people needed physicians to obtain good health. Under the PHS, lay people could do little to improve their health. Instead, they had to rely on the medical profession. The PHS used NNHW to reposition the medical establishment as the ultimate arbiter of African American health. Today, there is still a wide racial disparity in participation in, and access to, public health, and indeed in health outcomes in the United States. Understanding the Week can better position scholars and public health officials to understand how race and health intersect and the ramifications of health policies on race relations.
  • REACHING TOWARDS RESILIENCE: SCHOOL MOTIVATION MODERATES THE RELATION BETWEEN PROBLEMATIC PARENTING AND ADOLESCENT EXTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS

    Drabick, Deborah A.; Xie, Hongling; Weinraub, Marsha; Helion, Chelsea; Jarcho, Johanna; Kaplan, Avi (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Fundamental adaptive systems such as achievement motivation have been identified as key mechanisms for affecting youth outcomes. These systems can be encouraged and supported in specific contexts, such as the school setting. This study explored whether school achievement motivation during mid-adolescence could protect against developing externalizing behaviors related to lax, psychologically controlling, or rejecting parenting experienced prior, in pre-adolescence. Motivation was defined and assessed according to adolescent behaviors displayed in the classroom. Data from the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR) were obtained to carry out the study analyses. The total sample was 775 youth (M = 10.95 ± 0.88 years old; 69% male; 76% Caucasian, 21% African American, 3% multiracial at T1), though sample sizes on key variables where as low as 337 because of missing data. Analyses controlled for father lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorder diagnosis, family socio-economic status, adolescent school learning at T2, adolescent age and sex. Results showed that psychological and emotional forms of problematic parenting in pre-adolescence were associated with future externalizing problems in mid-adolescence, however behavioral forms of problematic parenting did not show any effect. When school motivation was high, adolescents showed the lowest levels of externalizing behaviors related to both psychologically controlling and rejecting parenting, followed by their moderate and low motivation peers. In most cases, only adolescents low in school motivation were significantly impacted by problematic parenting whereas adolescents moderate or high in motivation were not affected. Unexpected nuances in findings are also discussed.
  • Deep-sea coral biogeography and community structure in tropical seamount environments

    Cordes, Erik E.; Sanders, Robert W.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    As the largest and most poorly environment on Earth, the deep-sea is facing global threats from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance further compounded by the lack of critical baseline data on seafloor species composition and community structure. Many data-deficient regions include those in geographically-isolated offshore environments, like low-latitude seamounts, where sampling and surveys have been limited, resulting in critical knowledge gaps that do not allow for effective conservation measures to be realized. This work seeks to characterize the coral fauna of tropical seamount environments greater than 150 m depth and understand the environmental controls on species distribution and community assembly for long-lived, ecologically-important species, primarily from the Octocorallia, Antipatharia, Stylasteridae, and Scleractinia. Methodologies for accomplishing this research have included analysis of remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video surveys and identification of collected voucher specimens to understand biogeographic patterns within coral communities on seamounts and other rugged seafloor features in 3 different regions: the tropical western Atlantic (Anegada Passage), the equatorial central Pacific (Phoenix Islands), and the tropical eastern Pacific (Costa Rica). These regions represent vastly different oceanographic regimes in terms of biological productivity and water column structure resulting in differential effects on deep-sea coral communities. Evidence from these three regions has shown significant effects of the role that oceanic water masses have on structuring deep-water coral biodiversity and suggests that these features, along with other abiotic environmental variables, are important indicators for understanding species distribution patterns, community structure, and global biogeographic patterns. More broadly, the results of this work have demonstrated the capabilities of exploratory ROV surveys, across multiple platforms, to add practical knowledge to coral species inventories and identify bathyal biogeographic patterns in remote regions of the deep sea. The results of this work, serving as baseline coral biodiversity surveys for each area, are also germane to evaluating the effects of human-mediated disturbance and global climate change in the deep ocean. These disturbances also include ocean acidification, ocean deoxygenation, deep-sea mining, and bottom-contact fishing, all of which have been identified as threats to the seamount benthos.
  • Investigating Ultrafast Photoexcited Dynamics of Organic Chromophores

    Matsika, Spiridoula; Spano, Francis C.; Levis, Robert; Perdew, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Light or photons can excite electrons in a molecule, leading to creation of electronically excited states. Such processes are ubiquitous in nature, such as, vision, photo-protection of DNA/RNA nucleobases, light harvesting, energy and charger transfer etc. This photoexcitation induces nuclear motion on the excited states, leading the excess energy to dissipate either non-radiatively via internal conversion back down to the ground state, isomerization, and dissociation, or radiatively via fluorescence and phosphorescence. In this dissertation, we investigate the non-radiative processes in organic chromophores that ensue in an ultrafast manner, mediated via conical intersections (CoIn). Description of such excited state processes generally require multi-reference treatment because of quasi-degeneracy near CoIns. Hence, most insight about these processes is typically gained by constructing potential energy surface (PES) using multi-reference electronic structure methods along important reaction coordinates. Nonetheless, the aforementioned static treatment fails to provide any dynamical information, such as, excited state lifetime, state populations, branching ratio, quantum yield etc. In this dissertation, we have gone beyond the static treatment by undertaking computationally expensive non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics simulations employing trajectory surface hopping (TSH) methodology on PESs created on-the-fly using multi-reference electronic structure methods. This allows us to compare theoretical results to experimental observables, when possible, strengthening the explanations underlying those processes. Our goal is to examine the effect of structure, and of electronic structure methods on the excited state dynamics. We have examined the non-adiabatic excited state dynamics of cis,cis-1,3-cyclooctadiene (cc-COD), a cyclic diene, in an effort to systematically compare and contrast the dynamics of cc-COD to that of other well studied conjugated molecules. Such exploration is very significant, since the majority of the molecules involved in natural photoexcited processes, include an ethylenic double bond or alternating double bonds creating conjugation. Our calculations have revealed ultrafast sub-ps decay for cc-COD, and have illustrated that the internal conversion dynamics is facilitated by CoIns, dominated by twisting of one of the double bonds and pyramidalization of one of the carbons of that double bond, similar to trans-1,3-butadiene and unlike 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Our high-level electronic structure calculations have also explained the features in the experimental time-resolved photoelectron spectrum of cc-COD. Another molecule of biological importance, uracil, was also investigated using TSH simulations, by systematically increasing dynamical correlation. We have found that the inclusion of dynamical correlation for uracil leads to an almost barrierless PES on S2, leading to a faster decay and no population trap on this state. Uracil also contains a double bond and the simulations have revealed that the ultrafast relaxation is dominated by an ethylenic twist and pyramidalization of a carbon of that bond, increasing importance of such nuclear motion in photoexcited molecular dynamics. A comparison of the molecules studied have illustrated that the rigid molecules, such as uracil, CHD, have a very local CoIn seam space, whereas cc-COD, which is flexible having many low frequency degrees of freedom, has a non-local or extended CoIn seam space. Overall, the work performed in this dissertation, elucidates the significance of structure and conjugation, in the photoinduced coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in organic molecules.
  • Figuring Women's Work: The Cultural Production of Care and Labor in the Industrial U.S.

    Orvell, Miles; Salazar, James B.; Gauch, Suzanne, 1965-; Fazio, Michele (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Scholars conventionally begin their investigation of U.S. labor history with industrialization, focusing on forms of industrial labor, union organization, and labor legislation, to the exclusion of work performed in the “private sphere”: domestic, service, and care labor. But by presuming that these forms of “women’s work” were outside the market and the interests of labor, scholars obscure a vast array of historical possibilities that precede our present economic and social order. This dissertation reads against this prevailing tendency in labor and working-class studies to pose the question: what if the antecedents of our present culture and economy may be found not merely in the industrial past, but in the nineteenth-century home? After all, whether in the gig and service economies, or in white-collar workplaces, the vast majority of working people now engage in some form of service, care, and affective labor. Figuring Women’s Work seeks to denaturalize our relationship to work, revealing that labor is a historically contingent political concept in order to expand the scope of what counts as work and open further lines of inquiry into both working-class studies and U.S. literary and cultural studies. To pursue its hypothesis, this dissertation performs a genealogical investigation of service labor, beginning in the antebellum period when housewives and their servants struggled over the meaning of domestic labor in a slaveholding republic, and continuing through the early twentieth century as forms of women’s work were commercialized in the public sphere. In this context, social anxieties about the relationship among gender, race, economic dependency, and labor were articulated in literary forms like the seduction novel and servants’ tale, by leaders of social movements, and in legal battles that sought to distinguish market from domestic relations. These social tensions, each chapter argues, found symbolic resolution in the cultural idealization of a figure of labor—whether the celebration of the housewife as a pillar of democratic society, the Mammy as a selfless caregiver, the “office wife” as a model of industriousness and accommodation, or the sweated immigrant homeworker as a pitiable and romantic object of the philanthropic housewife’s charity. Reading literature written by working women, including Catharine Beecher, Harriet Jacobs, Harriet Wilson, Willa Cather, Anzia Yezierska, and Alice Childress, I demonstrate how the figures of women’s work were forged in relation to each other in order to apprehend the elaborate and racially segregated system of women workers engaged in the labor of social reproduction. Whereas conventional approaches to labor treat domestic work and service as “invisible,” Figuring Women’s Work argues instead that the domestic labor relations that emerged in the antebellum home were described by a metaphorics of kinship, modeled on the myth of the “plantation family” that figured master and slave as parent and child. Within the cultural mythology that developed, housewives were imagined as “second mothers” to their childlike, foreign, and racialized charges, in a relationship of mutual obligation and affection. Even as women’s work was commercialized, and the labor of social reproduction was increasingly performed outside of the home, the notion that women should perform out of a sense of duty to others, rather than in pursuit of economic self-interest, persisted. The metaphorics of kinship, the idea that workers should see themselves as a “part of the family” was adapted to public workplaces like offices, businesses, and retailers. Now, a century later, the cultural imperative to perform an affect of “self-denying benevolence,” a demand first issued by nineteenth-century housewives to their slaves and servants, is widely felt by working people across industries and classes who, dominant cultural ideologies suggest, should labor out of “love” and love to labor.
  • American Animals, American Men: Popular Literature from 1830 to 1915

    Orvell, Miles; Salazar, James B.; Ford, Talissa J.; Wray, Matt, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Critics of animal rights often deride the movement’s proponents for having a sentimental, juvenile misconception of what animals really are, an argument bolstered by the fact that few twenty-first-century Americans besides those engaged in the industries of animal exploitation have any prolonged contact with real animals other than their pets. Until the first decades of the twentieth century, however, American cities teemed with diverse animal residents and workers, and a rapidly increasing percentage of humans grew in their conviction that these animal neighbors should be extended considerations and rights. Shifting ideas about these animals’ roles within United States society were captured in a number of new bestselling literary genres centered around “realistic” depictions of animal characters. Because animals are often conceptualized as a “contrast class” to humanity—a fundamental “Other” by which humans establish what qualities make themselves distinct and (typically) superior—analyzing these texts and their circulation within nineteenth-century culture reveals how Americans understood authority and systems of governance, and in particular how they modeled an ideal American manhood nourished by animal bodies. What forms of exploitation and control were permissible in a man’s treatment of his animals often reflected other power dynamics within society, and so these texts also provide insight into issues of class, race, and gender. Although the historical trajectory of popular culture depictions of realistic animals shows a general increase in compassion, egalitarianism, and the extension of rights, the successful removal of much animal exploitation from visibility has allowed that exploitation to grow in spite of the increasing popular sentiment to the contrary.
  • Examining the Effect of First-Generation Status on Use of Career Services

    Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Ding, Meixia; Harrison, Jamaal Andrew (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Previous studies have found that overall first-generation college students have lower levels of student engagement than non-first-generation college students in higher education (Pascarella, Pierson, Wolniak, & Terenzini, 2004; Pike & Kuh, 2005). However, more recent research has brought into question the extent of these differences in engagement (Dong, 2019). Additionally, while a growing body of literature has focused on the engagement of first-generation college students, fewer studies have addressed this population’s participation with support services (Volet & Karabenick, 2006) and career services more specifically (Tate, Caperton, Kaiser, Pruitt, White & Hall, 2015). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of first-generation status on students’ use of in-person services at a university career center in a large, public research institution. A conceptual framework infusing social capital theory and intersectionality was developed to assess the effect of first-generation status alongside several other at-risk demographic factors. While first-generation status was not found to be a significant factor in students’ use of the career center, gender and student work did have an effect. The results of this study have implications for researchers studying the career development experiences of first-generation college students as well as administrators seeking to improve data tracking methods within career services offices.

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