Now showing items 1-20 of 2167

    • Selection analysis identifies unusual clustered mutational changes in Omicron lineage BA.1 that likely impact Spike function

      Institute of Genomic and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM) (Temple University) (2022-01-18)
      Among the 30 non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions in the Omicron S-gene are 13 that have only rarely been seen in other SARS-CoV-2 sequences. These mutations cluster within three functionally important regions of the S-gene at sites that will likely impact (i) interactions between subunits of the Spike trimer and the predisposition of subunits to shift from down to up configurations, (ii) interactions of Spike with ACE2 receptors, and (iii) the priming of Spike for membrane fusion. We show here that, based on both the rarity of these 13 mutations in intrapatient sequencing reads and patterns of selection at the codon sites where the mutations occur in SARS-CoV-2 and related sarbecoviruses, prior to the emergence of Omicron the mutations would have been predicted to decrease the fitness of any genomes within which they occurred. We further propose that the mutations in each of the three clusters therefore cooperatively interact to both mitigate their individual fitness costs, and adaptively alter the function of Spike. Given the evident epidemic growth advantages of Omicron over all previously known SARS-CoV-2 lineages, it is crucial to determine both how such complex and highly adaptive mutation constellations were assembled within the Omicron S-gene, and why, despite unprecedented global genomic surveillance efforts, the early stages of this assembly process went completely undetected.
    • Mobile health-based physical activity intervention for individuals with spinal cord injury in the community: A pilot study

      Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Mohammad Amiri, Amir; Thapa-Chhetry, Binod; Snethen, Gretchen; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Ramos-Lamboy, Marlyn; Coffman, Donna L.; Intille, Stephen S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661 (2019-10-15)
      Low levels of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behavior in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been associated with secondary conditions such as pain, fatigue, weight gain, and deconditioning. One strategy for promoting regular PA is to provide people with an accurate estimate of everyday PA level. The objective of this research was to use a mobile health-based PA measurement system to track PA levels of individuals with SCI in the community and provide them with a behavior-sensitive, just-in-time-adaptive intervention (JITAI) to improve their PA levels. The first, second, and third phases of the study, each with a duration of one month, involved collecting baseline PA levels, providing near-real-time feedback on PA level (PA Feedback), and providing PA Feedback with JITAI, respectively. PA levels in terms of energy expenditure in kilocalories, and minutes of light- and moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA were assessed by an activity monitor during the study. Twenty participants with SCI took part in this research study with a mean (SD) age of 39.4 (12.8) years and 12.4 (12.5) years since injury. Sixteen participants completed the study. Sixteen were male, 16 had paraplegia, and 12 had complete injury. Within-participant comparisons indicated that only two participants had higher energy expenditure (>10%) or lower energy expenditure (<-10%) during PA Feedback with JITAI compared to the baseline. However, eleven participants (69.0%) had higher light- and/or moderate-intensity PA during PA Feedback with JITAI compared to the baseline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test a PA JITAI for individuals with SCI that responds automatically to monitored PA levels. The results of this pilot study suggest that a sensor-enabled mobile JITAI has potential to improve PA levels of individuals with SCI. Future research should investigate the efficacy of JITAI through a clinical trial.
    • A Developmental Study of Community Participation of Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: Implications for Policy and Practice

      Thomas, Elizabeth C.; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2017-04-01)
      Understanding age-related expectations for community participation can aid mental health providers and policy makers in the design and tailoring of age-appropriate services to better meet consumers’ participation needs. This study seeks to describe and compare the amount, importance, and sufficiency of community participation in younger adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult consumers. Participants were 879 adults with serious mental illnesses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure as part of several studies (only baseline data were analyzed). One-way analysis of variance tests and chi-square analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age group on community participation outcomes. The amount and importance of participation in specific participation areas differed across age groups in developmentally appropriate ways. For older adults, a greater percentage of areas considered important were done enough, and fewer participation days were needed in certain areas for participation to be considered sufficient. Consumers reported participating in the community to meet basic needs (e.g., running errands), but participation appeared lower in areas typically identified as important to various age groups across the lifespan (e.g., working). Results support the use of developmental frameworks for delivering mental health services, and identify particular areas of community participation that policy and practice efforts might focus on to help individuals participate to a greater degree in areas that are important to them. Implications for policy-making, program evaluation, and individual interventions are discussed.
    • An exploration of linear and curvilinear relationships between community participation and neurocognition among those with serious mental illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth C.; Snethen, Gretchen; McCormick, Bryan; Salzer, Mark S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; McCormick|0000-0003-1017-8868; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-04-04)
      Objective: Longitudinal research supports an effect of participation in aspects of community life (e.g., leisure activity, employment) on neurocognition in the general population. This study examined the extent and nature of the relationship between community participation and neurocognition among people with serious mental illnesses. Methods: Participants included 168 adults with schizophrenia spectrum or affective disorder diagnoses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses explored linear and curvilinear effects of the amount and breadth of community participation on neurocognition. Results: Significant linear relationships existed between amount of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning, motor speed, verbal fluency, and attention/processing speed, and between breadth of participation and verbal fluency. Significant curvilinear effects were noted between amount of community participation and verbal memory, and between breadth of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning and motor speed. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings suggest that enhanced community participation may contribute to improved neurocognitive functioning, further supporting the importance of this rehabilitation target.
    • An Examination of the Community Participation Interests of Young Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth C.; Snethen, Gretchen; O'Shea, Amber; Suarez, John; Hurford, Irene; Salzer, Mark S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-12-24)
      Participation in various aspects of community life (e.g., education, employment) plays a critical role in fostering young adult development and health. To support behavioral health services in addressing a broader array of meaningful community participation areas, the current study examined the participation interests of young adults with serious mental illnesses via a literature review and focus groups interviews. Literature review results revealed a range of community participation areas of interest to these individuals, including employment, education, religion and spirituality, social networking (e.g., using social media), volunteering activities, socializing, and civic and artistic participation (e.g., attending a political event, playing music). Focus group participants named many of these same areas, but also mentioned unique areas of participation that have not been the focus of previous research (i.e., playing games, sports, exploration of other communities (e.g., traveling), hanging out, and nature-based participation). Implications for future research and behavioral health practice are discussed.
    • The relationship between community participation and physical activity among individuals with serious mental illnesses

      Snethen, Gretchen; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; McCormick, Bryan P.; Hiremath, Shiv V.; Salzer, Mark S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; McCormick|0000-0003-1017-8868; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618 (2021-01-13)
      The importance of physical activity (PA) and health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) has been well documented. It is also established that individuals with SMI engage in high amounts of sedentary behavior and low amounts of physical activity, which contributes to poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between community participation, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among individuals with SMI. Methods: This study used a sample of individuals with SMI who were receiving community mental health services in a large urban area of the United States. Of the 526 individuals approached, 308 were interested in the study; 173 consented and completed data collection. This study reports on 152 participants who had complete data. Using the Temple University Community Participation Scale, participants reported on community-based activities completed independently in the previous 30 days. Additionally, participants were asked to wear a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) on the non-dominant wrist for seven days. The total number of community participation days was correlated with PA variables including steps, sedentary, light, and moderate-vigorous PA. Two groups of step data were analyzed using t-tests: ≥7500 steps, and ≥10,000 steps. Logistic regressions were run to examine the relationship between amount, breadth and sufficiency of community participation and having ± 7500 steps and ± 10,000 daily steps, controlling for age, gender, and income. Results: Amount of community participation was inversely associated with the % of time in sedentary activity and positively associated with the % of time in moderate to vigorous PA. Those with at or more than 7500 steps and 10,000 steps reported significantly more days of community participation. Conclusion: This study highlights the contribution of everyday activities for increased physical activity and reduced time spent in sedentary activity. Practitioners should consider recommendations for engagement in the community to increase opportunities for walking.
    • Community Participation Factors and Poor Neurocognitive Functioning among Persons with Schizophrenia

      Thomas, Elizabeth C.; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark S.; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2020)
      Poor neurocognitive functioning among individuals with schizophrenia is typically conceptualized as resulting from a disease process. The objective of this article is to further expand understanding of poor neurocognition beyond pathogenesis toward a perspective that also incorporates community participation factors. This article focuses on three such factors—sedentary behavior, loneliness, and poverty—that have been demonstrated to be related to neurocognition and are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the research on each factor and discusses its possible connection to neurocognitive challenges for individuals with schizophrenia. Implications for research, policy, and practice efforts are then proposed to broaden approaches to understanding and addressing neurocognitive challenges in this population.
    • Providing Opportunities for Meaningful Activities for Covid-19 Patients: A Community Response

      Knowles, Emily; O'Donnell, Casey; Lynch, Amy; Snethen, Gretchen; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661 (2020-12-22)
      Context: Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 are at high risk for experiencing isolation, boredom, anxiety, and depression. These psychosocial issues can contribute to poorer health outcomes. Objective: The purpose of this project was to bridge the gap between patient needs and available resources: bringing supplies to the patients, such that they could participate in meaningful activities in the isolation of their rooms, with hopes of mitigating aspects of loneliness and boredom. Case Report: This case study describes the activities of the occupational and recreational therapy academic programs initiated in order to resource supplies from the community in response to a request from the hospital. A carload of technology and non-technology activity resources were delivered to the hospital and distributed to patients. A treating physician provided an overview of the patient response. Patient Experience: Staff reported fewer complaints of isolation and boredom following the delivery of resources. This also increased staff morale. Conclusion: Providing resources patients can independently utilize may reduce feelings of isolation and boredom, which may improve health outcomes.
    • Biosocial medicine: Biology, biography, and the tailored care of the patient

      Horwitz, Ralph I.; Lobitz, Gabriella; Mawn, McKayla; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Cullen, Mark R.; Sim, Ida; Singer, Burton H. (2021-07-06)
      Biosocial Medicine, with its emphasis on the full integration of the person's biology and biography, proposes a strategy for clinical research and the practice of medicine that is transformative for the care of individual patients. In this paper, we argue that Biology is one component of what makes a person unique, but it does not do so alone. Biography, the lived experience of the person, integrates with biology to create a unique signature for each individual and is the foundational concept on which Biosocial Medicine is based. Biosocial Medicine starts with the premise that the individual patient is the focus of clinical care, and that average results for “ideal” patients in population level research cannot substitute for the “real” patient for whom clinical decisions are needed. The paper begins with a description of the case-based method of clinical reasoning, considers the strengths and limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials and Evidence Based Medicine, reviews the increasing focus on precision medicine and then explores the neglected role of biography as part of a new approach to the tailored care of patients. After a review of the analytical challenges in Biosocial Medicine, the paper concludes by linking the physician's commitment to understanding the patient's biography as a critical element in developing trust with the patient.
    • The biological, biographical, and biospheric dimensions of puberty onset: Using Bio3Science to frame transdisciplinary health research on puberty

      Croog, Rebecca; Saenz Montoya, Alexis; Cunningham, Carlee M.; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Kulathinal|0000-0003-1907-2744 (2020-02-27)
      This paper uses the case of puberty to characterize a new health science framework called Bio3Science and to provide an example of how trending research on biosocial mechanisms can be put to use to bridge siloed disciplines as well as the translational gap. Examined as an intricate, open-ended problem of scientific understanding, puberty offers a window to examine how three dimensions of human life – biology, biography, and biosphere – can be understood to shape human health and disease. Methods: Using the Bio3Science framework, a biosocial model of puberty was developed and critiqued by an interdisciplinary group of health science and social science researchers in a design studio setting. Results: The design and critique process resulted in a model and new conceptual framework that depicts puberty as a highly variable life experience that integrates multiple dense interactions and context-specific responses; within this model, the gene regulatory network (GRN) transformed from a biological to a biosocial mechanism, with conceptual and concrete applications. Conclusions: By providing a new, generalizable framework for understanding the integration of biology, biography, and biosphere in health research, opportunities emerge for more interdisciplinary work puberty, but also and more broadly, for more collaborative, inter-epistemological health research through the Bio3Science framework.
    • Better than text? Critical reflections on the practices of visceral methodologies in human geography

      Sexton, Alexandra E.; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Sweet, Elizabeth L.; Miele, Mara; Ash, James (2017-03-19)
      This co-authored intervention discusses themes on the thinking and doing of visceral research. 'Visceral' is taken here as that relating to, and emerging from, bodily, emotional and affective interactions with the material and discursive environment. There has recently been a distinct and necessary turn within the social sciences, particularly in human geography, towards the need for more viscerally-aware research practices. Building on such work, this collective intervention by leading visceral scholars offers two key contributions: first, it critically examines visceral geography approaches by considering their methodological contributions, and suggests improvements and future research pathways; and second, the authors extend recent visceral geography debates by examining how to conduct this type of research, providing reflections from their own experiences on the practicalities and challenges of implementing visceral methods. These observations are taken from a diverse range of research contexts - for example, from gender violence and community spaces, to the politics of 'good eating' in schools and social movements (e.g. Slow Food) - and involve a similarly diverse set of methods, including body-map storytelling, cooking and sharing meals, and using music to 'attune' researchers' bodies to nonhuman objects. In short, this collective intervention makes important and original contributions to the recent visceral turn in human geography, and offers critical insights for researchers across disciplines who are interested in conceptually and/or practically engaging with visceral methods.
    • Biosocial “Science Talk”: Using Informal Interactive Programs to Help Children Explore the Human Body’s Relationship with the World Around It

      Kinsey, Dirk; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Das, Jayatri (2021-09-14)
      This paper describes the application of a "biosocial" approach to informal health and science education. As an engagement between biological and critical social sciences, biosocial theory has sought to re-articulate human bodies as fundamentally the product of interrelationships between the biological and social dimensions of human life. Applying this approach to health and science education, we conducted approximately 200 public demonstrations at a science museum with school-aged participants over a two-year period. These demonstrations were designed to describe cutting edge research into "biosocial mechanisms" such as allostatic load and epigenetics. We examined survey responses and informal conversation with participants in order to characterize key themes that emerged within these interactions. Our analysis identifies a distinct biosocial "science talk" characterized, at varying degrees of complexity, by an emphasis on complex inter-relationships between environments and biology, the mutability of bodies, and the role of social structures and personal experiences in shaping health outcomes. We argue that these forms of science talk reflect the highly individualized and relational functioning of the biosocial mechanisms. We contend that this approach is not only accessible and easily adaptable to informal science education, but of increasing relevance given the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Implementing the national bioengineered food disclosure standard : will consumers use QR codes to check for genetically modified (GM) ingredients in food products?

      Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Hallman, William K.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2018)
      The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard of 2016 mandates the disclosure of Genetically Modified (GM) ingredients in food products in the US by including text, a symbol, or a digital link such as a Quick Response (QR) code on product labels. Many food manufacturers will use QR codes that connect to a website, because they enable provision of detailed contextual information about GM ingredients. However, critics argue that this approach is inadequate because many consumers will be unable/unwilling to use QR codes to access information. Using a telephone survey of US adults (N=1,011), this study finds that consumers likely to use QR codes to check for GM ingredients are: those who already use UPC or QR codes, consider GM Organisms to be risky, approve of the mandatory labeling law, and are less likely to buy products with GM ingredients. The study concludes by discussing implications for implementation of the policy.
    • Engineering identity and communication outcomes: comparing integrated engineering and traditional public-speaking courses

      Linvill, Darren L.; Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Kaye, Nigel B.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2019-04-25)
      We assessed the effectiveness of an integrated engineering public-speaking class relative to a traditionally taught public-speaking class. The integrated class was designed to meet the growing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics communication needs and the fundamental Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the National Communication Association student outcomes related to public speaking. Working within the Communication in the Disciplines theoretical framework, this study employed a quasi-experiment with both a test (engineering specific communication class) and control (traditional communication class) group; finding a significant increase with respect to attitude toward communication for students before and after the engineering specific class compared with the traditional class. Along with attitude toward communication, efficacy toward communication and being enrolled in the engineering specific class related positively to a sense of engineering identity for students at the end of class. For students enrolled in the engineering specific class, their sense of engineering identity was mediated through an improved attitude toward communication.
    • Veterans' Transition Out of the Military and Knowledge of Mental Health Disorders

      Taylor, Savanna; Miller, Bryan Lee; Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Vogel, Melissa; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2020-01-31)
      There is a need for research to understand veteran’s mental health and how they use resources, like the Veteran’s Affairs and non-profit organizations. This study serves to further our understanding about veterans’ knowledge on this subject. This study adds to the literature by conducting semi-structured interviews with 15 veterans who had deployed on either United States military bases or ships, or peace-keeping missions, overseas after 9/11. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thoroughly analyzed using a narrative approach. Five important themes emerged from the interviews: prevalence of mental health disorders, knowledge of disorders and resources, barriers to seeking help, types of resources available, and motivations to seek help. Although this study aimed to explicitly understand knowledge, the inductive research process produced four other themes that became pivotal in understanding why veterans were skeptical to seek help.
    • Something Very Fishy: An Informal STEAM Project Making a Case for Ocean Conservation and Climate Change

      Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Prosser, Kathy L.; Braffitt, Kaitlyn F.; Bridgeford, Kelly E.; Gleaton, Emily C.; Saverance, Madeline G.; Noonan, Kara R.; Payton, Tokea G.; Sims, Randi J.; Smith, Kylie M.; Childress, Michael J.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2021-04-19)
      This paper reports about an informal learning experience – Something Very Fishy (SVF) – which is focused on ocean conservation and climate change. Results from 49 elementary school student workbooks indicated that experiencing SVF improved their understanding of ocean conservation, increased their interest in pursuing science careers, but did not affect their actions towards conservation. Survey results from 40 undergraduate students who helped run SVF indicated that the more efficacious they felt about communicating marine science and the more identified they felt with the scientific community, the more inclined they were to choose careers involving science communication. Survey results from 27 elementary school teachers, who accompanied their students to SVF, indicated perceived norms around teaching marine science and climate change affected their intentions to teach those topics in their classrooms. The paper concludes with implications of these findings on the future of SVF and programs alike, and research directions for environmental conservation in informal settings.
    • Improving GM Consensus Acceptance Through Reduced Reactance and Climate Change-based Message Targeting

      Hasell, Ariel; Lyons, BenjaminA.; Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2020-05-13)
      Public understanding of and support for GM foods in the U.S. are generally low and out of step with the scientific community, and particularly among those who identify as environmentalists. In order to communicate the scientific consensus on GM foods to these audiences, messages may need to be tailored to reduce reactance. We employ a messaging experiment that tests the potential for first-person narratives to link acceptance of the scientific evidence on climate change to the scientific evidence on GM foods among individuals high in environmental concern. Our study found that such messages were generally more effective than non-narrative messages or narrative messages without climate change information, and they were especially effective at conveying scientific consensus and influencing personal views on GM foods among those who identify as environmentalists, through reduced reactance. The results offer modest evidence of a theoretically driven, practical technique for communicating scientific consensus about GM foods in a way that can help reduce reactance in people who are especially likely to oppose GM foods.
    • Impact of Abstract Versus Concrete Conceptualization of Genetic Modification (GM) Technology on Public Perceptions

      Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Hardy, Bruce W.; Lybrand, Evan; Hallman, William K.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129; Hardy|0000-0003-4852-7373 (2020-09-27)
      Based on the scholarship of abstract/concrete cognition, mental schema, and the integrated model of behavior change, this study found that using concrete over abstract language increased support for specific genetically modified (GM) applications and GM in general, and improved intentions to purchase products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An online survey with an embedded 3 × 2 experiment was conducted using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 1,470). Participants were randomly assigned to conditions that varied in abstract/concrete conceptualization of GMOs and were prompted to assess GM risk and benefit perceptions with respect to human health and the environment. Regardless of whether they assessed risks or benefits, participants who assessed GMOs through concrete terms compared to abstract terms showed an increase in positive emotions, which in turn increased their support for specific GM applications and GM in general, and their intentions to buy products with GMOs.
    • University Experiences of Marine Science Research and Outreach Beyond the Classroom

      Sims, Randi J.; Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Payton, Tokea G.; Noonan, Kara; Prosser, Kathy L.; Childress, Michael J.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2021-05-27)
      Climate and ocean literacy are two of the most important challenges facing society today. However, many students lack exposure to these topics upon entering college. As a result, these students must rely on learning climate literacy and ocean conservation through experiences outside of those provided in the traditional undergraduate classroom. To fill this gap, we initiated a marine science professional development program to expose undergraduate students to ocean literacy principles and climate change concepts through marine ecology research and educational outreach. This study evaluates the effects of our undergraduate experiential learning for individuals involved in our research team, our educational outreach team, or both. Clemson University alumni that participated in our program were surveyed to determine educational and professional gains in three areas related to: (1) knowledge; (2) careers; and (3) attitudes. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to understand the relationships between gains and program type, mentor experience, and duration of program enrollment. In addition, we evaluated demographic covariates including age, ideology, and gender. Our study found that perceived knowledge of marine science and science communication skills increased with positive mentor experience. Alumni that rated their experience with their mentors highly also indicated that the program was important to their careers after graduation. Students who participated in any program for a prolonged period were more likely to indicate that marine science was important to their careers. These students were also more likely to continue their education. Additionally, we saw that a sense of belonging and identity in science, as well as the understanding of climate change threat on the marine environment, all increased with longer program involvement, more than the type of experience (research versus outreach). Overall, we found that both the research and outreach programs offered opportunities for advancements in knowledge, careers, and attitudes. These results provide evidence that experiential learning has the potential to increase student engagement and understanding of climate change and ocean literacy communication as well as a sense of belonging in science-oriented fields.
    • PRSA’s Theoretical and Data–Driven Approach to Improving Diversity & Inclusion in Public Relations

      Blow, Felicia D.; Bonney, Christopher F.; Tallapragada, Meghnaa; Brown, David W.; Tallapragada|0000-0003-1472-9129 (2021-10-01)
      Drawing on the history of advancing diversity and inclusion (D&I) in the public relations (PR) profession and within its organization, Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) designed and executed a three–phase study to assess D&I perceptions. Results from focus groups, interviews, and a survey revealed that: (i) there is a unified view of inclusion, but varied views on diversity among members, (ii) chapters need support to advance their D&I efforts, and (iii) there are opportunities for PRSA to be a change agent for D&I. The paper concludes by discussing the PRSA D&I strategic plan and future directions for scholars and practitioners eager to engage in D&I efforts.