Now showing items 1-20 of 1450

    • Information and Communication Technology Geographies: Strategies for Bridging the Digital Divide

      Gilbert, Melissa R.; Masucci, Michele (2011)
      Our purpose in this book is to reconceptualize the digital divide from the perspective of poor women’s daily lives in inner-city neighborhoods in Philadelphia in order to suggest an alternative policy framework for addressing digital inequalities. Our focus on poor women and their daily lives stems from a deep commitment to examining the underlying power relations that shape women’s experiences in household, family, work and community contexts as a basis for understanding what matters to them as they work to improve the quality of their lives and the lives of those for whom they care. We use the term “poor women” to signify that we work with those who are living at the margins of political, economic, and social empowerment by virtue of a constellation race, class, and gender inequalities that are manifested in such areas as income, education, employment, and health care. We work with poor women in Philadelphia because their challenges are representative of the experiences of many women in the U.S. who are struggling for survival.
    • Building social capital in the digital age of civic engagement

      Center for Sustainable Communities (Temple University) (2011-02-11)
      The use of digital technologies to enhance traditional public participation processes and to build a new form of a social capital— digital social capital—is being embraced in a range of planning practices. This article presents a discussion of how the digital age is influencing public participation and its implications for building social capital. The article highlights critical concerns to consider when embracing Internet tools for civic engagement and when evaluating such practices. The authors conclude with a call for scholarly research to assess the constraints and opportunities presented by this emergent trend and comparative studies to traditional modes of public participation.
    • Civic Engagement Capacity Building: An Assessment of the Citizen Planning Academy Model of Public Outreach and Education

      Mandarano, Lynn; Mandarano|0000-0001-5477-7630 (2015-01-22)
      Planning organizations have recently initiated planning academies to increase citizens’ capacity to effectively engage in city and local planning activities. Yet, the success of these programs is largely unknown. This article seeks to address this gap in knowledge by proposing an assessment framework to identify increased civic engagement capacity using three tiers of outcomes. The results of a multicase study suggest that this model of public outreach and education programming is successful at realizing improvements in individual human and social capitals that translate into effective citizen engagement measured as actions taken by participants to improve community conditions.
    • Prioritizing Suitable Locations for Green Stormwater Infrastructure Based on Social Factors in Philadelphia

      Christman, Zachary; Meenar, Mahbubur; Mandarano, Lynn; Hearing, Kyle; Mandarano|0000-0001-5477-7630 (2018-11-26)
      Municipalities across the United States are prioritizing green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) projects due to their potential to concurrently optimize the social, economic, and environmental benefits of the “triple bottom line”. While placement of these features is often based on biophysical variables regarding the natural and built environments, highly urbanized areas often exhibit either limited data or minimal variability in these characteristics. Using a case study of Philadelphia and building on previous work to prioritize GSI features in disadvantaged communities, this study addresses the dual concerns of the inequitable benefits of distribution and suitable site placement of GSI using a model to evaluate and integrate social variables to support decision making regarding GSI implementation. Results of this study indicate locations both suitable and optimal for the implementation of four types of GSI features: tree trenches, pervious pavement, rain gardens, and green roofs. Considerations of block-level site placement assets and liabilities are discussed, with recommendations for use of this analysis for future GSI programs.
    • Pattern separation and pattern completion: Behaviorally separable processes?

      Ngo, CT; Michelmann, S; Olson, IR; Newcombe, NS (2020-01-01)
      © 2020, The Author(s). Episodic memory capacity requires several processes, including mnemonic discrimination of similar experiences, termed pattern separation, and holistic retrieval of multidimensional experiences given a cue, termed pattern completion. Both computations seem to rely on the hippocampus proper, but they also seem to be instantiated by distinct hippocampal subfields. Thus, we investigated whether individual differences in behavioral expressions of pattern separation and pattern completion were correlated after accounting for general mnemonic ability. Young adult participants learned events comprised of a scene-animal-object triad. In the pattern separation task, we estimated mnemonic discrimination using lure classification for events that contained a similar lure element. In the pattern completion task, we estimated holistic recollection using dependency in retrieval success for different associations from the same event. Although overall accuracies for the two tasks correlated as expected, specific measures of individual variation in holistic retrieval and mnemonic discrimination did not correlate, suggesting that these two processes involve distinguishable properties of episodic memory.
    • Epidural Electrical Stimulation: A Review of Plasticity Mechanisms That Are Hypothesized to Underlie Enhanced Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury With Stimulation

      Eisdorfer, JT; Smit, RD; Keefe, KM; Lemay, MA; Smith, GM; Spence, AJ; Spence, Andrew|0000-0001-7352-0128; Lemay, Michel|0000-0002-5636-0297 (2020-09-02)
      © Copyright © 2020 Eisdorfer, Smit, Keefe, Lemay, Smith and Spence. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in life-long sensorimotor impairment. Spontaneous recovery from SCI is limited, as supraspinal fibers cannot spontaneously regenerate to form functional networks below the level of injury. Despite this, animal models and humans exhibit many motor behaviors indicative of recovery when electrical stimulation is applied epidurally to the dorsal aspect of the lumbar spinal cord. In 1976, epidural stimulation was introduced to alleviate spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis. Since then, epidural electrical stimulation (EES) has been demonstrated to improve voluntary mobility across the knee and/or ankle in several SCI patients, highlighting its utility in enhancing motor activation. The mechanisms that EES induces to drive these improvements in sensorimotor function remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss several sensorimotor plasticity mechanisms that we hypothesize may enable epidural stimulation to promote recovery, including changes in local lumbar circuitry, propriospinal interneurons, and the internal model. Finally, we discuss genetic tools for afferent modulation as an emerging method to facilitate the search for the mechanisms of action.
    • Does sexual functioning improve with migraine improvements and/or weight loss?—A post hoc analysis in the Women's Health and Migraine (WHAM) trial

      Schumacher, L; Wing, R; Thomas, JG; Pavlovic, J; Digre, K; Farris, S; Steffen, K; Sarwer, D; Bond, D; Sarwer, David B|0000-0003-1033-5528 (2020-12-01)
      © 2020 The Authors. Obesity Science & Practice published by World Obesity and The Obesity Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Background: Despite plausibility of migraine headaches contributing to impaired sexual function among women, data are inconsistent and point to obesity as a potential confounder. Prospective studies that assess the relative importance of migraine improvements and weight loss in relation to sexual function could help elucidate associations among migraine, obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Objective: To evaluate sexual function changes and predictors of improvement after behavioural weight loss (BWL) intervention for migraine or migraine education (ME). Methods: Women with migraine and overweight/obesity were randomized to 16 weeks of BWL (n = 54) or ME (n = 56). Participants completed a 4-week smartphone headache diary and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) at pre- and post-treatment. A validated FSFI total cut-off score defined FSD. We compared changes in FSFI scores and FSD rates between conditions and evaluated migraine improvements and weight loss as predictors of sexual functioning in the full sample. Results: Among treatment completers (n = 85), 56 (65.9%) participants who reported sexual activity at pre- and post-treatment were analysed. Migraine improvements were similar between conditions, whereas BWL had greater weight losses compared with ME. FSD rates did not change overall (48.2% to 44.6%, p =.66) or by condition (BWL: 56.0% to 40.0% vs. ME: 41.9% to 48.4%, p =.17). Similar patterns were observed for changes in FSFI total and subscale scores. Across conditions, larger weight losses predicted greater improvements in FSFI total and arousal subscale scores, whereas larger migraine headache frequency reductions predicted greater improvements in FSFI satisfaction subscale scores. Conclusion: Sexual functioning did not improve with either BWL or ME despite migraine headache improvements in both conditions and weight loss after BWL. However, weight loss related to improvements in physiological components of the sexual response (i.e., arousal) and overall sexual functioning, whereas reduced headache frequency related to improved sexual satisfaction. Additional research with larger samples is needed.
    • Exercise capacity is associated with hospital readmission among patients with diabetes

      Zisman-Ilani, Y; Fasing, K; Weiner, M; Rubin, DJ (2020-10-05)
      © Introduction Patients with diabetes are at greater risk of hospital readmission than patients without diabetes. There is a need to identify more modifiable risk factors for readmission as potential targets for intervention. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is an association between exercise capacity based on the maximal workload achieved during treadmill stress testing and readmission among patients with diabetes. Research design and methods This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with diabetes discharged from an academic medical center between July 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018 who had a stress test documented before the index discharge. Univariate analysis and multinomial multivariable logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations with readmission within 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of discharge. Exercise capacity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Results A total of 580 patients with 1598 hospitalizations were analyzed. Mean METs of readmitted patients were significantly lower than for non-readmitted patients (5.7 (2.6) vs 6.7 (2.6), p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a low METs level (<5) was associated with higher odds of readmission within 30 days (OR 5.46 (2.22-13.45), p<0.001), 6 months (OR 2.78 (1.36-5.65), p=0.005), and 1 year (OR 2.16 (1.12-4.16), p=0.022) compared with medium (5-7) and high (>7) METs level. During the 6.5-year study period, patients with low METs had a mean of 3.2±3.6 hospitalizations, while those with high METs had 2.5±2.4 hospitalizations (p=0.007). Conclusions Lower exercise capacity is associated with a higher risk of readmission within 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year, as well as a greater incidence of hospitalization, in patients with diabetes. Future studies are needed to explore whether exercise reduces readmission risk in this population.
    • The great escape: The power of cancer stem cells to evade programmed cell death

      Castelli, V; Giordano, A; Benedetti, E; Giansanti, F; Quintiliani, M; Cimini, A; D’angelo, M; Giordano, Antonio|0000-0002-5959-016X (2021-01-02)
      © 2021 by the authors. Cancer is one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Tumour malignancy is related to tumor heterogeneity, which has been suggested to be due to a small subpopulation of tumor cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs exert a key role in metastasis development, tumor recurrence, and also epithelial-mesenchymal transition, apoptotic resistance, self-renewal, tumorigenesis, differentiation, and drug resistance. Several current therapies fail to eradicate tumors due to the ability of CSCs to escape different programmed cell deaths. Thus, developing CSC-selective and programmed death-inducing therapeutic approaches appears to be of primary importance. In this review, we discuss the main programmed cell death occurring in cancer and the promising CSC-targeting agents developed in recent years. Even if the reported studies are encouraging, further investigations are necessary to establish a combination of agents able to eradicate CSCs or inhibit their growth and proliferation.
    • Lorentz invariance relations among parton distributions revisited

      Goeke, K; Metz, A; Pobylitsa, PV; Polyakov, MV (2003-08-07)
      We revisit the derivation of the so-called Lorentz invariance relations between parton distributions. In the most important cases these relations involve twist-3 and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. It is shown that these relations are violated if the path-ordered exponential is taken into account in the quark correlator. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Collins fragmentation function from gluon rescattering

      Bacchetta, A; Metz, A; Yang, JJ (2003-11-13)
      We estimate the Collins fragmentation function by introducing the effect of gluon rescattering in a model calculation of the fragmentation process. We include all necessary diagrams to the one-loop level and compute the nontrivial phases giving rise to the Collins function. We compare our results to the ones obtained from pion rescattering. We conclude that three out of four one-loop diagrams give sizeable contributions to the Collins function, and that the effect of gluon rescattering has a magnitude comparable to that of pion rescattering, but has opposite sign. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Sivers effect in semi-inclusive DIS and in the Drell-Yan process

      Efremov, AV; Goeke, K; Menzel, S; Metz, A; Schweitzer, P (2005-04-21)
      The Sivers parton distribution function has been predicted to obey a particular "universality relation", namely, to have opposite sign in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process. We discuss how, on the basis of present HERMES data, this remarkable prediction of the QCD factorization approach to the description of single spin asymmetries related to the Sivers effect could be checked experimentally in future experiments at PAX and COMPASS. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Parameterization of the quark-quark correlator of a spin-1/2 hadron

      Goeke, K; Metz, A; Schlegel, M (2005-07-07)
      The general parameterization of the quark-quark correlation function for a spin-12 hadron is considered. The presence of the Wilson line ensuring color gauge invariance of the correlator induces structures that were not given explicitly in the existing literature. In particular, the general form of the transverse momentum dependent correlator entering various hard scattering processes is derived. In this case two new time-reversal odd parton distributions appear at the twist-3 level. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Transverse single spin asymmetries in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

      Metz, A; Schlegel, M; Goeke, K (2006-12-28)
      In inclusive deep-inelastic lepton-hadron scattering multi-photon exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process causes single spin asymmetries. The asymmetries exist for a polarized target as well as a polarized incoming or outgoing lepton, if the polarization vector has a component transverse with respect to the reaction plane. The spin dependent parts of the single polarized cross sections are suppressed like αem mpol / Q-where mpol denotes the mass of the polarized particle-compared to the leading terms of the cross section for unpolarized or double-polarized deep-inelastic scattering. Both the target and the beam spin asymmetry are evaluated in the parton model. In the calculation only quark-quark correlators are included. While this approximation turns out to be justified for the lepton spin asymmetries, it is not sufficient for the target asymmetry. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet and dijet production in pp collisions at s =510 GeV

      Adam, J; Adamczyk, L; Adams, JR; Adkins, JK; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, DM; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, EC; Ashraf, MU; Atetalla, F; Attri, A; Averichev, GS; Bairathi, V; Barish, K; Bassill, AJ; Behera, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, AK; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, LC; Bordyuzhin, IG; Brandenburg, JD; Brandin, AV; Bryslawskyj, J; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón De La Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chan, BK; Chang, FH; Chang, Z; Chankova-Bunzarova, N; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, JH; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Crawford, HJ; Csanád, M; Das, S; Dedovich, TG; Deppner, IM; Derevschikov, AA; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, JL; Dunlop, JC; Edmonds, T; Elsey, N; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Ewigleben, J; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Y; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, CA; Galatyuk, T; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Gopal, K; Grosnick, D; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, AI; Hamed, A; Harris, JW; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Herrmann, N; Holub, L; Hong, Y; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, HZ; Huang, SL; Huang, T (2019-09-09)
      © 2019 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. We report the first measurement of the inclusive jet and the dijet longitudinal double-spin asymmetries, ALL, at midrapidity in polarized pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy s=510 GeV. The inclusive jet ALL measurement is sensitive to the gluon helicity distribution down to a gluon momentum fraction of x≈0.015, while the dijet measurements, separated into four jet-pair topologies, provide constraints on the x dependence of the gluon polarization. Both results are consistent with previous measurements made at s=200 GeV in the overlapping kinematic region, x>0.05, and show good agreement with predictions from recent next-to-leading order global analyses.
    • Lorentz invariance relations between parton distributions and the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation

      Metz, A; Schweitzer, P; Teckentrup, T (2009-09-21)
      The violation of the so-called Lorentz invariance relations between parton distribution functions is considered in a model independent way. It is shown that these relations are not violated in a generalized Wandzura-Wilczek approximation, indicating that numerically their violation may be small. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Formality theorems for hochschild complexes and their applications

      Dolgushev, V; Tamarkin, D; Tsygan, B (2009-11-01)
      We give a popular introduction to formality theorems for Hochschild complexes and their applications. We review some of the recent results and prove that the truncated Hochschild cochain complex of a polynomial algebra is non-formal. © 2009 The Author(s).
    • Non-perturbative renormalization of quark bilinear operators with N <inf>f</inf> = 2 (tmQCD) Wilson fermions and the tree-level improved gauge action

      Constantinou, M; Dimopoulos, P; Frezzotti, R; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Panagopoulos, H; Rossi, GC; Simula, S; Stylianou, F; Vladikas, A (2010-01-01)
      We present results for the renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators obtained by using the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and the N f = 2 twisted mass fermion action at maximal twist, which guarantees automatic O(a)-improvement. Our results are also relevant for the corresponding standard (un-twisted) Wilson fermionic action since the two actions only differ, in the massless limit, by a chiral rotation of the quark fields. The scale-independent renormalization constants Z V, Z A and the ratio Z P /Z S have been computed using the RI-MOMapproach, as well as other alternative methods. For Z A and Z P /Z S, the latter are based on both standard twisted mass and Osterwalder-Seiler fermions, while for Z V a Ward Identity has been used. The quark field renormalization constant Z q and the scale dependent renormalization constants Z S, Z P and Z T are determined in the RI-MOM scheme. Leading discretization effects of O(g2a2), evaluated in one-loop perturbation theory, are explicitly subtracted from the RI-MOM estimates. © 2010 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.
    • Hard photodisintegration of a proton pair

      Pomerantz, I; Bubis, N; Allada, K; Beck, A; Beck, S; Berman, BL; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; de Jager, CW; Dutta, C; Garibaldi, F; Geagla, O; Gilman, R; Glister, J; Higinbotham, DW; Jiang, X; Katramatou, AT; Khrosinkova, E; Lee, BW; LeRose, JJ; Lindgren, R; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Petratos, GG; Piasetzky, E; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rodriguez, I; Ron, G; Saha, A; Sarty, AJ; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shneor, R; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Sulkosky, V; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zheng, X (2010-02-08)
      We present a study of high energy photodisintegration of proton-pairs through the γ + 3He → p + p + n channel. Photon energies, Eγ, from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV were used in kinematics corresponding to a proton pair with high relative momentum and a neutron nearly at rest. The s-11 scaling of the cross section, as predicted by the constituent counting rule for two nucleon photodisintegration, was observed for the first time. The onset of the scaling is at a higher energy and the cross section is significantly lower than for deuteron (pn pair) photodisintegration. For Eγ below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strong energy-dependent structure not observed in deuteron photodisintegration. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
    • Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

      Meissner, S; Metz, A; Pitonyak, D (2010-06-21)
      Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schäfer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.