Browsing Faculty/ Researcher Works by Genre "Randomized Controlled Trial"
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Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practiceBACKGROUND: The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP) considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics).Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death) and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk.A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%). About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. DISCUSSION: The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P) project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high cardiovascular risk with no history of myocardial infarction, and to assess how to implement recommended preventive strategies in general practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317707.
One-year postpartum anthropometric outcomes in mothers and children in the LIFE-Moms lifestyle intervention clinical trialsBACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for maternal postpartum weight retention and excessive neonatal adiposity, especially in women with overweight or obesity. Whether lifestyle interventions to reduce excess GWG also reduce 12-month maternal postpartum weight retention and infant weight-for-length z score is unknown. Randomized controlled trials from the LIFE-Moms consortium investigated lifestyle interventions that began in pregnancy and tested whether there was benefit through 12 months on maternal postpartum weight retention (i.e., the difference in weight from early pregnancy to 12 months) and infant-weight-for-length z scores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In LIFE-Moms, women (N = 1150; 14.1 weeks gestation at enrollment) with overweight or obesity were randomized within each of seven trials to lifestyle intervention or standard care. Individual participant data were combined and analyzed using generalized linear mixed models with trial entered as a random effect. The 12-month assessment was completed by 83% (959/1150) of women and 84% (961/1150) of infants. RESULTS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle intervention reduced postpartum weight retention (2.2 ± 7.0 vs. 0.7 ± 6.2 kg, respectively; difference of -1.6 kg (95% CI -2.5, -0.7; p = 0.0003); the intervention effect was mediated by reduction in excess GWG, which explained 22% of the effect on postpartum weight retention. Lifestyle intervention also significantly increased the odds (OR = 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26, 2.24)) and percentage of mothers (48.2% vs. 36.2%) at or below baseline weight at 12 months postpartum (yes/no) compared with standard care. There was no statistically significant treatment group effect on infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle interventions initiated in pregnancy and focused on healthy eating, increased physical activity, and other behavioral strategies resulted in significantly less weight retention but similar infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months postpartum in a large, diverse US population of women with overweight and obesity.