Now showing items 21-40 of 3736

    • The company we keep. Using hemodialysis social network data to classify patients’ kidney transplant attitudes with machine learning algorithms

      Center for Data Analytics and Biomedical Informatics (Temple University) (2022-12-29)
      Background: Hemodialysis clinic patient social networks may reinforce positive and negative attitudes towards kidney transplantation. We examined whether a patient’s position within the hemodialysis clinic social network could improve machine learning classification of the patient’s positive or negative attitude towards kidney transplantation when compared to sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional social network survey of hemodialysis patients in two geographically and demographically different hemodialysis clinics. We evaluated whether machine learning logistic regression models using sociodemographic or network data best predicted the participant’s transplant attitude. Models were evaluated for accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. Results: The 110 surveyed participants’ mean age was 60 ± 13 years old. Half (55%) identified as male, and 74% identified as Black. At facility 1, 69% of participants had a positive attitude towards transplantation whereas at facility 2, 45% of participants had a positive attitude. The machine learning logistic regression model using network data alone obtained a higher accuracy and F1 score than the sociodemographic and clinical data model (accuracy 65% ± 5% vs. 61% ± 7%, F1 score 76% ± 2% vs. 70% ± 7%). A model with a combination of both sociodemographic and network data had a higher accuracy of 74% ± 3%, and an F1-score of 81% ± 2%. Conclusion: Social network data improved the machine learning algorithm’s ability to classify attitudes towards kidney transplantation, further emphasizing the importance of hemodialysis clinic social networks on attitudes towards transplant.
    • S-Nitrosoglutathione Reduces the Density of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms Established on Human Airway Epithelial Cells

      Center of Inflammation and Lung Research (Temple University) (2022-12-28)
      Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often show persistent colonization by bacteria in the form of biofilms which are resistant to antibiotic treatment. One of the most commonly isolated bacteria in CRS is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent and disperses biofilms efficiently. We hypothesized that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous NO carrier/donor, synergizes with gentamicin to disperse and reduce the bacterial biofilm density. We prepared GSNO formulations which are stable up to 12 months at room temperature and show the maximum amount of NO release within 1 h. We examined the effects of this GSNO formulation on the S. aureus biofilm established on the apical surface of the mucociliary-differentiated airway epithelial cell cultures regenerated from airway basal (stem) cells from cystic fibrosis (CF) and CRS patients. We demonstrate that for CF cells, which are defective in producing NO, treatment with GSNO at 100 μM increased the NO levels on the apical surface and reduced the biofilm bacterial density by 2 log units without stimulating pro-inflammatory effects or inducing epithelial cell death. In combination with gentamicin, GSNO further enhanced the killing of biofilm bacteria. Compared to placebo, GSNO significantly increased the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in both infected and uninfected CF cell cultures. The combination of GSNO and gentamicin also reduced the bacterial density of biofilms grown on sinonasal epithelial cells from CRS patients and improved the CBF. These findings demonstrate that GSNO in combination with gentamicin may effectively reduce the density of biofilm bacteria in CRS patients. GSNO treatment may also enhance the mucociliary clearance by improving the CBF.
    • Lack of Mitogen-activated Kinase Phosphatase-5 in Macrophages Protects Ldlr-null Mice against Atherogenesis

      Zhang, Xinbo; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Baldini, Margaret; Zhang, Cheng; Tao, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Bennett, Anton M.; Yu, Jun; Zhang|0000-0001-8932-0585; Yu|0000-0003-4530-2179 (2022-12-29)
      Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases, including JNK, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, are critical in regulating the expression of various proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Previous work has suggested that the absence of MAP kinase phosphatase-5 (MKP-5) inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced macrophage foam cell formation without influencing the MAKP activation. The current study is to determine the role of macrophage MKP-5 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and underlying mechanisms. Methods: Nine-week-old male congenic MKP-5 deficient (MKP-5–/–) and C57Bl/6J control (WT) mice on an low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knock-out (LDLR–/–) background were fed with a high-fat diet containing 1.25% cholesterol for 14 weeks. Global deficiency of MKP-5 attenuated atherosclerotic plaque formation without altering the lipid profile in vivo. To further elucidate the macrophage-specific effect of MKP-5 in atherogenesis, lethally irradiated LDLR–/– mice were transplanted with wild-type or MKP-5–/– bone marrow and subjected to high-fat feeding. Results: Mice transplanted with MKP-5–/– bone marrow developed smaller atherosclerotic lesions accompanied by decreased lipid deposition and macrophage content compared with wild type. Lack of MKP-5 in macrophages reduced plasma levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-7, elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1rn), and IL-4. Mechanistically, lack of MKP-5 in macrophages inhibited ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation through enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by increased expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Conclusions: These data suggest that the myeloid MKP-5 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis progression and foam cell formation by ameliorating cholesterol efflux and inhibiting inflammation.
    • Integrating community-based HIV and non-communicable disease care with microfinance groups: a feasibility study in Western Kenya

      Kafu, Catherine; Wachira, Juddy; Omodi, Victor; Said, Jamil; Pastakia, Sonak D.; Tran, Dan; Onyango, Jael Adongo; Aburi, Dan; Wilson-Barthes, Marta; Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky Lynn; Tran|0000-0002-8332-8196 (2022-12-28)
      Background: The Harambee study is a cluster randomized trial in Western Kenya that tests the effect, mechanisms, and cost-effectiveness of integrating community-based HIV and non-communicable disease care within microfinance groups on chronic disease treatment outcomes. This paper documents the stages of our feasibility study conducted in preparation for the Harambee trial, which include (1) characterizing the target population and gauging recruitment capacity, (2) determining community acceptability of the integrated intervention and study procedures, and (3) identifying key implementation considerations prior to study start. Methods: Feasibility research took place between November 2019 and February 2020 in Western Kenya. Mixed methods data collection included surveys administered to 115 leaders of 105 community-based microfinance groups, 7 in-person meetings and two workshops with stakeholders from multiple sectors of the health system, and ascertainment of field notes and geographic coordinates for group meeting locations and HIV healthcare facilities. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using STATA IC/13. Longitude and latitude coordinates were mapped to county boundaries using Esri ArcMap. Qualitative data obtained from stakeholder meetings and field notes were analyzed thematically. Results: Of the 105 surveyed microfinance groups, 77 met eligibility criteria. Eligible groups had been in existence from 6 months to 18 years and had an average of 22 members. The majority (64%) of groups had at least one member who owned a smartphone. The definition of “active” membership and model of saving and lending differed across groups. Stakeholders perceived the community-based intervention and trial procedures to be acceptable given the minimal risks to participants and the potential to improve HIV treatment outcomes while facilitating care integration. Potential challenges identified by stakeholders included possible conflicts between the trial and existing community-based interventions, fear of group disintegration prior to trial end, clinicians’ inability to draw blood for viral load testing in the community, and deviations from standard care protocols. Conclusions: This study revealed that it was feasible to recruit the number of microfinance groups necessary to ensure that our clinical trial was sufficient powered. Elicitation of stakeholder feedback confirmed that the planned intervention was largely acceptable and was critical to identifying challenges prior to implementation. Trial registration: The original trial was prospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04417127) on 4 June 2020.
    • Case report: diagnosis of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy using a multimodality imaging approach

      Li, Shannon X.; Soles, Estefania Oliveros; Sharma, Parikshit S.; Rao, Anupama K. (2023-01-06)
      Background: In the USA, ∼300 000 people are affected by Chagas heart disease, a growing, but commonly overlooked, public health issue. Chagas as a potential aetiology of dilated cardiomyopathy remains under-recognized. We present a case where multimodality imaging was essential in the diagnosis and management of Chagas heart disease. Case summary: A 54-year-old man, originally from Mexico, presented to the emergency department with chest pain and recurrent syncopal episodes, found to be in haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) requiring urgent cardioversion. Urgent coronary angiography revealed no obstructive disease. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed moderately reduced left ventricular systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction 35–40%) with apical akinesis and an aneurysm of the apical septum. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) confirmed a prominent apical aneurysm with dyskinesis of the apical septum, with the evidence of transmural myocardial late gadolinium enhancement of the entire left ventricular apex and a small apical thrombus. Serologic testing was positive for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibody, which was confirmed on repeat testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Patient underwent VT ablation and was discharged on guideline-directed medical therapy including a regimen of anticoagulation, beta-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapies. He has had no subsequent syncope or VT. Discussion: Chagas heart disease remains under-recognized and under-diagnosed despite the growing burden of T. cruzi infection in the USA. Suspicion for Chagas heart disease should be considered in patients presenting with heart failure symptoms and ventricular arrhythmias with the right corresponding history and imaging findings on echocardiogram and CMR.
    • ApoJ/Clusterin concentrations are determinants of cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol efflux capacity and reduced levels are associated with Alzheimer’s disease

      Alzheimer’s Center (Temple University) (2022-12-26)
      Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) shares risk factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dysregulated cholesterol metabolism is a mechanism common to both diseases. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is an ex vivo metric of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and inversely predicts incident CVD independently of other risk factors. Cholesterol pools in the central nervous system (CNS) are largely separate from those in blood, and CNS cholesterol excess may promote neurodegeneration. CEC of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful measure of CNS cholesterol trafficking. We hypothesized that subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) would have reduced CSF CEC compared with Cognitively Normal (CN) and that CSF apolipoproteins apoA-I, apoJ, and apoE might have associations with CSF CEC. Methods: We retrieved CSF and same-day ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma from 108 subjects (40 AD; 18 MCI; and 50 CN) from the Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research biobank at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. For CSF CEC assays, we used N9 mouse microglial cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and the corresponding plasma assay used J774 cells. Cells were labeled with [3H]-cholesterol for 24 h, had ABCA1 expression upregulated for 6 h, were exposed to 33 μl of CSF, and then were incubated for 2.5 h. CEC was quantified as percent [3H]-cholesterol counts in medium of total counts medium+cells, normalized to a pool sample. ApoA-I, ApoJ, ApoE, and cholesterol were also measured in CSF. Results: We found that CSF CEC was significantly lower in MCI compared with controls and was poorly correlated with plasma CEC. CSF levels of ApoJ/Clusterin were also significantly lower in MCI and were significantly associated with CSF CEC. While CSF ApoA-I was also associated with CSF CEC, CSF ApoE had no association with CSF CEC. CSF CEC is significantly and positively associated with CSF Aβ. Taken together, ApoJ/Clusterin may be an important determinant of CSF CEC, which in turn could mitigate risk of MCI and AD risk by promoting cellular efflux of cholesterol or other lipids. In contrast, CSF ApoE does not appear to play a role in determining CSF CEC.
    • Non-pathogenic microbiota accelerate age-related CpG Island methylation in colonic mucosa

      Fels Cancer Institute for Personalized Medicine (Temple University) (2022-12-26)
      DNA methylation is an epigenetic process altered in cancer and ageing. Age-related methylation drift can be used to estimate lifespan and can be influenced by extrinsic factors such as diet. Here, we report that non-pathogenic microbiota accelerate age-related methylation drift in the colon when compared with germ-free mice. DNA methylation analyses showed that microbiota and IL10KO were associated with changes in 5% and 4.1% of CpG sites, while mice with both factors had 18% alterations. Microbiota, IL10KO, and their combination altered 0.4%, 0.4%, and 4% of CpG island methylation, respectively. These are comparable to what is seen in colon cancer. Ageing changes were accelerated in the IL10KO mice with microbiota, and the affected genes were more likely to be altered in colon cancer. Thus, the microbiota affect DNA methylation of the colon in patterns reminiscent of what is observed in ageing and colorectal cancer.
    • Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University); Fox Chase Cancer Center (Temple University) (2022-12-26)
    • An Experimental and Numerical Study on Charged 21700 Lithium-Ion Battery Cells under Dynamic and High Mechanical Loads

      Electric Vehicle Safety Lab (EVSL) (Temple University) (2022-12-25)
      The need for higher capacity battery cells has increased significantly during the past years. Therefore, the subject of this study is to investigate the behavior of high performance 21700 Lithium-Ion cylindric battery cells under several abuse conditions, represented by high mechanical loads with different velocities and states of charge (SoC), and to develop a finite element analysis (FEA) model, using the OpenRadioss’ explicit solver capabilities. The present study is focused on the investigation of the behavior of these cells under high mechanical loads with different loading velocities and different states of charge. The aim of the study is to provide a tool to predict the point of an internal short circuit in FEA, with a very good approximation. Experiments were completed using a hydraulic flat-compression test, set up at four different states of charge, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%, and three different loading velocities of 10 mms−1, 100 mms−1 and 1000 mms−1. A homogenized FEA model is developed to predict the internal damage of the separator, which can lead to a short circuit with a possible thermal runaway under abusive load conditions. The present model, in combination with well identified material and fracture parameters, succeeded in the prediction of the mechanical behavior at various states of charge and mechanical loading conditions; it can also be used for further crashworthiness analysis within a full-car FEA model. This accurate cell model will be the first building block to optimize the protective structures of batteries in electric vehicles, and reduce their weight through a deeper understanding of their overall behavior during the different crash cases.
    • Polθ Inhibition: An Anticancer Therapy for HR-Deficient Tumours

      Fels Cancer Institute for Personalized Medicine (Temple University) (2022-12-24)
      DNA polymerase theta (Polθ)-mediated end joining (TMEJ) is, along with homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), one of the most important mechanisms repairing potentially lethal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Polθ is becoming a new target in cancer research because it demonstrates numerous synthetically lethal interactions with other DNA repair mechanisms, e.g., those involving PARP1, BRCA1/2, DNA-PK, ATR. Inhibition of Polθ could be achieved with different methods, such as RNA interference (RNAi), CRISPR/Cas9 technology, or using small molecule inhibitors. In the context of this topic, RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 are still more often applied in the research itself rather than clinical usage, different than small molecule inhibitors. Several Polθ inhibitors have been already generated, and two of them, novobiocin (NVB) and ART812 derivative, are being tested in clinical trials against HR-deficient tumors. In this review, we describe the significance of Polθ and the Polθ-mediated TMEJ pathway. In addition, we summarize the current state of knowledge about Polθ inhibitors and emphasize the promising role of Polθ as a therapeutic target.
    • A Rare Presentation of Shared Phenomenon in Dissociative Disorders in Extreme of Ages: A Report of Two Cases

      Sengar, Anurag; Mehta, Rajiv; Owolabi, Oluwasayo J.; Garg, Tulika; Ezenagu, Uchenna E.; Apata, Esther O.; Ali, Munira Abdefatah; Omar, Zainab; Chaudhry, Hassan; Khan, Aadil; Chaudhry|0000-0002-7891-8685 (2022-12-25)
      Conversion disorders (CD) are changes in sensorimotor activity experienced by an individual due to an external event. Patients may experience "pseudoseizures" accompanied by the presence or absence of loss of consciousness. Disorders of movement and sensation is the term used to classify the various kinds of CDs in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic manual, and they are the rarest among all dissociative disorders. We will discuss two instances that are particularly rare. The first includes an older couple, starting with the wife, who had nervousness, heightened worry, intrusive thoughts, heavy perspiration, palpitations, headaches, and problems sleeping. She was prescribed 10 mg once-daily escitalopram. She stopped taking her medication and had facial and hand problems. The patient's 65-year-old husband started having strange hand and face movements and lost consciousness. The pair was hospitalized willingly and had radiographic (MRI and non-contrast computerized tomography {NCCT} head), nerve conduction, and neurological tests to rule out a movement issue. No inquiry or inspections uncovered anything unusual. The second case involves a mother and her 13-year-old son, who was taken to a psychiatric unit after urinating on a religious shrine. His mother had the same issue and couldn't urinate for days. Both patients were given 25 mg of paroxetine and benzodiazepines for anxiety and sleeplessness. After a week of medicine and psychotherapy after identifying stressors, both cases improved.
    • Unexpected pulmonary mechanics during positive pressure mechanical ventilation in fibrotic lung disease with concomitant flail chest

      Temple University. Hospital (2022-12-24)
      Understanding of pulmonary mechanics is essential to understanding mechanical ventilation. Typically, clinicians are mindful of peak and plateau pressures displayed on the ventilator and lung compliance, which is decreased in lung disease such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Decreased lung compliance leads to elevated peak and plateau pressures. We present a patient with IPF undergoing mechanical ventilation after cardiac arrest. Despite low lung compliance, he had normal peak and plateau pressures due to the presence of flail chest and increased chest wall compliance. This case highlights the role chest wall compliance plays in total respiratory system compliance and pulmonary mechanics.
    • Post-incarceration outcomes of a comprehensive statewide correctional MOUD program: a retrospective cohort study

      Martin, Rosemarie A.; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Berk, Justin; Carpenter, Ryan W.; Kang, Augustine; Hoadley, Ariel; Kaplowitz, Eliana; Hurley, Linda; Rich, Josiah D.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Hoadley|0000-0003-1360-0358 (2022-12-23)
      Background: As opioid overdoses surge, medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remain underutilized. MOUD is rarely offered in correctional facilities although individuals involved in the criminal justice system have higher rates of OUD and mortality relative to the general population. Methods: A retrospective cohort design examined the effect of MOUD while incarcerated on 12 months post-release treatment engagement and retention, overdose mortality, and recidivism. Individuals (N = 1600) who participated in the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) MOUD program (the United States’ first statewide program) and were released from incarceration from December 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, were included. The sample was 72.6% Male (27.4% female) and 80.8% White (5.8% Black, 11.4% Hispanic, 2.0% another race). Findings: 56% were prescribed methadone, 43% buprenorphine, and 1% naltrexone. During incarceration, 61% were continued on MOUD from the community, 30% were inducted onto MOUD upon incarceration, and 9% were inducted pre-release. At 30 days and 12 months post-release, 73% and 86% of participants engaged in MOUD treatment, respectively, and those newly inducted had lower post-release engagement than those who continued from the community. Reincarceration rates (52%) were similar to the general RIDOC population. Twelve overdose deaths occurred during the 12-month follow-up, with only one overdose death during the first two weeks post-release. Interpretations: Implementing MOUD in correctional facilities, with seamless linkage to community care is a needed life-saving strategy. Funding: Rhode Island General Fund, the NIH of Health HEAL Initiative, the NIGMS, and the NIDA.
    • Engineering Dental Tissues Using Biomaterials with Piezoelectric Effect: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

      Ghosh, Sumanta; Qiao, Wei; Yang, Zhengbao; Orrego, Santiago; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Orrego|0000-0003-3683-6750 (2022-12-22)
      Dental caries and traumatic injuries to teeth may cause irreversible inflammation and eventual death of the dental pulp. Nevertheless, predictably, repair and regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex remain a formidable challenge. In recent years, smart multifunctional materials with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and pro-regenerative properties have emerged as promising approaches to meet this critical clinical need. As a unique class of smart materials, piezoelectric materials have an unprecedented advantage over other stimuli-responsive materials due to their inherent capability to generate electric charges, which have been shown to facilitate both antimicrobial action and tissue regeneration. Nonetheless, studies on piezoelectric biomaterials in the repair and regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex remain limited. In this review, we summarize the biomedical applications of piezoelectric biomaterials in dental applications and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the biological effect of piezoelectricity. Moreover, we highlight how this state-of-the-art can be further exploited in the future for dental tissue engineering.
    • A Translational Approach to Spinal Neurofibromatosis: Clinical and Molecular Insights from a Wide Italian Cohort

      Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO) (Temple University) (2022-12-22)
      Spinal neurofibromatosis (SNF), a phenotypic subclass of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), is characterized by bilateral neurofibromas involving all spinal roots. In order to deepen the understanding of SNF’s clinical and genetic features, we identified 81 patients with SNF, 55 from unrelated families, and 26 belonging to 19 families with at least 1 member affected by SNF, and 106 NF1 patients aged >30 years without spinal tumors. A comprehensive NF1 mutation screening was performed using NGS panels, including NF1 and several RAS pathway genes. The main features of the SNF subjects were a higher number of internal neurofibromas (p < 0.001), nerve root swelling (p < 0.001), and subcutaneous neurofibromas (p = 0.03), while hyperpigmentation signs were significantly less frequent compared with the classical NF1-affected cohorts (p = 0.012). Fifteen patients underwent neurosurgical intervention. The histological findings revealed neurofibromas in 13 patients and ganglioneuromas in 2 patients. Phenotypic variability within SNF families was observed. The proportion of missense mutations was higher in the SNF cases than in the classical NF1 group (21.40% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.007), conferring an odds ratio (OR) of 3.34 (CI = 1.33–10.78). Two unrelated familial SNF cases harbored in trans double NF1 mutations that seemed to have a subclinical worsening effect on the clinical phenotype. Our study, with the largest series of SNF patients reported to date, better defines the clinical and genetic features of SNF, which could improve the management and genetic counseling of NF1.
    • Molecular Markers in Maternal Blood Exosomes Allow Early Detection of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

      Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center (Temple University); Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology (Temple University) (2022-12-21)
      Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause developmental abnormalities (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; FASD), including small eyes, face and brain, and neurobehavioral deficits. These cannot be detected early in pregnancy with available imaging techniques. Early diagnosis could facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. Banked human fetal brains and eyes at 9–22 weeks’ gestation were paired with maternal blood samples, analyzed for morphometry, protein, and RNA expression, and apoptotic signaling. Alcohol (EtOH)-exposed (maternal self-report) fetuses were compared with unexposed controls matched for fetal age, sex, and maternal race. Fetal brain-derived exosomes (FB-E) were isolated from maternal blood and analyzed for protein, RNA, and apoptotic markers. EtOH use by mothers, assessed by self-report, was associated with reduced fetal eye diameter, brain size, and markers of synaptogenesis. Brain caspase-3 activity was increased. The reduction in eye and brain sizes were highly correlated with amount of EtOH intake and caspase-3 activity. Levels of several biomarkers in FB-E, most strikingly myelin basic protein (MBP; r > 0.9), correlated highly with morphological abnormalities. Reduction in FB-E MBP levels was highly correlated with EtOH exposure (p < 1.0 × 10−10). Although the morphological features of FAS appear long before they can be detected by live imaging, FB-E in the mother’s blood may contain markers, particularly MBP, that predict FASD.
    • How Does Consistency of Food and Nutrition Support Effect Daily Food Consumption among Children Living in Poverty? Recession-Era Implications

      Schuler, Brittany; Vazquez, Christian E.; Hernandez, Daphne C.; Schuler|0000-0002-2869-6260 (2022-12-21)
      Underutilization of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (SNAP) food safety net programs may compromise child nutritional benefits for families with limited incomes. Using a sample of children surveyed before (2003–2006) and after the Great Recession (2007–2009), we examine whether consistent access to WIC and SNAP during times of increased economic stress moderated the association between poverty level (i.e., income-needs ratio [INR]) and fruits and vegetables (FV) or foods high in saturated fats and added sugars (SFAS). Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study income-eligible mothers/children (≤185% of poverty) with available FV and SFAS data at the 5- (2003–2006) and 9-year (2007–2010) waves (n = 733) were included. Main effects of INR and interaction effects of consistency of WIC, SNAP, and dual WIC and SNAP support from birth through age 5 were examined. INR was associated with decreased FV consumption frequency from age 5 to 9, conditional upon consistency of dual WIC/SNAP enrollment. FV declined when there was low consistency (<1 year) of dual support. FV consumption was stable across INR when combined WIC/SNAP support lasted at least 2 years. Results can inform strategies for optimizing the nutritional impact of WIC and SNAP by focusing on those most at risk for underutilization of multiple benefits.
    • PP 4.22 – 00087 Reversal of exhaustion of HIV-1-specific CTLs by CRISPR-mediated disruption of PD-1 gene

      Baez, C.; Brancazio, S.; Shan, L.; Burdo, Tricia; Kaminski, Rafal; Burdo|0000-0002-4224-7381; Kaminski|0000-0001-8827-6658 (2022-12-20)
    • PP 2.17 – 00187 Myeloid-derived extracellular vesicle production is upregulated with SHIV.D infection

      Center for Neurovirology and Gene Editing (Temple University) (2022-12-20)
    • Ocean variability beneath Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf driven by the Pine Island Bay Gyre strength

      Dotto, Tiago S.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hall, Rob A.; Scambos, Ted A.; Zheng, Yixi; Nakayama, Yoshihiro; Hyogo, Shuntaro; Snow, Tasha; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Wild, Christian; Truffer, Martin; Muto, Atsuhiro; Alley, Karen E.; Boehme, Lars; Bortolotto, Guilherme A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Pettit, Erin; Muto|0000-0002-1722-2457 (2022-12-21)
      West Antarctic ice-shelf thinning is primarily caused by ocean-driven basal melting. Here we assess ocean variability below Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf (TEIS) and reveal the importance of local ocean circulation and sea-ice. Measurements obtained from two sub-ice-shelf moorings, spanning January 2020 to March 2021, show warming of the ice-shelf cavity and an increase in meltwater fraction of the upper sub-ice layer. Combined with ocean modelling results, our observations suggest that meltwater from Pine Island Ice Shelf feeds into the TEIS cavity, adding to horizontal heat transport there. We propose that a weakening of the Pine Island Bay gyre caused by prolonged sea-ice cover from April 2020 to March 2021 allowed meltwater-enriched waters to enter the TEIS cavity, which increased the temperature of the upper layer. Our study highlights the sensitivity of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves to local atmosphere-sea-ice-ocean forcing in neighbouring open oceans.