• Impact of Tobacco Smoking Status on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: Observational study

      Fernandez Romero, Gustavo; Dominguez-Castillo, Eduardo; Zheng, Matthew; Yousef, Ibraheem; Darnell, Melinda; Ganghemi, Andrew; Dorey-Stein, Zack; Zantah, Massa; Townsend, Ryan; Myers, Catherine; Ku, Tse-Shuen; Patel, Maulin; Patlakh, Nicole; Jacobs, Michael; Zhao, Huaqing; Gupta, Rohit; Rali, Parth; Criner, Gerard J. (2020-11-14)
      Background: Determine the impact of tobacco smoking status on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in the need for ICU care, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study, that involved chart review. All adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized from March 15th, 2020 to May 06th, 2020 with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. We used chi-squared test for categorical variables and student t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. We further used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression to assess risk factors for mortality and intubation. Results: Among 577 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 268 (46.4%) had a history of smoking including 187 former and 81 active smokers. The former smokers when compared with non-smokers were predominantly older with more comorbidities. Also, when compared with never smokers D Dimer levels were elevated in active (p=0.05) and former smokers (p<0.01). The former smokers versus non-smokers required increased need for advanced non-invasive respiratory support on admission (p<0.05), ICU care (p<0.05) and had higher mortality [1.99 (CI 95% 1.03-3.85, p<0.05)]. Active smokers versus non-smokers received more mechanical ventilation [OR 2.11 (CI 95% 1.06-4.19, p<0.05)]. Conclusions: In our cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, former smokers had higher need for non-invasive respiratory support on admission, ICU care, and mortality compared to non-smokers. Also, active smokers versus non-smokers needed more mechanical ventilation.
    • Individual Hurricane Preparedness During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights for Risk Communication and Emergency Management Policies

      Botzen, W.J.W.; Mol, Jantsje M.; Robinson, Peter John; Zhang, Juan; Czajkowski, Jeffrey (2020-01-01)
      Climate change adaptation strategies should anticipate that the 2020 situation which resembles an above average hurricane season coinciding with a pandemic may occur more frequently in the future. This study draws lessons on how individual hurricane preparedness is influenced by a pandemic, which turns out to be a combination of perceptions of flood and pandemic risks that have opposite effects on preparedness behavior. We conducted three waves of surveys during 2019-2020 to monitor hurricane preparedness activities in flood-prone coastal areas in Florida, including a survey of 600 respondents in early June 2020 to obtain insights into households’ risk perceptions and preparedness for this hurricane season under COVID-19. The results show that this hurricane season is dominated by concerns over COVID-19 which influences people’s evacuation intentions. Whereas hotel costs were the main obstacle to evacuating during Hurricane Dorian in 2019, the main evacuation obstacle identified in the 2020 hurricane season is COVID-19. Our statistical analyses that investigates the factors influencing evacuation intentions consistently show that older individuals are less likely to evacuate voluntarily, because they are concerned about becoming infected by COVID-19. We discuss the implications of our findings for adaptation policies that aim to improve hurricane preparedness in situations of a pandemic, such as risk communication and emergency management policies.
    • Internal alkyne regio- and chemoselectivity using a zwitterionic [(NHC)Au(I)] catalyst in a silver-free alkyne hydration reaction

      Weerasiri, Kushan C.; Chen, Danmin; Wozniak, Derek; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0003-3133-8277; 0000-0002-7737-4583; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2016-11-29)
      An alkyne hydration of terminal and internal alkynes is reported using a zwitterionic NHC Au catalyst, (BNHC)Au(SMe2) (1), in the absence of silver and Brønsted acid additives. The hydration demonstrates good regioselectivity in alkyne hydration and chemoselectivity for internal alkynes vs. terminal. In addition, (1) performs a propargyl alcohol hydration to predominantly form α-hydroxy methyl ketone over the more common Meyer-Schuster rearrangement product. While complex (1) is active without silver additives, addition of AgSbF6 increases reaction rate and decreases selectivity for internal alkyne hydration over terminal substrates. To our knowledge, the rate enhancement of (1) by AgSbF6 is the first such demonstration of a silver effect for a “halide-free” Au catalyst.
    • Managing through a crisis: Managerial implications for business-to-business firms

      Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Ritter, Thomas; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony (2020-06-05)
    • Mathematical model and simulations of COVID-19 2020 outbreak in New York: Predictions and implications for control measures

      Sinha, Durgesh; Tan, Peiwen; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-05-01)
      The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in the affected 210 countries with 2.4 million people infected and over 163 thousand deaths. The COVID-19 spike protein is effective at binding to human cells, but this COVID-19 backbone differed substantially from other, already known coronaviruses and mostly resembled viruses found in bats and pangolins. To help predict possible dynamics of COVID-19 as well as ways to contain it, this paper develops a mathematical model for the disease, which includes two different infectious routes. The model’s predictions are fitted to data from the outbreak in New York State from the first reported case from March 01, 2020 to April 19, 2020. The containment time and the severity of the outbreaks depend crucially on the contact coefficients and the isolation rate constant. When randomness is added to the model coefficients, the simulations show that the model is sensitive to the scaled contact rate among people and to the isolation rate. The model is analyzed using stability theory for ordinary differential equations and indicates that when using only isolation for control and advising self-recovery, the endemic steady state is locally stable and attractive. After reaching the peak of COVID-19 on April 14, 2020, new infections by the virus would slow down, particularly from the beginning of May at New York State if people keep the isolation. Numerical simulations with parameters estimated from New York State illustrate the analytical results and the model behavior, which may have important implications for the disease containment in other cities. Indeed, the model highlights the importance of isolation of infected individuals and advising self-recovery may be used to assess other control measures. The model is general and may be used to analyze outbreaks in other states of the United States and other countries.
    • Mathematical Modeling Study of the 2020 CoVID-19 Outbreak in the United States

      Sinha, Durgesh; Klahn, Nicholas; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-04-12)
      A mathematical model was developed for the currently evolving COVID-19 outbreak. Data analysis and model fitting using Latin Hypercube Sampling partial Correlation Coefficient Method was used to determine the model’s parameters and basic reproduction numbers. The infectivity values from symptomatic infectious people was 0.118461389 (95% CI [0.1136278, 0.12329497]), asymptomatic transmission was 0.100111427 (95% CI [0.1000297, 0.10019314]), and quarantined transmission was 0.057337278 (95% CI [0.0504738, 0.0642008]). The United states reached its peak basic reproduction number on March 10th where R0=58, but it has since lowered to 1.47 as of April 5th. Also, those in quarantine had contributed the most to the basic reproduction number, with asymptomatic people being second, and regular symptomatic people contributing the least. Our simulations showed that the United States has reached its peak occurred on April 11, 2020 with a total 461,700 number of cases and it will reach on June 12, 2020 where the confirmed case count would reach 1.439 million. As for the longevity of the virus, our prediction shows that it could be under preventive measure within two years by February 10, 2022, would be 14,130.
    • Mathematical Modeling to Estimate the Reproductive Number and the Outbreak Size of COVID-19: The case of India and the World

      Sinha, Durgesh; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-05-04)
      Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with more than 218,000 deaths in 211 different countries around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for this deadliest disease. This paper describes a mathematical model for India, a country with the second highest population in the world with an extremely high population density of about 464 people per km2. This disease has multiphasic actions and reaction mode and our model SEIAQIm is based on six compartmental groups in the form of susceptible, exposed, infectious, asymptomatic, quarantine, and recovered immune factions. Latin Hypercube Sampling Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient method was used for the data analysis and model fitting. According to our model, India would reach its basic reproduction number R0=0.97 on May 14, 2020 with a total number of 73,800 estimated cases. Further, this study also equates the world's situation using the same model system and predicts by May 7, 2020 with a total number of 3,772,000 estimated confirmed cases. Moreover, the current mathematical model highlights the importance of social distancing as an effective method of containing spread of COVID-19.
    • Momentary Student Engagement as a Dynamic Developmental System

      Symonds, Jennifer E.; Kaplan, Avi; Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela Aro, Katariina; Torsney, Benjamin M.; Skinner, Ellen; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2020-01-02)
      In this theoretical statement we answer the call for increased scientific precision in research on student engagement, by providing a conceptualization of student engagement as a dynamic developmental system occurring across momentary time in classrooms. Momentary student engagement can be summarized as the situated, embodied, affective-motivational experience of integrated mental-physical activity in a task. In the statement we describe how momentary student engagement comprises parts (emotion, motivation, mental action, and physical action), structure (coactions between parts) and process (how parts and the whole develop through a sequence of engagement triggers and non-linear action). We discuss how researchers can conceptualize and study momentary student engagement at the microlevel grain sizes of agent (individual student), task (individual academic tasks) and time (momentary), providing a contrast to research on other forms of engagement occurring at higher level grain sizes (e.g., engagement with schooling as a macrolevel process). We overview methods of studying momentary student engagement complexity, emergence and dynamics, and end the statement by discussing how researchers can use the momentary student engagement perspective to enhance student engagement interventions.
    • More than just smell - COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis

      Parma, Valentina; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Nim, Masha Y.; Kelly, Christine E.; Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research; Reed, Danielle R.; Hummel, Thomas; Munger, Steven; Hayes, John E.; 0000-0003-0276-7072 (2020-05-24)
      Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, generally lacked quantitative measurements, were mostly restricted to data from single countries. Here, we report the development, implementation and initial results of a multi-lingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in three distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, 8 other, ages 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change+/-100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7+/- 28.7, mean+/- SD), taste (-69.0+/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3+/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell, but also affects taste and chemesthesis. The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.
    • Novel approach for low‐dose pulmonary delivery of hydroxychloroquine in COVID‐19

      Fassihi, Safa C.; Nabar, Neel R.; Fassihi, Reza; 0000-0002-6952-7017 (2020-06-19)
    • Predictors of Response to Endobronchial Coil Therapy in Patients With Advanced Emphysema

      RENEW Study Group (2019-02-21)
      Background: The Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Patients With Emphysema (RENEW) trial reported improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function, and exercise performance following endobronchial coil treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this post hoc analysis was to identify baseline predictors, including quantitative CT measures, that identify patients most likely to significantly benefit from endobronchial coil therapy. Methods: Quantitative CT analysis by an independent radiology laboratory and a qualitative evaluation by five blinded experts of the baseline thoracic CT imaging were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to elucidate characteristics associated with clinical response. Results: In total, 125 patients underwent coil treatment and had evaluable 12-month follow-up results. Of these, 78 patients received treatment of lobes with the highest emphysematous destruction determined by quantitative CT analysis (quantitative visual match [QVM]+), and 47 received treatment in at least one lobe that was not the most destroyed (QVM–). From the 78 patients with QVM+ treatment, a subgroup of 50 patients (64%) was identified with baseline residual volume > 200% predicted, emphysema score > 20% low attenuation area, and absence of airway disease. In this subgroup, greater lobar residual volume reduction in the treated lobes was achieved, which was associated with significant mean ± SE improvement in FEV1 (15.2 ± 3.1%), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (–12 ± 2 points), and residual volume (–0.57 ± 0.13 L). Discussion: This post hoc analysis found that both significant hyperinflation (residual volume ≥ 200% predicted) and CT analysis are critical for patient selection and treatment planning for endobronchial coil therapy. Quantitative CT analysis is important to identify optimal lobar treatment and to exclude patients with insufficient emphysema (< 20% low attenuation area), whereas visual assessment identifies patients with signs of airway disease associated with worse outcomes. Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01608490; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
    • Profiles of Social Distance Compliance: Psychological and Situational Predictors of Risky Behavior during COVID-19

      Haupt, Michael Robert; Meredith Weiss, Staci; Chiu, Michelle; Cuomo, Raphael; Chein, Jason; Mackey, Tim; 0000-0002-9178-6680; 0000-0002-8430-7899 (2020-06-05)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the factors underlying variability in compliance with CDC guidelines in response to the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19. To do this, we examined the frequency of once ordinary, but newly risky behavior (as deemed by CDC guidelines) in a sample of 482 MTurkers. We ran analyses probing the situational and dispositional variables that predicted variance in risky behavior using data-driven and hypothesis-generated approaches. We found situational and dispositional variables contributed unique variance to risky behavior, controlling for variability accounted for by demographic factors. More frequent report of risky activity was associated with higher extraversion, need for cognitive closure, behavior activation, and perceived resource scarcity; in contrast, more frequent report of risky activity was associated with less empathy and living space access, as well as younger age. To break down these findings, we used a cluster analysis to profile individuals, using only situational and dispositional variables belonging to seven clusters. Combined with testing differences in risk taking by cluster identity, we suggest this profile approach might allow consideration of multi-faceted attributes that influence adherence with public health guidance in the context of health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Questioning Hierarchies of Harm: Women, Forced Migration and International Criminal Law

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2011-01-01)
      Though international criminal law has made great strides in addressing harm perpetrated against women in wartime, its gendered structure diverts attention away from other significant harms that women endure as a result of armed conflict. In particular, international criminal law’s hierarchy of harm elevates crimes committed as part of a plan or pattern across political groups over equally serious forms of harm perpetrated randomly, often within political groups. Thus the private and opportunistic harms enabled by situations of displacement and perpetrated against female forced migrants do not fall clearly within the framework of international criminal law. This vacuum of accountability extends beyond international criminal law, as female forced migrants cannot rely on their own governments, their host governments, and often even international humanitarian organizations to protect them against opportunistic violence. International criminal law could fill the void only after quite serious reconstruction, namely expansion of its scope and restructuring of its focus. It may be that a structure designed specifically to prevent and account for opportunistic violence against female forced migrants would be better equipped to perform that task. Criminal accountability might be better performed in national legal systems or informal justice systems created within camp environments. There are also solutions other than criminal accountability, such as human rights law, that might be more appropriate in addressing such harms. In the meantime, until a solution is found that places these ‘private’ crimes on equal footing with ‘public’ attacks currently prohibited by international criminal law, the serious and frequent harms suffered by forcibly displaced women will continue to be overlooked, relegated to the bottom of the hierarchy of harm.
    • Recombination and purifying selection preserves covariant movements of mosaic SARS-CoV-2 protein S

      Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S.; Abid, Nabil; Ostrov, David A.; Chillemi, Giovanni; Pond, Sergei; Salemi, Marco; Mavian, Carla; 0000-0003-4817-4029 (2020-06-10)
      In depth evolutionary and structural analyses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated from bats, pangolins, and humans are necessary to assess the role of natural selection and recombination in the emergence of the current pandemic strain. The SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein unique features have been associated with efficient viral spread in the human population. Phylogeny-based and genetic algorithm methods clearly show that recombination events between viral progenitors infecting animal hosts led to a mosaic structure in the S gene. We identified recombination coldspots in the S glycoprotein and strong purifying selection. Moreover, although there is little evidence of diversifying positive selection during host-switching, structural analysis suggests that some of the residues emerged along the ancestral lineage of current pandemic strains may contribute to enhanced ability to infect human cells. Interestingly, recombination did not affect the long-range covariant movements of SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein monomer in pre-fusion conformation but, on the contrary, could contribute to the observed overall viral efficiency. Our dynamic simulations revealed that the movements between the host cell receptor binding domain (RBD) and the novel furin-like cleavage site are correlated. We identified threonine 333 (under purifying selection), at the beginning of the RBD, as the hinge of the opening/closing mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein monomer functional to hACE2 binding. Our findings support a scenario where ancestral recombination and fixation of amino acid residues in the RBD of the S glycoprotein generated a virus with unique features, capable of extremely efficient infection of the human host.
    • Reporters' Smartphone Use Improves Quality of Work

      Molyneux, Logan; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-09-01)
      A survey of U.S. newspaper reporters and editors found that journalists with smartphones are more likely to produce multimedia, including audio, video and photo content; however, many complain that smartphones keep them tethered to their work seven days a week.
    • Should I leave this industry? The role of stress and negative emotions in response to an industry negative work event

      Yu, Heyao; Lee, Lindsey; Popac, Iuliana; Madera, Juan M. (2021-04)
      The effects of subjective stress and negative emotions on work have been theorized and widely researched, but the literature has mostly focused on organization-specific contexts. The purpose of the current paper was to understand the impact of subjective stress and negative emotions associated with COVID-19 on employee attitudes and behaviors toward the hospitality industry. In Study 1, qualitative interviews showed that the COVID-19 pandemic is (1) perceived as a negative event affecting the industry, rather than only affecting a particular job or company, and (2) distressful, provoking negative emotions. In Study 2, a quantitative study examined subjective stress and negative emotions associated with COVID-19, as well as industry turnover intentions and industry negative word-of-mouth as responses to the stress and negative emotions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The current research underscores the importance of studying work events that impact an industry and attitudes and behaviors toward the industry.
    • Silos of International Law: Occupation and Forced Migration

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2014-06-13)
      Using the United States occupation of Iraq as a case study, this chapter asks what international law has to say about state responsibility for forced migrants in situations of occupation. The legal status of these migrants is governed by at least three special regimes: international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and international refugee law. Each of these special regimes has something to say about the protection of migrants forcibly displaced by occupation, but none speaks adequately to the question of the occupying power’s responsibilities for such migrants. This chapter explores the international legal silos created by narrowly-focused treaty regimes and static customary international law. It begins with a roadmap of current international law relevant to the question of international legal responsibility for forced migrants in situations of occupation, finding three relevant bodies of law but no clear answers. The chapter then examines actions of the United States that demonstrate at least some belief in the occupying power’s responsibility to protect forced migrants in situations of occupation. It concludes by discussing the problem of international legal silos more broadly and suggests methods for bringing greater coherence to this and other areas of international law.
    • Students’ epistemological frames and their interpretation of lectures in advanced mathematics

      Krupnik, Victoria; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Weber, Keith (2017-12-15)
      In this paper, we present a comparative case study of two students with different epistemological frames watching the same real analysis lectures. We show that students with different epistemological frames can interpret the same lecture in different ways. These results illustrate how a student’s interpretation of a lecture is not inherently tied to the lecture, but rather depend on the student and her perspective on mathematics. Thus, improving student learning may depend on more than improving the quality of the lectures, but also changing student’s beliefs and orientations about mathematics and mathematics learning.
    • Students’ sense-making frames in mathematics lectures

      Weinberg, Aaron; Wiesner, Emilie; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy (2013-12-20)
      The goal of this study is to describe the various ways students make sense of mathematics lectures. Here, sense-making refers to a process by which people construct personal meanings for phenomena they experience. This study introduces the idea of a sense-making frame and describes three different types of frames: content-, communication-, and situating-oriented. We found that students in an abstract algebra class regularly engaged in sense-making during lectures on equivalence relations, and this sense-making influenced their note-taking practices. We discuss the relationship between the choice of frame, the students’ sense-making practices, and the potential missed opportunities for learning from the lecture. These results show the importance of understanding the ways students make sense of aspects of mathematics lectures and how their sense-making practices influence what they might learn from the lecture.