• Adapted Physical Activity to Ensure the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of COVID-19 Patients

      Center for Biotechnology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2021-01-29)
      The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first of which were released in December 2020. Effective vaccines for COVID-19 are needed to protect the population, especially healthcare professionals and fragile individuals, such as older people or chronic-disease-affected patients. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits and assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Moreover, physical activity improves mental health by reducing anxiety, depression, and negative mood and improving self-esteem. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a detailed view of the literature, presenting updated evidence on the beneficial effects of adapted physical activity, based on personalized and tailor-made exercise, in preventing, treating, and counteracting the consequences of COVID-19.
    • Against Regulatory Displacement: An Institutional Analysis of Financial Crises

      Lipson, Jonathan C. (2015)
      This Article analyzes institutional choice in preventing and managing financial crises. “Institutional choice” means that different institutions— here, markets, courts and regulators—have different capacities to achieve similar goals. While none is perfect, some may be better than others, so the institutions we choose to prevent or resolve failure will influence the likelihood and severity of future financial crises. I use the analysis of institutional choice to make three claims about current (and foreseeable) approaches to preventing and resolving financial crises. First, because regulators are vulnerable to capture by large financial services firms, they cannot address the pathologies that create crises: market concentration and complexity. Indeed, regulators may aggravate these conditions through tactics that consolidate firms, and the volume and complexity of regulation, resulting in “regulatory displacement” of markets and courts as institutional choices to prevent or resolve financial distress. Second, in the context of financial distress, institutions tend to interact (“braid,” in the language of contract theory literature). Markets and courts can do so to create incentives to renegotiate financial distress, thus reducing the likelihood of crises. Regulators and markets braid, too. But, large financial firms may dominate the interactions to increase concentration and complexity, and thus create social costs without compensating benefits. Large financial firms may protest, but they benefit from the subsidies and protections of regulatory displacement, and thus ultimately choose it. Third, courts are an underappreciated institution that may ameliorate the pathologies of concentration and complexity by rethinking the so-called “duty to be informed” on the part of directors of systemically important financial firms. Taking this duty more seriously here might lead directors to simplify and/or reduce the size of those firms, thereby creating conditions and incentives that would support market-oriented re-structuring rather than regulatory displacement if—perhaps when—crisis next strikes.
    • AI-Based Information Systems

      Buxmann, Peter; Hess, Thomas; Thatcher, Jason Bennett (2020-12-01)
    • Allocating the Costs of the Climate Crisis: Efficiency Versus Justice

      Sinden, Amy (2010)
      In the international negotiations aimed at reaching an agreement to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions that are driving global warming, the developed and developing countries are talking past each other. The developed world is speaking the language of efficiency, while the developing world speaks the language of justice. Economic theory and the concept of efficiency are fine for answering the question of who should reduce, but that is not the contentious issue. When it comes to the hotly contested issue of who should pay, economic theory offers no guidance, and the developing world is right to insist that we look to principles of justice. This Article considers three kinds of approaches to the who-should-pay question: 1) those that take status quo emissions levels as their starting point; 2) those that allocate emissions rights on a per capita basis; and 3) those that allocate the costs of emissions reductions on the basis of ability to pay. The Article then considers three possible models for conceptualizing the who-should-pay question in light of widely shared principles of justice: 1) the property model views it as a problem of dividing and allocating a commonly held property right—the capacity of the atmosphere to absorb greenhouse gases; 2) the tort model views it as a question of how to allocate costs when one party causes injury to another; and 3) the tax model views it as a situation in which a group of persons or entities are all engaged in a common enterprise to promote the common good and must allocate the costs of that enterprise. The Article evaluates each of the three approaches to the who-should-pay question under each of these three models of justice, and concludes that the per capita approach is the clear winner. It comports best with the property and tort models of justice, and with respect to the tax model, it comes in a close second. A rough calculation reveals that, if a per capita approach is indeed the most just, then the recent proposals by developing countries that the developed countries each contribute 1% of their gross domestic product to adaptation and mitigation efforts in the developing world is quite reasonable, perhaps even a bargain. Finally, the Article considers and responds to several counterarguments against the per capita approach.
    • Ambivalence and Interdisciplinarity: The Future of Jewish Studies

      Levitt, Laura S. (2014)
      Laura Levitt writes a response to the articles in a special issue of Shofar entitled “New Approaches to Teaching Jewish Studies.” She notes that the collection of articles is presented in the spirit of collaboration and better practices. Considering the current situation in Jewish Studies as “the best and worst of times,” Levitt examines the range of new and ever more sophisticated and nuanced studies of Jewish literatures, cultures, histories, ethnographies, languages, music, performance, and ritual practices against the backdrop of the precarious situation for scholars and Jewish Studies at today's universities. She speculates on how Jewish Studies might fit into a new interdisciplinary environment.
    • An Implantable Ultrasonically-Powered Micro-Light-Source (µLight) for Photodynamic Therapy

      Kim, Albert; Zhou, Jiawei; Samaddar, Shayak; Song, Seung Hyun; Elzey, Bennet D.; Thompson, David H.; Ziaie, Babak; 0000-0003-1539-1246 (2019-02-04)
      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment modality that can selectively target unresectable tumors through optical activation of cytotoxic agents, thus reducing many side effects associated with systemic administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, limited light penetration into most biological tissues have so far prevented its widespread adoption beyond dermatology and a few other oncological applications in which a fiber optic can be threaded to the desired locations via an endoscopic approach (e.g., bladder). In this paper, we introduce an ultrasonically powered implantable microlight source, μLight, which enables in-situ localized light delivery to deep-seated solid tumors. Ultrasonic powering allows for small receiver form factor (mm-scale) and power transfer deep into the tissue (several centimeters). The implants consist of piezoelectric transducers measuring 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 and 2 × 4 × 2 mm3 with surface-mounted miniature red and blue LEDs. When energized with 185 mW/cm2 of transmitted acoustic power at 720 kHz, μLight can generate 0.048 to 6.5 mW/cm2 of optical power (depending on size of the piezoelectric element and light wavelength spectrum). This allows powering multiple receivers to a distance of 10 cm at therapeutic light output levels (a delivery of 20–40 J/cm2 light radiation dose in 1–2 hours). In vitro tests show that HeLa cells irradiated with μLights undergo a 70% decrease in average cell viability as compared to the control group. In vivo tests in mice implanted with 4T1-induced tumors (breast cancer) show light delivery capability at therapeutic dose levels. Overall, results indicate implanting multiple µLights and operating them for 1–2 hours can achieve cytotoxicity levels comparable to the clinically reported cases using external light sources.
    • An unusual case of a microscopic alveolar adenoma coexisting with lung carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

      Bhavsar, Tapan; Uppal, Guldeep; Travaline, John M.; Gaughan, Colleen; Huang, Yajue; Khurana, Jasvir S. (2011-05-18)
      Introduction: Alveolar adenomas are extremely rare, benign, primary lung tumors of unknown histogenesis that are characterized by proliferative type II alveolar epithelium and septal mesenchyma. Mostly incidental, they are clinically important as they can imitate benign primary and secondary malignant tumors and at times are difficult to differentiate from early-stage lung cancer. We describe the case of a 59-year-old man with an incidental microscopic alveolar adenoma coexisting with poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. Case presentation: A 59-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was incidentally found to have a right upper lobe mass while undergoing a computed tomographic chest scan as part of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinical trial. Our patient underwent a right upper lobectomy after a bronchoscopic biopsy of the mass revealed the mass to be a carcinoma. A pathological examination revealed an incidental, small, 0.2 cm, well circumscribed lesion on the staple line margin of the lobectomy in addition to the carcinoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed the lesion to be an alveolar adenoma. Conclusions: We report the rare presentation of a microscopic alveolar adenoma coexisting with lung carcinoma. Alveolar adenoma is an entirely benign incidental neoplasm that can be precisely diagnosed using immunohistochemical analysis in addition to its unique histopathological characteristics.
    • An unusual presentation of non-IBD related colorectal primary extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma with a colo-colonic fistula

      Temple University. Hospital (2021-09-20)
      Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum is relatively uncommon and aggressive. Due to its nonspecific symptomatology, patients are often diagnosed late into the disease and present with life-threatening complications, such as hemorrhage, obstruction, or perforation, requiring emergent surgical intervention. Patients with colorectal lymphoma typically have inflammatory bowel disease or immunosuppression. We present a case of a 79-year-old male with no known inflammatory bowel disease or immunosuppression, who had significant weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal fullness, found by CT to have irregular wall thickening of the recto-sigmoid colon along with a colo-colonic fistula, concerning for bowel perforation. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of recto-sigmoid Diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with a PET/CT scan revealing stage IV disease. He had a partial response to six cycles of palliative reduced dose R-CHOP and is currently receiving palliative radiation to the sigmoid colon and rectum. Surgery and/or chemoradiation remain the mainstay therapy for this condition. Clinicians, however, must consider patient's functional, nutritional, and clinical status prior to choosing an optimal therapeutic regimen. This case illustrates a unique clinical presentation of this condition and the associated diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that arise in order to prevent life-threatening complications.
    • An Unusual Ring Contraction in the Formation of N‐Nitrosohexamethyleneimine and N‐Nitrosopiperidine from Tolazamide

      Eshraghi, Jamshid; Longo, John; Dalton, David R.; Harrington, George W. (1990-04)
      The previously reported reaction of tolazamide with nitrite, under physiological conditions, to form N‐nitrosohexamethyleneimine and surprisingly, N‐nitrosopiperidine was confirmed. By using the six‐membered ring analogue of tolazamide, 1‐(piperidyl)‐3‐(p‐tolylsulfonyl)urea, which yields the corresponding N‐nitrosopiperidine and N‐nitrosopyrrolidine, the present study shows that an unusual ring contraction occurs, excising the carbon alpha to the nitrogen.
    • Analogies Otherwise: A Relational Reading of Racialization, Alliance Politics, and Revolutionary Love

      Levitt, Laura S. (2021-02)
      This essay is a modified version of a talk I gave in the Fall of 2017 at the Biennial Conference of the Society of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion at Vanderbilt University Divinity School, Nashville, Tennessee. I spoke these words not long after white supremacists and neo-Nazis marched in Charlottesville, Virginia. The theme of the gathering was "Revolutionary Love." I was invited to address this issue after I wrote a blog post raising questions about revolutionary love and the categories of race, religion, and ethnicity. Specifically, I wrote about these matters for scholars of religion engaged with the American Academy of Religion (AAR). Returning to these remarks in the Winter of 2020, the urgency of my concerns could not be any more relevant. What follows is, more or less, what I wrote then. My hope is that these reflections will resonate with some of the powerful words of a younger generation of scholars' works on issues of religion, ethnicity, and race—versions of some of the papers that were presented at the association's preconference biennial meeting at the AAR in San Diego, California, in November, 2019.
    • Another Missed Opportunity: The Supreme Court’s Failure to Define Non-Obvious or Combat Hindsight Bias in KSR v. Teleflex

      Mandel, Gregory N. (2008)
      This Article analyzes two significant errors of omission in the Supreme Court's recent patent decision, KSR v. Teleflex. First, though KSR represents the Court's eighth decision on nonobviousness since the standard was enacted in 1952, the Court still has never defined what this core patent standard requires. The failure to instruct on the level of ingenuity necessary to satisfy nonobviousness leads to inconsistent and unpredictable nonobvious decisions. Second, despite recognizing the problem of hindsight bias in nonobviousness analysis and the importance of ameliorating this bias to achieve accurate non-obvious decisions, the Supreme Court not only failed to take the hindsight problem seriously in KSR, but actually appeared to misconstrue the problem. As a result, nonobviousness decisions will continue to be systematically biased with respect to the legal inquiry required by section 103. This is a symposium article based on a presentation given at Nonobviousness: The Shape of Things to Come, a 2007 Lewis & Clark Law School Business Law Forum.
    • Anterior mediastinal mass in a young man

      Travaline, John M.; Criner, Gerard J.; Ming, Pen-Ming L.; Kueppers, Friedrich (1994-03-01)
      The case is presented of a patient in whom the diagnosis of Klinefelter's syndrome was made only after a mediastinal teratoma was discovered. Chest physicians should be aware of this association since they are often the first to evaluate patients with mediastinal masses.
    • Approaches to Reducing Risk of COVID-19 Infections in Prisons and Immigration Detention Centers: A Commentary

      Kelly, Kate; Soto, Nai; Wisseh, Nadi Damond; Clerget, Shaina A.; 0000-0002-5155-0518 (2020-09-18)
      Although often left out of public health efforts and policy decisions, prisons, jails, and detention centers are integral to community health. With an average of 650,000 citizens returning home from prison each year in the United States, and thousands of correctional staff members returning home every night, there are millions of touchpoints between outside communities and carceral settings. For this reason, carceral communities should be central to planning and policy making in response to the spread of the COVID-19 illness. As social workers and clinicians, we are urgently concerned that efforts to prevent COVID-19 infections in prisons are underdeveloped and inadequate in the face of a fast-spreading virus. In this commentary, we outline a set of public health, policy, and clinical recommendations based upon the existing literature to mitigate various risks to the well-being of carceral communities.
    • Approaching Inflammation Paradoxes—Proinflammatory Cytokine Blockages Induce Inflammatory Regulators

      Center for Cardiovascular Research (Temple University); Center for Inflammation, Translational & Clinical Lung Research (Temple University); Center for Metabolic Disease Research (Temple University); Center for Cardiovascular Research (Temple University); Center for Thrombosis Research (Temple University) (2020-10-19)
      The mechanisms that underlie various inflammation paradoxes, metabolically healthy obesity, and increased inflammations after inflammatory cytokine blockades and deficiencies remain poorly determined. We performed an extensive –omics database mining, determined the expressions of 1367 innate immune regulators in 18 microarrays after deficiencies of 15 proinflammatory cytokines/regulators and eight microarray datasets of patients receiving Mab therapies, and made a set of significant findings: 1) proinflammatory cytokines/regulators suppress the expressions of innate immune regulators; 2) upregulations of innate immune regulators in the deficiencies of IFNγ/IFNγR1, IL-17A, STAT3 and miR155 are more than that after deficiencies of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, STAT1, NF-kB, and miR221; 3) IFNγ, IFNγR and IL-17RA inhibit 10, 59 and 39 proinflammatory cytokine/regulator pathways, respectively; in contrast, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-18 each inhibits only four to five pathways; 4) The IFNγ-promoted and -suppressed innate immune regulators have four shared pathways; the IFNγR1-promoted and -suppressed innate immune regulators have 11 shared pathways; and the miR155-promoted and -suppressed innate immune regulators have 13 shared pathways, suggesting negative-feedback mechanisms in their conserved regulatory pathways for innate immune regulators; 5) Deficiencies of proinflammatory cytokine/regulator-suppressed, promoted programs share signaling pathways and increase the likelihood of developing 11 diseases including cardiovascular disease; 6) There are the shared innate immune regulators and pathways between deficiency of TNFα in mice and anti-TNF therapy in clinical patients; 7) Mechanistically, up-regulated reactive oxygen species regulators such as myeloperoxidase caused by suppression of proinflammatory cytokines/regulators can drive the upregulation of suppressed innate immune regulators. Our findings have provided novel insights on various inflammation paradoxes and proinflammatory cytokines regulation of innate immune regulators; and may re-shape new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory diseases.
    • Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States

      Swiecki-Sikora, Allison L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Warner, Echo L.; Kepka, Deanna; Henry, Kevin; 0000-0002-5348-9669 (2017-07-14)
      Background: This study is the first to examine associations between several area-based socioeconomic factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among boys in the United States (U.S.). Methods: Data from the 2012-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen restricted-use data were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccination initiation (receipt of ≥1 dose) and series completion (receipt of three doses) among boys aged 13-17 years (N = 19,518) with several individual-level and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) census measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccination initiation and series completion separately. Results: In 2012-2013 approximately 27.9% (95% CI 26.6%-29.2%) of boys initiated and 10.38% (95% CI 9.48%-11.29%) completed the HPV vaccine series. Area-based poverty was not statistically significantly associated with HPV vaccination initiation. It was, however, associated with series completion, with boys living in high-poverty areas (≥20% of residents living below poverty) having higher odds of completing the series (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48) than boys in low-poverty areas (0-4.99%). Interactions between race/ethnicity and ZIP code-level poverty indicated that Hispanic boys living in high-poverty areas had a statistically significantly higher odds of HPV vaccine initiation (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) and series completion (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32) than Hispanic boys in low-poverty areas. Non-Hispanic Black boys in high poverty areas had higher odds of initiation (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.33-3.75) and completion (AOR 2.61, 95% CI 1.06-6.44) than non-Hispanic Black boys in low-poverty areas. Rural/urban residence and population density were also significant factors, with boys from urban or densely populated areas having higher odds of initiation and completion compared to boys living in non-urban, less densely populated areas. Conclusion: Higher HPV vaccination coverage in urban areas and among racial/ethnic minorities in areas with high poverty may be attributable to factors such as vaccine acceptance, health-care practices, and their access to HPV vaccines through the Vaccines for Children Program, which provides free vaccines to uninsured and under-insured children. Given the low HPV vaccination rates among boys in the U.S., these results provide important evidence to inform public health interventions to increase HPV vaccination.
    • Authority Without Borders: The World Wide Web and the Delegalization of Law

      Margolis, Ellie (2011)
      We live in an information age, with massive amounts of information available at our fingertips, thanks to the internet. The last few generations of law students and lawyers, as well as the future generations – the digital natives – have shifted almost entirely to conducting legal research online. This shift to online research has led to a blurring of the once clear delineation between legal and nonlegal materials, and contributed to a broadening of the types of sources used as authority in support of legal analysis. This article will show that the traditional ways of defining legal authority are rooted in a print-based system that no longer exists, and that in the world of online research, it is all too easy to lose track of where a source comes from. The combination of accessibility of information and electronic means of retrieval is erasing the once clear line between the distinct domain of law and the broader world of information. This blurring of the line is reinforced by courts, which are increasingly citing to online, nonlegal sources in support of legal reasoning in judicial opinions. The article documents the ways in which traditional means of identifying authority no longer exist, and calls for a new vocabulary for defining authority that reflects the world that exists today.
    • Automatic detection of influential actors in disinformation networks

      Smith, Steven T.; Kao, Edward K.; Mackin, Erika D.; Shah, Danelle C.; Simek, Olga; Rubin, Donald B. (2021-01-07)
      The weaponization of digital communications and social media to conduct disinformation campaigns at immense scale, speed, and reach presents new challenges to identify and counter hostile influence operations (IOs). This paper presents an end-to-end framework to automate detection of disinformation narratives, networks, and influential actors. The framework integrates natural language processing, machine learning, graph analytics, and a network causal inference approach to quantify the impact of individual actors in spreading IO narratives. We demonstrate its capability on real-world hostile IO campaigns with Twitter datasets collected during the 2017 French presidential elections and known IO accounts disclosed by Twitter over a broad range of IO campaigns (May 2007 to February 2020), over 50,000 accounts, 17 countries, and different account types including both trolls and bots. Our system detects IO accounts with 96% precision, 79% recall, and 96% area-under-the precision-recall (P-R) curve; maps out salient network communities; and discovers high-impact accounts that escape the lens of traditional impact statistics based on activity counts and network centrality. Results are corroborated with independent sources of known IO accounts from US Congressional reports, investigative journalism, and IO datasets provided by Twitter.