• A complex dynamic systems perspective on identity and its development: The dynamic systems model of role identity

      Kaplan, Avi; Garner, Joanna K.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2017)
      Current prominent models of identity face challenges in bridging across divergent perspectives and apparent dichotomies such as personal or social-collective, conscious or unconscious, and epigenetic or discursive-relational, and affording pursuit of research questions that allows integrative answers. This article presents a coherent theoretical perspective on the integrative nature of identity and its developmental mechanisms. Adopting the contextual social role as a primary unit of analysis, the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI) conceptualizes role identity as a Complex Dynamic System (CDS) anchored in action that comprises the actor’s ontological and epistemological beliefs, purpose and goals, self-perceptions and self-definitions, and perceived action possibilities in the role. These system components are conceptualized as interdependent, and identity development is viewed as emergent, continuous, nonlinear, contextualized, and given to influences from within and without the system. The role identity itself constitutes an element within a multilevel hierarchy, which at the unit of analysis of the individual reflects a CDS of the multiple roles that constitute the person’s psychosocial identity. Identity development involves the formation and restructuring of relations within and among role identities through intra- and interpersonal processes that are mediated by sociocognitive and cultural means, and framed by the context as well as by implicit dispositions. The DSMRI provides a framework to conceptualize and investigate the nature of the identity system, its development, and the relationship between identity development and psychological functioning at different units of-analysis, across different developmental stages and contexts, and using quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
    • A human rights framework for the Anthropocene

      Sinden, Amy (2019-12-04)
      Calls for recognition of a human right to security from climate disruption have become more common, from both courts and scholars. But such a right has a far better chance of being effective – substantively and rhetorically – if grounded in the civil and political rights tradition, rather than the second or third-generation rights of the post-Second World War era. This chapter begins to sketch out some arguments that would situate a human right to climate security squarely in the civil and political rights tradition by connecting that new right to the fundamental values and concerns that have always animated that tradition. Whether one views those values as centrally concerned with the maintenance of individual autonomy and dignity or with protecting the integrity of the democratic process, civil and political rights are at bottom a response to power imbalance. While many twentieth century theorists have understandably focused on the power imbalance most emblematic of that century’s central moral challenge (that fuelled by prejudice), in constructing a human right for the twenty-first century, we should broaden that lens to encompass the other forms of power imbalance driving the climate crisis: between wealthy corporate interests and the poor and powerless; between us and future generations or other species; and between the functioning governments of the globe that possess the unique power to tackle this textbook collective action problem and individual citizens.
    • A Statistical Approach to Batched Prevalence Testing for Coronavirus

      Berger, William; Dabrowski, Konrad; Robinson, Jake; Sales, Adam (2020-03-30)
      As cases of novel coronavirus mount, the ability to conduct expeditious prevalence testing becomes paramount. A statistical approach to batched prevalence testing offers a more rapid and efficient means of monitoring at-risk populations.
    • Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals

      Peterson, Steven K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2016-01-23)
      Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students' achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
    • Book Review: Gender and Violence in Haiti: Women’s Path from Victims to Agents by Benedetta Faedi Duramy

      Ramji-Nogales, Jaya (2016-02-11)
      Over the past two decades, international law has made great strides in recognizing and addressing gender-based violence. Sexual violence has become the dominant lens through which international law views gendered harms. In international criminal law, rape and sexual enslavement have been criminalized and prosecuted. Sex trafficking has become a global concern, and the topic of proliferating international and national legislation. Though these harms are real and powerful, the narrow focus on sexual and gender-based violence can obscure other harms experienced by women and similar harms experienced by men. The title of Prof. Benedetta Faedi Duramy’s book, Gender and Violence in Haiti: Women’s Path from Victims to Agents, demarcates a more nuanced approach that explores the roles women play not only as subjects but also as perpetrators of violence. The book contextualizes sexual violence, situating it within a cycle of inequality that begins by requiring young girls to be household servants and ends with the nearly complete exclusion of women from politics. Prof. Duramy’s in-depth case study contributes both substance and method to the burgeoning literature on gender violence and international law.
    • Challenges Experienced by Older People During the Initial Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Siminoff Research Group (Temple University) (2020-09-21)
      Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unique stressors for older people to manage. Informed by the Stress Process Model and the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, we examined the extent to which older people are adhering to physical distancing mandates and the pandemic-related experiences that older people find most challenging. Research Design and Methods: From May 4 to May 17, 2020, a web-based questionnaire focused on the COVID-19 pandemic was completed by 1,272 people (aged 64 and older) who were part of an ongoing research panel in New Jersey recruited in 2006. Frequencies for endorsement of physical distancing behaviors were tabulated, and open-ended responses to the biggest challenge of the pandemic were systematically coded and classified using content analysis. Results: More than 70% of participants reported adhering to physical distancing behaviors. Experiences appraised as most difficult by participants fell into 8 domains: Social Relationships, Activity Restrictions, Psychological, Health, Financial, Global Environment, Death, and Home Care. The most frequently appraised challenges were constraints on social interactions (42.4%) and restrictions on activity (30.9%). Discussion and Implications: In the initial weeks of the pandemic, the majority of older adults reported adhering to COVID-19 physical distancing mandates and identified a range of challenging experiences. Results highlight the factors having the greatest impact on older adults, informing quantitative modeling for testing the impact of the pandemic on health and well-being outcomes, and identifying how intervention efforts may be targeted to maximize the quality of life of older adults.
    • Connecting the learning of advanced mathematics with the teaching of secondary mathematics: Inverse functions, domain restrictions, and the arcsine function

      Weber, Keith; Mejía-Ramosa, Juan Pablo; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Wasserman, Nicholas (2019-12-26)
      Prospective secondary mathematics teachers are typically required to take advanced university mathematics courses. However, many prospective teachers see little value in completing these courses. In this paper, we present the instantiation of an innovative model that we have previously developed on how to teach advanced mathematics to prospective teachers in a way that informs their future pedagogy. We illustrate this model with a particular module in real analysis in which theorems about continuity, injectivity, and monotonicity are used to inform teachers’ instruction on inverse trigonometric functions and solving trigonometric equations. We report data from a design research study illustrating how our activities helped prospective teachers develop a more productive understanding of inverse functions. We then present pre-test/post-test data illustrating that the prospective teachers were better able to respond to pedagogical situations around these concepts that they might encounter.
    • Coronaviruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future

      Pellegrino, Robert; Cooper, Keiland W.; Di Pizio, Antonella; Joseph, Paule V.; Bhutani, Surabhi; Parma, Valentina; 0000-0003-0276-7072 (2020-05-14)
      A wealth of rapidly evolving reports suggests that olfaction and taste disturbances may be manifestations of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. While otolaryngological societies worldwide have started to consider chemosensory evaluation as a screening tool for COVID-19 infection, the true nature of the relationship between the changes in chemosensory ability and COVID-19 is unclear. Our goal with this review is to provide a brief overview of published and archived literature, as well as the anecdotal reports and social trends related to this topic up to April 29, 2020. We also aim to draw parallels between the clinical/chemosensory symptomology reported in association to past coronavirus pandemics (such as SARS and MERS) and the novel COVID-19. This review also highlights current evidence on persistent chemosensory disturbances after the infection has resolved. Overall, our analysis pinpoints the need for further studies: (1) to better quantify olfaction and taste disturbances associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to those of other viral and respiratory infections, (2) to understand the relation between smell, taste, and chemesthesis disturbances in COVID-19, and (3) to understand how persistent are these disturbances after the infection has resolved.
    • COVID Moonshot: Open Science Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors by Combining Crowdsourcing, High-Throughput Experiments, Computational Simulations, and Machine Learning

      The COVID Moonshot Consortium (2020-10-30)
      Herein we provide a living summary of the data generated during the COVID Moonshot project focused on the development of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. Our approach uniquely combines crowdsourced medicinal chemistry insights with high throughput crystallography, exascale computational chemistry infrastructure for simulations, and machine learning in triaging designs and predicting synthetic routes. This manuscript describes our methodologies leading to both covalent and non-covalent inhibitors displaying protease IC50 values under 150 nM and viral inhibition under 5 uM in multiple different viral replication assays. Furthermore, we provide over 200 crystal structures of fragment-like and lead-like molecules in complex with the main protease. Over 1000 synthesized and ordered compounds are also reported with the corresponding activity in Mpro enzymatic assays using two different experimental setups. The data referenced in this document will be continually updated to reflect the current experimental progress of the COVID Moonshot project, and serves as a citable reference for ensuing publications. All of the generated data is open to other researchers who may find it of use.
    • COVID-19 in solid organ transplant: A multi-center cohort study

      Kates, Olivia S.; Haydel, Brandy M.; Florman, Sander S.; Rana, Meenakshi M.; Chaudhry, Zohra S.; Ramesh, Mayur S.; Safa, Kassem; Kotton, Camille Nelson; Blumberg, Emily A.; Besharatian, Behdad D.; Tanna, Sajal D.; Ison, Michael G.; Malinis, Maricar; Azar, Marwan M.; Rakita, Robert M.; Morilla, Jose A.; Majeed, Aneela; Sait, Afrah S.; Spaggiari, Mario; Hemmige, Vagish; Mehta, Sapna A.; Neumann, Henry; Badami, Abbasali; Goldman, Jason D.; Lala, Anuradha; Hemmersbach-Miller, Marion; McCort, Margaret E.; Bajrovic, Valida; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel; Sehgal, Sameep; Lease, Erika D.; Fisher, Cynthia E.; Limaye, Ajit P. (2020-08-07)
      Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well described. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients. Results: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 46–57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2–10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–5.5, P < .001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4–7.0, P = .004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2, P = .018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.4, P = .039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.5, P = .033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1–7.5, P = .027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.
    • Disability identity and use of services among college students with psychiatric disabilities

      O'Shea, Amber; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2018)
      With the increasing number of undergraduate students with psychiatric disabilities enrolling in college, and the disproportionately high attrition rates in this group, the current study aimed to understand these students’ experiences and identify barriers that they face in higher education contexts. Specifically, whereas past research suggests that students’ endorsement of a “disability identity” impacts the proactive utilization of valuable academic accommodations and promotes students’ academic success, little is known about the meanings that underlie students’ disability identity and how it is formed, shaped, and maintained within the college context. The current phenomenological study investigated the processes by which 5 undergraduate students with psychiatric disabilities in a large public research university made meaning of their disability, and how their disability identity motivated their use of disability support services. The analysis of a series of interviews with each student highlighted the dynamic nature of students’ disability identity and its formation through interactions with others and through participation in various activities and experiences in the college context.
    • Disengaged and Nearing Departure: Students at Risk for Dropping Out in the Age of COVID-19

      Antoni, Jennifer; 0000-0001-8238-560X (2020-09-18)
      In this article, the author examines the turbulence of the current educational context in light of COVID-19 and the associated school closures, for disengaged, older students nearing the end of their high school journeys. She provides concise overviews of the way high school dropout problem has been conceptualized, the theoretical framework of turbulence theory, and the relevant challenges and barriers that disengaged, older students at risk for dropout/pushout are currently experiencing. She asserts that even with established supports in place, more attention is needed to developing approaches that consider the turbulence that older students experience nearing high school departure during this period of school closure and remote instruction. The author offers vignettes, both from her own experience as a school counselor and one from another educators about what this turbulence looks like for vulnerable students and families. She concludes by offering recommendations for further supporting older, disengaged students at-risk for pushout or dropout.
    • Etoposide as Salvage Therapy for Cytokine Storm due to COVID-19

      COVID-19 Research Group (Temple University) (2020-09-12)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality because of a lack of effective therapies. Therapeutic strategies under investigation target the overactive cytokine response with anti-cytokine or immunomodulators therapies. We present a unique case of severe cytokine storm resistant to multiple anti-cytokine therapies, but eventually responsive to etoposide. Thus, etoposide may have a role as salvage therapy in treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of use of etoposide in COVID-19.
    • Evidence of significant natural selection in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in bats, not humans

      Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (Temple University) (2020-05-29)
      RNA viruses are proficient at switching to novel host species due to their fast mutation rates. Implicit in this assumption is the need to evolve adaptations in the new host species to exploit their cells efficiently. However, SARS-CoV-2 has required no significant adaptation to humans since the pandemic began, with no observed selective sweeps to date. Here we contrast the role of positive selection and recombination in the Sarbecoviruses in horseshoe bats to SARS-CoV-2 evolution in humans. While methods can detect some evidence for positive selection in SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate these are mostly due to recombination and sequencing artefacts. Purifying selection is also substantially weaker in SARS-CoV-2 than in the related bat Sarbecoviruses. In comparison, our results show evidence for positive, specifically episodic selection, acting on the bat virus lineage SARS-CoV-2 emerged from. This signature of selection can also be observed among synonymous substitutions, for example, linked to ancestral CpG depletion on this bat lineage. We show the bat virus RmYN02 has recombinant CpG content in Spike pointing to coinfection and evolution in bats without involvement of other species. Our results suggest the non-human progenitor of SARS-CoV-2 was capable of human-human transmission as a consequence of its natural evolution in bats.
    • From examining the relationship between (corona)viral adhesins and galectins to glyco-perspectives

      Institute of Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2021-03-16)
      Glycan-lectin recognition is vital to processes that impact human health, including viral infections. Proceeding from crystallographical evidence of case studies on adeno-, corona-, and rotaviral spike proteins, the relationship of these adhesins to mammalian galectins was examined by computational similarity assessments. Intrafamily diversity among human galectins was in the range of that to these viral surface proteins. Our findings are offered to inspire the consideration of lectin-based approaches to thwart infection by present and future viral threats, also mentioning possible implications for vaccine development.
    • Healthcare resource use among solid organ transplant recipients hospitalized with COVID‐19

      Heldman, Madeleine R.; Kates, Olivia S.; Haydel, Brandy M.; Florman, Sander S.; Rana, Meenakshi M.; Chaudhry, Zohra S.; Ramesh, Mayur S.; Safa, Kassem; Kotton, Camille N.; Blumberg, Emily A.; Besharatian, Behdad D.; Tanna, Sajal D.; Ison, Michael G.; Malinis, Maricar; Azar, Marwan M.; Rakita, Robert M.; Morillas, Jose A.; Majeed, Aneela; Sait, Afrah S.; Spaggiari, Mario; Hemmige, Vagish; Mehta, Sapna A.; Neumann, Henry; Badami, Abbasali; Jeng, Amy; Goldman, Jason D.; Lala, Anuradha; Hemmersbach‐Miller, Marion; McCort, Margaret E.; Bajrovic, Valida; Ortiz‐Bautista, Carlos; Friedman‐Moraco, Rachel; Sehgal, Sameep; Lease, Erika D.; Limaye, Ajit P.; Fisher, Cynthia E. (2020-12-22)
    • High-Throughput Discovery and Evaluation of a General Catalytic Method for N-Arylation of Weakly Nucleophilic Sulfonamides

      Becica, Joseph; Hruszkewycz, Damian; Steves, Janelle; Elward, Jennifer; Leitch, David; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2019-06-09)
      Sulfonamides are poor nucleophiles in Pd C-N coupling catalysis, hindering synthesis of densely-functionalized N,N-diaryl sulfonamide motifs relevant to medicinal chemistry. Through targeted high-throughput experimentation (HTE), we have identified the Pd/AdBippyPhos catalyst system as an effective and general method to construct this difficult to access moiety. In particular, AdBippyPhos is critical for the installation of heteroaromatic groups. Computational steric parameterization of the investigated ligands reveals the potential importance of remote steric demand, where a large cone angle combined with an accessible Pd center is correlated to successful catalysts for C-N coupling reactions.
    • Imidazolyl-phenyl (IMP) anions: a modular structure for tuning solubility and coordinating ability

      Wozniak, Derek; Hicks, Andrew J.; Sabbers, William A.; Dobereiner, Graham; 0000-0002-7737-4583; 0000-0001-6885-2021 (2019-09-03)
      The effect of counteranion upon a cation’s solution-phase reactivity depends on a subtle interplay of weak interactions. Although these effects are widely appreciated in synthesis and catalysis, probing and controlling anion-cation interactions remains a significant challenge. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the IMP anions, a family of anions with a coordinating ability that can be tuned for a given application. The anions are robust, compatible with both strongly basic and acidic media, suitable for isolation of unstable organometallic species, and effective as counteranions for homogeneous catalysis. IMP anions are prepared in two steps: deprotonation of substituted 2-phenylimidazoles with NaH, followed by addition of 2 equiv. B(C6F5)3. The anions prepared feature a range of functionality, including nitro, ester, amide, amine and alcohol groups. Based on the spectroscopic properties of [Pd(IPr)(C(O)C9H6N)] [IMP-R], the coordinating ability of [IMP-R]− ranges between BF4− and BArF4−, depending on the polarity of the R group. Gold complexes of type [L-Au-L’][IMP-R] have been isolated and characterized, resulting in the first X-ray structure of a (eta-2-diphenylacetylene)Au complex. [(tBuXPhos)Au(MeCN)][IMP-R] catalyzes [2+2] cyclization of alkenes and alkynes, as well as the hydroalkoxylation of alkynes. Unlike SbF6− and BArF4−, the [IMP-H]− and [IMP-CF3]− salts are sufficiently soluble to efficiently promote cyclizations in toluene with [(tBuXPhos)Au(MeCN)]+.
    • Impact of Tobacco Smoking Status on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: Observational study

      Fernandez Romero, Gustavo; Dominguez-Castillo, Eduardo; Zheng, Matthew; Yousef, Ibraheem; Darnell, Melinda; Ganghemi, Andrew; Dorey-Stein, Zack; Zantah, Massa; Townsend, Ryan; Myers, Catherine; Ku, Tse-Shuen; Patel, Maulin; Patlakh, Nicole; Jacobs, Michael; Zhao, Huaqing; Gupta, Rohit; Rali, Parth; Criner, Gerard J. (2020-11-14)
      Background: Determine the impact of tobacco smoking status on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in the need for ICU care, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study, that involved chart review. All adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized from March 15th, 2020 to May 06th, 2020 with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. We used chi-squared test for categorical variables and student t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. We further used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression to assess risk factors for mortality and intubation. Results: Among 577 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 268 (46.4%) had a history of smoking including 187 former and 81 active smokers. The former smokers when compared with non-smokers were predominantly older with more comorbidities. Also, when compared with never smokers D Dimer levels were elevated in active (p=0.05) and former smokers (p<0.01). The former smokers versus non-smokers required increased need for advanced non-invasive respiratory support on admission (p<0.05), ICU care (p<0.05) and had higher mortality [1.99 (CI 95% 1.03-3.85, p<0.05)]. Active smokers versus non-smokers received more mechanical ventilation [OR 2.11 (CI 95% 1.06-4.19, p<0.05)]. Conclusions: In our cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, former smokers had higher need for non-invasive respiratory support on admission, ICU care, and mortality compared to non-smokers. Also, active smokers versus non-smokers needed more mechanical ventilation.