Now showing items 1-20 of 2509

    • Policy Brief: Alternatives to In-Person American Society of Landscape Architects Conferences on Landscape Architecture

      Kuper, Rob (2022-01-01)
      Annual, in-person professional meetings at a single location yield several personal and organizational benefits. Yet greenhouse gas emissions from organizing, executing, and attending conferences contribute significantly to the climate crisis. Within at least the last decade, the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) has claimed to continually reduce the carbon footprint of the annual meeting and EXPO by performing a variety of actions. ASLA supports global and national greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to limit global warming to 1.5°C and has committed to measuring, understanding, making public, and reducing the organization’s emissions. To date, ASLA has not released information on its progress toward these goals. This study extends my previous work by estimating carbon dioxide emissions from the venues of the 2018 and 2019 ASLA Annual Meeting and EXPO and from travel and hotel accommodations for the attendees and 711 EXPO exhibitors. This study used online carbon calculators, refereed literature, and building energy benchmarking data. The results indicate that featured speakers and EXPO representatives originated from a small number of metropolitan areas, thereby supporting potential future decentralized meetings. Additionally, attendees’ and exhibitors’ total four-day conference emissions estimations were equivalent to the entire annual per capita emissions of someone residing in Ethiopia. In light of these results, I present ideas for several alternative means of convening. My emissions estimations of alternative conference modes indicate that emissions reduction targets could bemet in the short term by immediatelymoving to hybridizedmeetings requiring virtual attendance fromat least half of the participants from the most distant locations. In the long term, and by 2030 at the latest, ASLA’s annual meetings should be held entirely online.
    • Travel-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions from American Society of Landscape Architects Annual Meetings

      Kuper, Rob (2019-01-01)
      The logo of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) proclaims it to be “Green Since 1899.” Annual meetings convened by the ASLA necessitate that many attendees travel by air. Carbon dioxide emissions from aircraft operations accounted for 2–3 percent of annual global emissions in 2010. Emissions are rising, despite the need to remove atmospheric carbon dioxide and reduce global emissions by 45 percent before 2030 and 100 percent before 2050, relative to 2010 levels, to limit global warming to 1.5°C. No public estimations of travel-related carbon emissions associated with ASLA annual meetings are available. Using two web-based carbon calculators, meeting programs, websites, handouts, and ASLA meeting attendance numbers, I performed two travel-related carbon emission estimations: for 2,821 education session featured speakers who presented at annual ASLA meetings in 2011 and between 2013 and 2019; and for annual ASLA meeting attendees between 1960 and 2019. By applying findings from scientific literature to these emission estimates, I also calculated the area of September Arctic sea ice loss that may be attributed to ASLA annual meetings; the labor productivity losses in purchasing power parity that may be associated with ASLA meeting emissions; and the quantity of trees that would be needed to negate the meeting-related quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide. I conclude by suggesting alterations to the format of annual ASLA conferences that would eliminate travel-related emissions in the future and narrow the gap between the ASLA’s actions and proclaimed values.
    • Teach-in: How to be a Climate Activist

      Temple University. Office of Sustainability; Pennsylvania Interfaith Power and Light (2022-03)
    • Characteristics of NCAA Conference of Codes of Ethics

      Greenwell, T. Christopher; Geist, Alan L.; Mahony, Daniel F.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Pastore, Donna L. (2001)
    • Factors Affecting Response Rates in Survey Research: The Case of Intercollegiate Coaches

      Turner, Brian A.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Sagas, Michael (2006)
      A common challenge when conducting survey research is obtaining an adequate number of completed questionnaires from a chosen sample. The present study examined four factors (timing, salience, oversampling, and population characteristics) deemed to be most likely to influence response rates when utilizing the population of intercollegiate coaches. A stratified, random sample of NCAA coaches from six sports at each division level was selected (n = 2964). A total of 1096 (37.0%) questionnaires were returned. Results indicated a significant difference in response rates based on time of the season sent and sport, with football reporting the highest response rates. On average, coaches receive four requests for participation in research studies per year. Finally, coaches felt that research on their profession was only somewhat important.
    • Organizational Justice and Team Performance in Interscholastic Athletics

      Whisenant, Warren; Jordan, Jeremy S. (2006)
      Considerable research in various settings outside of sport has established a linkage between organizational justice (perceptions of fairness in organizations) and performance outcomes. This study drew upon that literature to determine if team performance was impacted by student athlete perceptions of their coach’s level of fairness when dealing with the athletes. Student athletes (n=323) assessed the fairness of their coaches across three dimensions—distributive justice (decision outcomes), procedural justice (process used to arrive at the decision), and interpersonal justice (how the individual is treated during the decision making process). The study found that fairness perceptions did differ when comparisons were made between students who played on teams with winning records and students who played on teams with losing records. Students who played on winning teams perceived the level of fairness their coaches displayed to be higher than the coaches of students on losing teams.
    • An Investigation of the Relationship of Coach’s Use of Humor and Subsequent Player Evaluation

      Nix, Charlie; Gillentine, Andy; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Huang, Ming-Te (2003)
      This study examined the effects of coaches’ use of humor on player evaluations. A questionnaire was administered to 97 high school wrestlers. Subjects were asked to indicate their perceptions of their coaches’ use of humor, coaching abilities, and the degree to which they liked their coach. Respondents indicated their coaches had a sense of humor (M= 1.50), that they liked their coach (M= 1.52), and had appropriate abilities for coaching wrestling. Further analysis indicated weak relationships between the athletes’ perception of coaches’ use of humor and coaching ability (r = .131) and between the coaches’ use of humor and the degree to which athletes liked the coaches (r = .217). A moderate relationship (r = .561) existed between athletes liking the coach and perceived coaching ability. This study suggests use of humor by wrestling coaches does not improve athlete perceptions of coaching ability or liking of the coach. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between athletes’ liking of the coach and perceived coaching ability.
    • Commercialized Fitness Clubs: Gender and Competitive Athletic Identities

      Wegner, Christine E.; Lawrence-Benedict, Heather J.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; O'Reilly, Norm (2020-04)
    • Customer Preference and Student Tickets: Using Conjoint Analysis to Develop Ticket Policy

      Greenwell, Christopher; Popp, Nels; Brownlee, Eric; Jordan, Jeremy S. (2007)
    • Respiratory Properties of Rat Liver Mitochondria Immobilized on an Alkylsilylated Glass Surface

      Arkles, Barry; Brinigar, William S.; Arkles|0000-0003-4580-2579 (1975-11-25)
      Rat liver mitochondria are shown to adhere to the alkylsilylated glass beads in essentially a monolayer. The amount of mitochondria bound to the beads reaches a maximum where the length of the alkyl groups covalently linked to the beads exceeds eight carbons. Mitochondria immobilized on the beads and placed in a flow system exhibit normal: (a) respiratory control, (b) phosphate to oxygen ratio, (c) uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, and (d) inhibition by cyanide, azide, rotenone, oligomycin, and antimycin. Reversibility of the effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and azide was rapid and complete. Inhibition by rotenone, oligomycin was essentially irreversible. Mitochondria have been maintained in a viable state on the beads at 27 degrees for periods up to 4 hours. The use of immobilized organelles appears to offer a new technique for the study of membrane-bound particles whereby substances can be rapidly added and removed while monitoring the composition of solution flowing over the particles.
    • Real-Time Detection of Flu Season Onset: A Novel Approach to Flu Surveillance

      Liu, Jialiang; Suzuki, Sumihiro (2022-03-19)
      The current gold standard for detection of flu season onset in the USA is done retrospectively, where flu season is detected after it has already started. We aimed to create a new surveillance strategy capable of detecting flu season onset prior to its starting. We used an established data generation method that combines Google search volume and historical flu activity data to simulate real-time estimates of flu activity. We then applied a method known as change-point detection to the generated data to determine the point in time that identifies the initial uptick in flu activity which indicates the imminent onset of flu season. Our strategy exhibits a high level of accuracy in predicting the onset of flu season at 86%. Additionally, on average, we detected the onset three weeks prior to the official start of flu season. The results provide evidence to support both the feasibility and efficacy of our strategy to improve the current standard of flu surveillance. The improvement may provide valuable support and lead time for public health officials to take appropriate actions to prevent and control the spread of the flu.
    • Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy as a Triage Tool for Airway Compromise in Angioedema: A Retrospective Cohort Study

      Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology (2022-04-02)
      Background: Airway compromise and respiratory failure are feared complications of angioedema leading to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. However, few of these patients decompensate. There is a paucity of tools that predict airway compromise in patients with angioedema, and it is unclear if automatic triage to the ICU is warranted. We analyzed patients admitted to our tertiary center ICU with angioedema for “airway watch” to find a way to triage those at greatest risk of respiratory decompensation. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with angioedema admitted to our ICU between 2017 and 2020. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL) findings, need for intubation, and length of stay. Descriptive analysis and subsequent ANOVA or T-test statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationships between individual variables and outcomes. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson's Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test where applicable. Continuous variables were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Of 134 patients admitted to our ICU, 63 (47%) required intubation, primarily in the emergency department (92.1%). Of those who required intubation, 61.9% had abnormal NPL findings in contrast to 25.35% of patients who did not require intubation (p<0.0001). Normal NPL findings had a negative predictive value for requiring intubation of 86.5%. Abnormal NPL findings had a positive predictive value for requiring intubation of 68.4%. Conclusion: While airway compromise is a serious complication of angioedema, there is scant evidence to support triage to the ICU for those not intubated immediately. The majority of patients with angioedema who required intubation had abnormal NPL findings, and the majority of those with normal NPL findings did not require intubation. This suggests that NPL findings in patients with angioedema can help with triage to the ICU.
    • Metabolic Reprogramming in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

      Molecular Studies of Neurodegenerative Diseases Lab (Temple University); Fels Cancer Institute for Personalized Medicine (Temple University) (2022-03-28)
      A significant number of patients infected with HIV-1 suffer from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) such as spatial memory impairments and learning disabilities (SMI-LD). SMI-LD is also observed in patients using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Our lab has demonstrated that the HIV-1 protein, gp120, promotes SMI-LD by altering mitochondrial functions and energy production. We have investigated cellular processes upstream of the mitochondrial functions and discovered that gp120 causes metabolic reprogramming. Effectively, the addition of gp120 protein to neuronal cells disrupted the glycolysis pathway at the pyruvate level. Looking for the players involved, we found that gp120 promotes increased expression of polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1), causing the splicing of pyruvate kinase M (PKM) into PKM1 and PKM2. We have also shown that these events lead to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and prevent the cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (pro-BDNF) protein into mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The accumulation of proBDNF results in signaling that increases the expression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) protein which then occupies the cAMP response element (CRE)-binding sites within the BDNF promoters II and IV, thus altering normal synaptic plasticity. We reversed these events by adding Tepp-46, which stabilizes the tetrameric form of PKM2. Therefore, we concluded that gp120 reprograms cellular metabolism, causing changes linked to disrupted memory in HIV-infected patients and that preventing the disruption of the metabolism presents a potential cure against HAND progression.
    • Omics of endothelial cell dysfunction in sepsis

      Center for Inflammation and Lung Research (Temple University) (2022-05-03)
      During sepsis, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulated host response to infection, systemic inflammation activates endothelial cells and initiates a multifaceted cascade of pro-inflammatory signaling events, resulting in increased permeability and excessive recruitment of leukocytes. Vascular endothelial cells share many common properties but have organ-specific phenotypes with unique structure and function. Thus, therapies directed against endothelial cell phenotypes are needed to address organ-specific endothelial cell dysfunction. Omics allow for the study of expressed genes, proteins and/or metabolites in biological systems and provide insight on temporal and spatial evolution of signals during normal and diseased conditions. Proteomics quantifies protein expression, identifies protein–protein interactions and can reveal mechanistic changes in endothelial cells that would not be possible to study via reductionist methods alone. In this review, we provide an overview of how sepsis pathophysiology impacts omics with a focus on proteomic analysis of mouse endothelial cells during sepsis/inflammation and its relationship with the more clinically relevant omics of human endothelial cells. We discuss how omics has been used to define septic endotype signatures in different populations with a focus on proteomic analysis in organ-specific microvascular endothelial cells during sepsis or septic-like inflammation. We believe that studies defining septic endotypes based on proteomic expression in endothelial cell phenotypes are urgently needed to complement omic profiling of whole blood and better define sepsis subphenotypes. Lastly, we provide a discussion of how in silico modeling can be used to leverage the large volume of omics data to map response pathways in sepsis.
    • Chronic Exposure to the Combination of Cigarette Smoke and Morphine Decreases CD4+ Regulatory T Cell Numbers by Reprogramming the Treg Cell Transcriptome

      Cardiovascular Research Center (Temple University); Center for Inflammation and Lung Research (Temple University); Center for Metabolic Disease Research (Temple University) (2022-04-20)
      There is a high incidence of tobacco use among intravenous opioid drug users. It is well established that opioids and tobacco smoke induce a degree of immune activation, and recent work suggests that the combination of these drugs promotes further activation of the immune system. Our approach involved the treatment of wild-type mice with cigarette smoke (SM) for a period of eight weeks, and the chronic continuous administration of morphine (M) via mini-pumps for the final four weeks. In an effort to examine the responses of CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory T (Treg) cells, the major immune suppressive cell type, to the combined chronic administration of SM and M, we determined the frequency of these cells in the spleen, lymph nodes and lungs. Flow cytometric analyses showed that SM and M individually, and the combination (SM + M) have differential effects on the numbers of Treg in the spleen, lymph node, and lung. Either SM or M alone increased Treg cell numbers in the spleen, but SM+M did not. Furthermore, SM + M decreased Treg cell numbers in the lymph node and lung. We then performed RNA-Seq on Treg cells from mice treated with SM, M, or SM + M, and we found that the S + M induced a number of significant changes in the transcriptome, that were not as apparent following treatment with either SM or M alone. This included an activation of TWEAK, PI3K/AKT and OXPHOS pathways and a shift to Th17 immunity. Our results have provided novel insights on tissue Treg cell changes, which we suggest are the result of transcriptomic reprogramming induced by SM, M, and SM + M, respectively. We believe these results may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for suppressing smoke and opioid induced Treg cell impairment.
    • The Effects of Visual Context on Visual-Vestibular Mismatch Revealed by Electrodermal and Postural Response Measures

      Al Sharif, Doaa S.; Tucker, Carole A.; Coffman, Donna L.; Keshner, Emily A. (2022-04-18)
      BACKGROUND: No objective criteria exist for diagnosis and treatment of visual-vestibular mismatch (VVM). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) and trunk acceleration will identify VVM when exposed to visual-vestibular conflict. METHODS: A modified VVM questionnaire identified the presence of VVM (+ VVM) in 13 of 23 young adults (34 ± 8 years old) diagnosed with vestibular migraine. Rod and frame tests and outcome measures for dizziness and mobility were administered. Participants stood on foam while viewing two immersive virtual environments. Trunk acceleration in three planes and electrodermal activity (EDA) were assessed with wearable sensors. Linear mixed effect (LME) models were used to examine magnitude and smoothness of trunk acceleration and tonic and phasic EDA. Welch’s t-test and associations between measures were assessed with a Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Effect sizes of group mean differences were calculated using Cohen’s d test. RESULTS: Greater than 80% of all participants were visually dependent. Outcome measures were significantly poorer in the + VVM group: tonic EDA was lower (t(417)=-4.31,p < 0.001) and phasic EDA higher (t(417) = 4.35, p < 0.001). Postural accelerations varied across groups; LME models indicated a relationship between visual context, postural, and ANS responses in the + VVM group. CONCLUSIONS: Lower tonic EDA with + VVM suggests canal-otolith dysfunction. The positive association between vertical acceleration, tonic EDA, and visual dependence suggests that increased vertical segmental adjustments are used to compensate. Visual context of the spatial environment emerged as an important variable to control when testing or treating VVM.
    • Examining the Influencing Factors of Chronic Hepatitis B Monitoring Behaviors among Asian Americans: Application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Model

      Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2022-04-12)
      Background: Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Asian Americans are 60% more likely to die from the disease. Doctor visitation for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection every six months is an effective approach to preventing liver cancer. Methods: This study utilized baseline data from an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial aimed at improving long-term adherence to CHB monitoring/treatment. Guided by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model, we examined factors associated with CHB monitoring adherence among Asian Americans with CHB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test the associations. Results: The analysis sample consisted of 382 participants. Multivariable logistic regression showed that HBV knowledge (OR = 1.24, p < 0.01) and CHB-management motivation (OR = 1.06, p < 0.05) are significant predictors of having a doctor’s visit in the past six months. Both factors were positively associated with the likelihood of having had blood tests for HBV in the past six months. Conclusion: We found that greater HBV-related knowledge and CHB-management motivation are significantly associated with performing CHB-monitoring behaviors in the past six months. The findings have critical implications for the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions for CHB monitoring and liver cancer prevention in the Asian American community.
    • Selective Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6 by Artemisinins and Identification of New Classes of Inhibitors after Expression in Yeast

      Institute for Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2022-04-25)
      Treatment failures with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) threaten global efforts to eradicate malaria. They highlight the importance of identifying drug targets and new inhibitors and of studying how existing antimalarial classes work. Here, we report the successful development of a heterologous expression-based compound-screening tool. The validated drug target Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6 (PfATP6) and a mammalian orthologue (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1a [SERCA1a]) were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, providing a robust, sensitive, and specific screening tool. Whole-cell and in vitro assays consistently demonstrated inhibition and labeling of PfATP6 by artemisinins. Mutations in PfATP6 resulted in fitness costs that were ameliorated in the presence of artemisinin derivatives when studied in the yeast model. As previously hypothesized, PfATP6 is a target of artemisinins. Mammalian SERCA1a can be mutated to become more susceptible to artemisinins. The inexpensive, low-technology yeast screening platform has identified unrelated classes of druggable PfATP6 inhibitors. Resistance to artemisinins may depend on mechanisms that can concomitantly address multitargeting by artemisinins and fitness costs of mutations that reduce artemisinin susceptibility.