• Cancer survival disparities by health insurance status

      Niu, Xiaoling; Roche, Lisa M; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A (2013-06)
      Previous studies found that uninsured and Medicaid insured cancer patients have poorer outcomes than cancer patients with private insurance. We examined the association between health insurance status and survival of New Jersey patients 18-64 diagnosed with seven common cancers during 1999-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for 5-year cause-specific survival were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression models; health insurance status was the primary predictor with adjustment for other significant factors in univariate chi-square or Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. Two diagnosis periods by health insurance status were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. For breast, colorectal, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and prostate cancer, uninsured and Medicaid insured patients had significantly higher risks of death than privately insured patients. For bladder cancer, uninsured patients had a significantly higher risk of death than privately insured patients. Survival improved between the two diagnosis periods for privately insured patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer and NHL, for Medicaid insured patients with NHL, and not at all for uninsured patients. Survival from cancer appears to be related to a complex set of demographic and clinical factors of which insurance status is a part. While ensuring that everyone has adequate health insurance is an important step, additional measures must be taken to address cancer survival disparities.
    • Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

      Avanzini, F; Barlera, S; Caimi, V; Longoni, P; Marchioli, R; Roncaglioni, MC; Silletta, MG; Tognoni, G; Tombesi, M; Tombesi, M; Tognoni, G; Massa, E; Marrocco, W; Micalella, M; Caimi, V; Longoni, P; Aprile, L; Avanzini, F; Franzosi, MG; Geraci, E; Giansiracusa, N; Rocchetti, L; Decarli, A; Satolli, R; Alli, C; Beghi, E; Volpi, V Bertele' A; Roncaglioni, MC; Monesi, L; Marzona, I; Baviera, M; Barlera, S; Milani, V; Nicolis, E; Casola, C; Clerici, F; Palumbo, A; Sgaroni, G; Marchioli, R; Silletta, MG; Pioggiarella, R; Scarano, M; Marfisi, RM; Flamminio, A; Mancino, L; Ferri, B; Pera, C; Polidoro, A; Abbatino, D; Acquati, M; Addorisio, G; Adinolfi, D; Adreani, L; Agistri, MR; Agneta, A; Agnolio, ML; Agostini, N; Agostino, G; Airo, A; Alaimo, N; Albano, M; Albano, N; Alecci, G; Alemanno, S; Alexanian, A; Alfarano, M; Alfe, L; Alonzo, N; Alvino, S; Ancora, A; Andiloro, S; Andreatta, E; Angeli, S; Angiari, F; Angilletti, V; Annicchiarico, C; Anzivino, M; Aprea, R; Aprile, A; Aprile, E; Aprile, I; Aprile, L; Armellani, V; Arnetoli, M; Aronica, A; Autiero, V; Bacca, G; Baccalaro, AM; Bacci, M; Baglio, G; Bagnani, M; Baiano, A; Baldari, A; Ballarini, L; Banchi, G; Bandera, R; Bandini, F; Baratella, M; Barbieri, A; Vita, A Barbieri; Bardi, M; Barlocchi, M; Baron, P; Bartoli, M; Basile, A; Basile, F; Basile, S; Battaggia, A; Battaglia, A; Bau, A; Beconcini, G; Beggio, R; Belfiore, PA; Belicchi, M; Bellamoli, S; Bellini, C; Bellomo, M; Benetollo, C; Benetti, R; Beretta, E; Bertalero, P; Bertaso, FG; Bertolani, U; Bettelli, G; Biagiotti, G; Bianchi, S; Bianco, G; Biccari, F; Bigioli, F; Bindi, M; Bisanti, G; Bitetti, EM; Blasetti, MP; Blesi, F; Boato, V; Boga, S; Boidi, E; Boldrin, G; Bollati, A; Bolzan, L; Bolzonella, S; Bonardi, P; Bonato, GB; Bonci, M; Bonfitto, G; Bonincontro, E; Boninsegna, F; Bonissone, D; Bono, L; Bonollo, E; Borghi, M; Borioli, N; Borsatto, M; Bosco, T; Pioltelli, M Bosisio; Botarelli, C; Botassis, S; Bottini, F; Bottos, C; Bova, G; Bova, V; Bozzani, A; Bozzetto, RM; Braga, VT; Braglia, M; Bramati, E; Brazzoli, C; Breglia, G; Brescia, A; Briganti, D; Brigato, G; Brocchi, A; Brosio, FA; Bruni, E; Buscaglia, E; Bussini, MD; Bussotti, A; Buzzaccarini, F; Buzzatti, A; Caccamo, G; Cacciavillani, C; Caggiano, G; Caimi, V; Calciano, FP; Calderisi, M; Calienno, S; Caltagirone, P; Calzolari, I; Cammisa, M; Campanaro, M; Campanella, GB; Campese, F; Canali, G; Candiani, DEL; Canepa, R; Canini, D; Canino, A; Cantoro, EA; Capilupi, V; Capotosto, P; Cappelli, B; Capraro, G; Carafa, FA; Carano, Q; Carcaterra, V; Carriero, D; Carrozzo, G; Cartanese, M; Casalena, M; Casarola, M; Caso, C; Casotto, M; Castaldi, F; Castegnaro, R; Castellani, G; Castri, S; Catalano, E; Catinello, N; Caturano, G; Cavallaro, R; Cavallo, AM; Cavallo, G; Cavion, MT; Cavirani, G; Cazzaniga, F; Cazzetta, D; Cecconi, V; Cefalo, A; Celebrano, M; Celora, A; Centonze, P; Cerati, D; Cesaretti, D; Checchia, G; Checchin, A; Cherubini, M; Chianese, L; Chiappa, A; Chiappa, MV; Chiariello, G; Chiavini, G; Chicco, M; Chiumeo, F; Ciacciarelli, A; Ciaci, D; Ciancaglini, R; Cicale, C; Cicale, S; Cipolla, A; Ciruolo, A; Citeri, AL; Citterio, G; Clerici, M; Coazzoli, E; Collecchia, G; Colletta, F; Colombo, I; Colorio, P; Coluccia, S; Comerio, M; Comoretto, P; Compagni, M; Conte, O; Contri, S; Contrisciani, A; Coppetti, T; Corasaniti, F; Corradi, MT; Corsano, A; Corsini, A; Corti, N; Costantini, G; Costantino, A; Cotroneo, S; Cozzi, D; Cravello, MG; Cristiano, E; Cucchi, R; Cusmai, L; D'Errico, GB; D'Agostino, P; D'Agostino, P; Dal Bianco, L; Dal Mutto, U; Dal Pozzo, G; Dallapiccola, P; Dallatorre, G; Molle, G Dalle; Dalloni, E; D'Aloiso, A; D'Amicis, G; Danese, R; Danieli, D; Danisi, G; D'Anna, MA; Danti, G; D'Ascanio, S; Davidde, G; De Angeli, D; De Bastiani, R; De Battisti, A; De Bellis, A; De Bellis, A; De Berardinis, G; De Carlo, F; De Giorgi, D; De Gobbi, R; De Lorenzis, E; De Luca, P; De Martini, G; De Marzi, M; De Matteis, D; De Padova, S; De Polo, P; De Sabato, N; De Stefano, T; De Vita, MT; De Vito, U; De Zolt, V; Debernardi, F; Del Carlo, A; Del Re, G; Del Zotti, F; D'Elia, R; Della Giovanna, P; Dell'Acqua, L; Dell'Orco, RL; Demaria, G; Di Benedetto, MG; Di Chiara, G; Di Corcia, V; Di Domizio, O; Di Donato, P; Di Donato, S; Di Fermo, G; Di Franco, M; Di Giovannantonio, G; Di Lascio, G; Di Lecce, G; Di Lorenzo, N; Di Maro, T; Di Mattia, Q; Di Michele, E; Di Modica, RS; Di Murro, D; Di Noi, MC; Di Paoli, V; Di Santi, M; Di Sanzo, A; Di Turi, C; Diazzi, A; Dileo, I; D'Ingianna, AP; Dolci, A; Dona, G; Donato, C; Donato, P; Donini, A; Donna, ME; Donvito, TV; Esposito, L; Esposito, N; Evangelista, M; Faita, G; Falco, M; Falcone, DA; Falorni, F; Fanciullacci, A; Fanton, L; Fasolo, L; Fassina, R; Fassone, A; Fatarella, P; Fedele, F; Fera, I; Fera, L; Ferioli, S; Ferlini, MG; Ferlino, R; Ferrante, G; Ferrara, FN; Ferrarese, MF; Ferrari, G; Ferrari, O; Ferreri, A; Ferroni, M; Fezzi, G; Figaroli, C; Fina, MG; Fioretta, A; Fiorucci, C; Firrincieli, R; Fischetti, M; Fischietti, G; Fiume, DC; Flecchia, G; Forastiere, G; Fossati, B; Franceschi, PL; Franchi, L; Franzoso, F; Frapporti, G; Frasca, G; Frisotti, A; Fumagalli, G; Fusco, D; Gabriele, P; Gabrieli, A; Gagliano, D; Galimberti, G; Galli, A; Gallicchio, N; Gallio, F; Gallipoli, T; Gallo, P; Galopin, T; Gambarelli, L; Garbin, A; Garozzo, GM; Gasparri, R; Gastaldo, M; Gatti, E; Gazzaniga, P; Gennachi, N; Gentile, RV; Germani, P; Gesualdi, F; Gherardi, E; Ghezzi, C; Ghidini, MG; Ghionda, F; Giacci, L; Gialdini, D; Giampaolo, C; Giancane, R; Giannanti, A; Giannese, S; Giannini, L; Giaretta, M; Giaretta, R; Giavardi, L; Giordano, P; Giordano, E; Giordano, B; Gioria, GM; Giugliano, R; Grassi, EA; Greco, A; Greco, L; Grilletti, N; Grimaldi, N; Grisetti, G; Groppelli, G; Gualtieri, L; Guarducci, M; Guastella, G; Guerra, M; Guerrini, F; Guglielmini, A; Guido, A; Gulotta, P; Iacono, E; Iadarola, G; Ianiro, G; Iarussi, V; Ieluzzi, ML; Ierardi, C; Ingaldi, F; Interlandi, S; Iocca, M; Iorno, A; Ioverno, E; Iurato, R; La Pace, L; La Piscopia, C; La Selva, R; Lafratta, M; Lamparelli, M; Lanaro, G; Lancerotto, R; Larcher, M; Lassandro, M; Lattuada, G; Laurino, P; Lefons, C; Legrottaglie, F; Lemma, A; Leone, D; Leone, F; Leso, A; Leuzzi, G; Levato, G; Libardi, L; Libralesso, N; Licini, PI; Licursi, G; Lidonnici, F; Lillo, C; Liveri, L; Livio, A; Loiero, RA; Loison, M; Lombardo, G; Lombardo, T; Lomunno, V; Lomuscio, S; Lonedo, A; Longo, E; Longoni, P; Lora, L; Lotterio, A; Lucatello, L; Luongo, A; Lupoli, M; Macchia, C; Macri, G; Mafessanti, M; Maggialetti, V; Maggioni, A; Magnani, M; Maiellaro, G; Mancuso, A; Maniglio, AR; Mannari, GL; Manni, A; Manocchio, B; Mao, M; Marano, A; Maraone, E; Marascio, D; Marcheselli, P; Marchetto, B; Marchetto, S; Marchi, A; Marchi, GL; Mariano, C; Marinacci, S; Marinelli, S; Marini, G; Marra, VC; Marrali, F; Marseglia, C; Martello, G; Martino, C; Martino, G; Martino, M; Marulli, CF; Maruzzi, G; Marzotti, A; Mascheroni, G; Mascolo, P; Masoch, G; Masone, R; Massa, E; Massa, L; Massafra, M; Massi, M; Massignani, DM; Matarese, AM; Matini, G; Mauro, R; Mazzi, M; Mazzillo, A; Mazzocato, E; Mazzoleni, NS; Mazzone, A; Melacci, A; Mele, E; Meliota, P; Menaspa, S; Meneghello, F; Merola, G; Merone, L; Metrucci, A; Mezzina, V; Micchi, A; Michielon, A; Migliore, N; Minero, G; Minotta, F; Mirandola, C; Mistrorigo, S; Modafferi, L; Moitre, R; Mola, E; Monachese, C; Mongiardini, C; Montagna, F; Montani, M; Montemurno, I; Montolli, R; Montorsi, S; Montresor, M; Monzani, MG; Morabito, F; Mori, G; Moro, A; Mosca, MF; Motti, F; Muddolon, L; Mugnai, M; Muscas, F; Naimoli, F; Nanci, G; Nargi, E; Nasorri, R; Nastrini, G; Negossi, M; Negrini, A; Negroni, A; Neola, V; Niccolini, F; Niro, CM; Nosengo, C; Novella, G; Nuti, C; Obici, F; Olita, C; Oliverio, SS; Olivieri, I; Oriente, S; Orlando, G; Paci, C; Pagano, G; Pagliara, C; Paita, G; Paladini, G; Paladino, G; Palano, T; Palatella, A; Palermo, P; Palmisano, M; Pando, P; Panessa, P; Panigo, F; Panozzo, G; Panvini, F; Panzieri, F; Panzino, A; Panzitta, F; Paoli, N; Papagna, R; Papaleo, MG; Papalia, G; Parisi, R; Parotti, N; Parravicini, D; Passarella, P; Pastore, GA; Patafio, M; Pavone, P; Pedroli, W; Pedroni, M; Pelligra, G; Pellizzari, M; Penati, A; Perlot, M; Perrone, A; Perrone, A; Perrone, G; Peruzzi, P; Peselli, C; Petracchini, L; Petrera, L; Petrone, S; Peverelli, C; Pianorsi, F; Piazza, GP; Piazzolla, G; Picci, A; Pienabarca, G; Pietronigro, TP; Pignocchino, P; Pilone, R; Pinto, D; Pirovano, E; Pirrotta, D; Pisante, V; Pitotto, P; Pittari, L; Piva, A; Pizzoglio, A; Plantera, OR; Plebani, W; Plessi, S; Podrecca, D; Poerio, V; Poggiani, F; Pogliani, W; Poli, L; Poloni, FG; Porcelli, R; Porto, S; Pranzo, L; Prevedello, C; Profeta, C; Profico, D; Punzi, A; Quaglia, GM; Racano, M; Raccone, A; Radice, F; Raho, CA; Raimondi, R; Raino, M; Ramponi, R; Ramunni, A; Ramunni, AL; Ravasio, F; Ravera, M; Sarto, G Re; Rebustello, G; Regazzoli, S; Restelli, C; Rezzonico, M; Ricchiuto, F; Rigo, S; Rigon, G; Rigon, R; Rinaldi, OV; Rinaldi, M; Risplendente, PG; Rispoli, M; Riundi, R; Riva, MG; Rizzi, AL; Rizzi, D; Rizzo, LD; Rocchi, L; Rondinone, B; Rosa, B; Rosati, F; Roselli, F; Rossetti, A; Rossetti, C; Rossi, R; Rossi, PR; Rossi, A; Rossi, CL; Rossitto, A; Ruffini, R; Ruffo, A; Ruggio, S; Ruo, M; Russo, B; Russo, L; Russo, R; Russo, S; Russo, U; Russo, V; Ruta, G; Sacchi, F; Botto, F Sacco; Saia, A; Salladini, G; Salmoiraghi, S; Saluzzo, F; Salvatore, C; Salvatori, E; Salvio, G; Sandri, P; Sandrini, T; Sangermano, V; Santoni, N; Saracino, AD; Saracino, A; Sarasin, P; Infirri, C Sardo; Sarri, B; Sartori, G; Sartori, N; Sauro, C; Scaglioni, M; Scalfi, C; Scamardella, AM; Scandale, G; Scandone, L; Scannavini, G; Scarati, R; Scardi, A; Scarpa, FM; Scazzi, P; Schifone, A; Schiroso, G; Scigliano, G; Scilla, A; Sciortino, M; Scolaro, G; Scollo, E; Scorretti, G; Sellitti, R; Selmo, A; Selvaggio, G; Sempio, A; Seren, F; Serio, L; Serra, C; Serra, L; Siciliano, D; Sideri, A; Sighele, M; Signore, R; Siliberto, F; Silvestro, M; Simioni, G; Simmini, G; Simonato, L; Sinchetto, F; Sizzano, E; Smajato, G; Smaldone, M; Sola, G; Sordillo, L; Sovran, CS; Spagnul, P; Spano, F; Sproviero, S; Squintani, A; Stella, L; Stilo, V; Stocchiero, B; Stornello, MC; Stracka, G; Strada, S; Stranieri, G; Stucci, N; Stufano, N; Suppa, A; Suppa, A; Susca, VG; Sutti, M; Taddei, M; Tagliabue, E; Tagliente, G; Talato, F; Talerico, P; Talia, R; Taranto, R; Tartaglia, M; Tauro, N; Tedesco, A; Tieri, P; Tirelli, M; Tocci, L; Todesco, P; Tognolo, M; Tomba, A; Tonello, P; Tonon, R; Toscano, L; Tosi, A; Tosi, G; Toso, S; Travaglio, P; Tremul, L; Tresso, C; Triacchini, P; Triggiano, L; Trigilio, A; Trimeloni, J; Tripicchio, G; Tritto, GS; Trono, F; Trotta, E; Trotta, G; Tubertini, A; Turri, C; Turri, L; Tuttolani, MP; Urago, M; Ursini, G; Valcanover, F; Valente, L; Valenti, M; Valentini, F; Vallone, G; Valz, P; Valzano, L; Vanin, V; Vatteroni, M; Vegetti, L; Vendrame, D; Veramonti, I; Veronelli, G; Vesco, A; Vicariotto, G; Vignale, G; Villa, PL; Vinciguerra, R; Visco, A; Visentin, G; Visona, E; Vitali, E; Vitali, S; Vitti, F; Volpone, DA; Zambon, N; Zammarrelli, A; Zanaboni, A; Zane, D; Zanetti, B; Zanibellato, R; Zappetti, M; Zappone, P; Zerilli, G; Zirino, V; Zoccali, R; Zuin, F; Altomonte, M; Anelli, N; Angio, F; Annale, P; Antonacci, S; Anzilotta, R; Bano, F; Basadonna, O; Beduschi, L; Becagli, P; Bellotti, G; Blotta, C; Bruno, G; Cappuccini, A; Caramatti, S; Cariolato, MP; Castellana, M; Castellani, L; Catania, R; Chielli, A; Chinellato, A; Ciaccia, A; Clerici, E; Cocci, A; Costanzo, G; D'Ercole, F; De Stefano, G; Dece, F; Di Cicco, N; Di Marco, A; Sarti, C Donati; Draghi, E; Dusi, G; Esposito, V; Ferraro, L; Ferretti, A; Ferri, E; Foggetti, L; Foglia, A; Fonzi, E; Frau, G; Fuoco, MR; Furci, G; Gallo, L; Garra, V; Giannini, A; Gris, A; Iacovino, R; Interrigi, R; Joppi, R; Laner, B; La Fortezza, G; La Padula, A; Lista, MR; Lupi, G; Maffei, D; Maggioni, G; Magnani, L; Marrazzo, E; Marcon, L; Marino, V; Maroni, A; Martinelli, C; Mastandrea, E; Mastropierro, F; Meo, AT; Mero, P; Minesso, E; Moschetta, V; Mosele, E; Nanni, C; Negretti, A; Nistico, C; Orsini, A; Osti, M; Pacilli, MC; Pennestre, C; Picerno, G; Piol, K; Pivano, L; Pizzuti, E; Poggi, L; Poidomani, I; Pozzetto, M; Presti, ML; Ravani, R; Recalenda, V; Romagnuolo, F; Rossignoli, S; Rossin, E; Sabatella, C; Sacco, F; Sanita, F; Sansone, E; Servadei, F; Sisto, MT; Sorio, A; Sorrentino, A; Spinelli, E; Spolaor, A; Squillacioti, A; Stella, P; Talerico, A; Todisco, C; Vadino, M; Zuliani, C; Investigators, Rischio Prevenzione (2010-05-28)
      BACKGROUND: The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP) considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics).Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death) and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk.A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%). About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. DISCUSSION: The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P) project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high cardiovascular risk with no history of myocardial infarction, and to assess how to implement recommended preventive strategies in general practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317707.
    • Evolutionary Changes of the Target Sites of Two MicroRNAs Encoded in the Hox Gene Cluster of Drosophila and Other Insect Species

      Miura, Sayaka; Nozawa, Masafumi; Nei, Masatoshi (2011)
      MicroRNAs (miRs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In animals, the target sites of a miR are generally located in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs. However, how the target sites change during evolution is largely unknown. MiR-iab-4 and miR-iab-4as are known to regulate the expression of two Hox genes, Abd-A and Ubx, in Drosophila melanogaster. We have therefore studied the evolutionary changes of these two miR genes and their target sites of the Hox genes in Drosophila, other insect species, and Daphnia. Our homology search identified a single copy of each miR gene located in the same genomic position of the Hox gene cluster in all species examined. The seed nucleotide sequence was also the same for all species. Searching for the target sites in all Hox genes, we found several target sites of miR-iab-4 and miR-iab-4as in Antp in addition to Abd-A and Ubx in most insect species examined. Our phylogenetic analysis of target sites in Abd-A, Ubx, and Antp showed that the old target sites, which existed before the divergence of the 12 Drosophila species, have been well maintained in most species under purifying selection. By contrast, new target sites, which were generated during Drosophila evolution, were often lost in some species and mostly located in unalignable regions of the 3' UTRs. These results indicate that these regions can be a potential source of generating new target sites, which results in multiple target genes for each miR in animals.
    • Improvement of In Vitro Three-Dimensional Cartilage Regeneration by a Novel Hydrostatic Pressure Bioreactor

      Chen, Jie; Yuan, Zhaoyuan; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Dai, Yao; Tao, Ran; Xia, Huitang; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhou, Guangdong; Tao, Rongjia|0000-0001-5058-4401 (2017-03)
      In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cartilage regeneration is a promising strategy for repair of cartilage defects. However, inferior mechanical strength and tissue homogeneity greatly restricted its clinical translation. Simulation of mechanical stress through a bioreactor is an important approach for improving in vitro cartilage regeneration. The current study developed a hydrostatic pressure (HP) bioreactor based on a novel pressure-transmitting mode achieved by slight deformation of a flexible membrane in a completely sealed stainless steel device. The newly developed bioreactor efficiently avoided the potential risks of previously reported pressure-transmitting modes and simultaneously addressed a series of important issues, such as pressure scopes, culture chamber sizes, sealability, contamination control, and CO2 balance. The whole bioreactor system realized stable long-term (8 weeks) culture under high HP (5-10 MPa) without the problems of medium leakage and contamination. Furthermore, the results of in vitro 3D tissue culture based on a cartilage regeneration model revealed that HP provided by the newly developed bioreactor efficiently promoted in vitro 3D cartilage formation by improving its mechanical strength, thickness, and homogeneity. Detailed analysis in cell proliferation, cartilage matrix production, and cross-linking level of collagen macromolecules, as well as density and alignment of collagen fibers, further revealed the possible mechanisms that HP regulated in vitro cartilage regeneration. The current study provided a highly efficient and stable bioreactor system for improving in vitro 3D cartilage regeneration and thus will help to accelerate its clinical translation. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:982-991.
    • Influence of Action-Effect Associations Acquired by Ideomotor Learning on Imitation

      Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J; Quandt, Lorna C; Bouquet, Cedric A (2015)
      According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants' hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation.
    • Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma

      Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Kaur, Gurjeet; Yahaya, Badrul; Athwal, Gurpreet K.|0000-0002-6232-5703 (2014-05-29)
      BACKGROUND: Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. METHODS: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. RESULTS: Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms.
    • Maternal depression attenuates newborn vitamin D concentrations in winter-spring: a prospective population-based study

      Zhou, Qi-fan; Zhang, Meng-xiao; Tong, Shi-lu; Tao, Rui-xue; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-biao; Zhu, Peng; Tao, Rongjia|0000-0001-5058-4401 (2017-05-08)
      We aimed to investigate whether the newborns of mothers with maternal depression (MD) had lower vitamin D levels than newborns of non-MD (NMD) mothers and identify the potential mechanism underlying this association. Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and concentrations of cord blood 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in 1491 mother-infant pairs. Data on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health status, lifestyle and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For infants born in winter-spring, the infants of MD mothers had significantly reduced concentrations of 25(OH) D (adjusted β = -3.51 nmol/L; 95% CI: -6.19, -0.84; P = 0.010) and lower birth weight (3267 ± 470 g vs 3348 ± 598 g, F = 4.64, P = 0.031), compared with the infants of NMD mothers. A significant, inverse linear relationship was noted between maternal depression scores and the concentration of 25(OH)D for infants born in winter-spring (adjusted β = -0.158; 95% CI: -0.259, -0.057). The significant, inverse linear relationship between maternal depression scores and fetomaternal ratios of 25(OH) D was also observed among the infants born in winter-spring (adjusted β = -0.005; 95% CI: -0.008, -0.003). MD appears to significantly attenuate the vitamin D concentrations and birth weight of infants born in winter-spring. A decreased fetomaternal ratio of 25(OH)D might be involved in this biological pathway.
    • Meta-analysis of reward processing in major depressive disorder reveals distinct abnormalities within the reward circuit

      Ng, Tommy H; Alloy, Lauren B; Smith, David V (2019-11-11)
      <jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Many neuroimaging studies have investigated reward processing dysfunction in major depressive disorder. These studies have led to the common idea that major depressive disorder is associated with blunted responses within the reward circuit, particularly in the ventral striatum. Yet, the link between major depressive disorder and reward-related responses in other regions remains inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. To address this issue, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 41 whole-brain neuroimaging studies encompassing reward-related responses from a total of 794 patients with major depressive disorder and 803 healthy controls. Our findings argue against the common idea that major depressive disorder is primarily linked to deficits within the reward system. Instead, our results demonstrate that major depressive disorder is associated with opposing abnormalities in the reward circuit: hypo-responses in the ventral striatum and hyper-responses in the orbitofrontal cortex. The current findings suggest that dysregulated corticostriatal connectivity may underlie reward-processing abnormalities in major depressive disorder, providing an empirical foundation for a more refined understanding of abnormalities in the reward circuitry in major depressive disorder.</jats:p>
    • One-year postpartum anthropometric outcomes in mothers and children in the LIFE-Moms lifestyle intervention clinical trials

      Phelan, Suzanne; Clifton, Rebecca G; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Redman, Leanne M; Van Horn, Linda; Evans, Mary; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Couch, Kimberly A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Cahill, Alison G; Drews, Kimberly L; Franks, Paul W; Gallagher, Dympna; Josefson, Jami L; Klein, Samuel; Knowler, William C; Martin, Corby K; Peaceman, Alan M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Wing, Rena R; Yanovski, Susan Z; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Phelan, S; Wing, RR; Hagobian, TA; Schaffner, A; Hart, C; Yin, EK; Phipps, MG; Abrams, B; Scholl, TO; Savitz, DA; Gallagher, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Thornton, J; Rosenn, B; Paley, C; Gidwani, S; Horowitz, M; Joshipura, K; Franks, PW; Palacios, C; Campos, M; Rivera, J; Willett, WC; Zorrilla, C; Soltero, S; Hu, F; Cordero, J; Trak, MA; Melendez, M; Cahill, AG; Klein, S; Haire-Joshu, D; Stein, R; Mathur, A; Cade, WT; Moley, K; Peaceman, AM; Van Horn, L; Kwasny, M; Josefson, JL; Neff, L; Spring, B; Redman, LM; Martin, CK; Elkind-Hirsh, K; Breaux, J; Johnson, W; Frost, EA; Knowler, WC; Couch, KA; Curtis, JM; Dunnigan, DL; Hanson, RL; Hoskin, M; Kavena, K; Kishi, GY; Moffett, C; Murphy, S; Nelson, RG; Pomeroy, J; Shovestull, L; Williams, Rachel; Clifton, RG; Thom, EA; Drews, K; Boekhoudt, T; Evans, M; Yanovski, SZ; Arteaga, S; Alekel, DL; Grp, LIFE-Moms Res (2020-01)
      BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for maternal postpartum weight retention and excessive neonatal adiposity, especially in women with overweight or obesity. Whether lifestyle interventions to reduce excess GWG also reduce 12-month maternal postpartum weight retention and infant weight-for-length z score is unknown. Randomized controlled trials from the LIFE-Moms consortium investigated lifestyle interventions that began in pregnancy and tested whether there was benefit through 12 months on maternal postpartum weight retention (i.e., the difference in weight from early pregnancy to 12 months) and infant-weight-for-length z scores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In LIFE-Moms, women (N = 1150; 14.1 weeks gestation at enrollment) with overweight or obesity were randomized within each of seven trials to lifestyle intervention or standard care. Individual participant data were combined and analyzed using generalized linear mixed models with trial entered as a random effect. The 12-month assessment was completed by 83% (959/1150) of women and 84% (961/1150) of infants. RESULTS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle intervention reduced postpartum weight retention (2.2 ± 7.0 vs. 0.7 ± 6.2 kg, respectively; difference of -1.6 kg (95% CI -2.5, -0.7; p = 0.0003); the intervention effect was mediated by reduction in excess GWG, which explained 22% of the effect on postpartum weight retention. Lifestyle intervention also significantly increased the odds (OR = 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26, 2.24)) and percentage of mothers (48.2% vs. 36.2%) at or below baseline weight at 12 months postpartum (yes/no) compared with standard care. There was no statistically significant treatment group effect on infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle interventions initiated in pregnancy and focused on healthy eating, increased physical activity, and other behavioral strategies resulted in significantly less weight retention but similar infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months postpartum in a large, diverse US population of women with overweight and obesity.
    • Origins and Evolution of MicroRNA Genes in Drosophila Species

      Nozawa, Masafumi; Miura, Sayaka; Nei, Masatoshi (2010)
      MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. To obtain some insights into the origins and evolutionary patterns of miR genes, we have identified miR genes in the genomes of 12 Drosophila species by bioinformatics approaches and examined their evolutionary changes. The results showed that the extant and ancestral Drosophila species had more than 100 miR genes and frequent gains and losses of miR genes have occurred during evolution. Although many miR genes appear to have originated from random hairpin structures in intronic or intergenic regions, duplication of miR genes has also contributed to the generation of new miR genes. Estimating the rate of nucleotide substitution of miR genes, we have found that newly arisen miR genes have a substitution rate similar to that of synonymous nucleotide sites in protein-coding genes and evolve almost neutrally. This suggests that most new miR genes have not acquired any important function and would become inactive. By contrast, old miR genes show a substitution rate much lower than the synonymous rate. Moreover, paired and unpaired nucleotide sites of miR genes tend to remain unchanged during evolution. Therefore, once miR genes acquired their functions, they appear to have evolved very slowly, maintaining essentially the same structures for a long time.
    • Origins and Evolution of MicroRNA Genes in Plant Species

      Nozawa, Masafumi; Miura, Sayaka; Nei, Masatoshi (2012)
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are among the most important regulatory elements of gene expression in animals and plants. However, their origin and evolutionary dynamics have not been studied systematically. In this paper, we identified putative miRNA genes in 11 plant species using the bioinformatic technique and examined their evolutionary changes. Our homology search indicated that no miRNA gene is currently shared between green algae and land plants. The number of miRNA genes has increased substantially in the land plant lineage, but after the divergence of eudicots and monocots, the number has changed in a lineage-specific manner. We found that miRNA genes have originated mainly by duplication of preexisting miRNA genes or protein-coding genes. Transposable elements also seem to have contributed to the generation of species-specific miRNA genes. The relative importance of these mechanisms in plants is quite different from that in Drosophila species, where the formation of hairpin structures in the genomes seems to be a major source of miRNA genes. This difference in the origin of miRNA genes between plants and Drosophila may be explained by the difference in the binding to target mRNAs between plants and animals. We also found that young miRNA genes are less conserved than old genes in plants as well as in Drosophila species. Yet, nearly half of the gene families in the ancestor of flowering plants have been lost in at least one species examined. This indicates that the repertoires of miRNA genes have changed more dynamically than previously thought during plant evolution.
    • Revisiting the Single Cell Protein Application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and Recovering Bioplastic Granules Simultaneously

      Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans HJ; Sudesh, Kumar; Athwal, Gurpreet K.|0000-0002-6232-5703 (2013-10-24)
      Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.