• A call to action: Documenting and sharing solutions and adaptations in sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Benova, Lenka; Sarkar, Nandini D. P.; Fasehun, Luther-King; Semaan, Aline; Affun-Adegbulu, Clara; 0000-0002-8798-5433 (2020-10-19)
    • A Clearer Picture: Journalistic identity practices in words and images on Twitter

      Lough, Kyser; Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2017-10-27)
      As journalists continue integrating social media into their professional work, they wrestle with ways to best represent themselves, their organizations, and their profession. Several recent studies have examined this trend in terms of branding, raising important questions about the changing ways in which journalists present themselves and how these changes may indicate shifts in their personal and professional identities. This study combines a visual content analysis of the images journalists use in their Twitter profiles with analyses of their profile text and tweets to examine how journalists present themselves online with an eye toward individual and organizational branding. Findings indicate journalists choose a branding approach and apply it consistently across their profiles, with most profiles consisting of a professional headshot while notably lacking organizational identifiers such as logos. Journalists also tend to lean toward professional rather than personal images in their profile and header photographs, indicating a possible predilection for professional identity over personal on social media.
    • A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Heterogeneous Emphysema (LIBERATE)

      LIBERATE Study Group (2018-05-22)
      Rationale: This is the first multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve (EBV) in patients with little to no collateral ventilation out to 12 months. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zephyr EBV in heterogeneous emphysema with little to no collateral ventilation in the treated lobe. Methods: Subjects were enrolled with a 2:1 randomization (EBV/standard of care [SoC]) at 24 sites. Primary outcome at 12 months was the ΔEBV–SoC of subjects with a post-bronchodilator FEV1 improvement from baseline of greater than or equal to 15%. Secondary endpoints included absolute changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, 6-minute-walk distance, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 190 subjects (128 EBV and 62 SoC) were randomized. At 12 months, 47.7% EBV and 16.8% SoC subjects had a ΔFEV1 greater than or equal to 15% (P < 0.001). ΔEBV–SoC at 12 months was statistically and clinically significant: for FEV1, 0.106 L (P < 0.001); 6-minute-walk distance, +39.31 m (P = 0.002); and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, −7.05 points (P = 0.004). Significant ΔEBV–SoC were also observed in hyperinflation (residual volume, −522 ml; P < 0.001), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (−0.8 points; P < 0.001), and the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (−1.2 points). Pneumothorax was the most common serious adverse event in the treatment period (procedure to 45 d), in 34/128 (26.6%) of EBV subjects. Four deaths occurred in the EBV group during this phase, and one each in the EBV and SoC groups between 46 days and 12 months. Conclusions: Zephyr EBV provides clinically meaningful benefits in lung function, exercise tolerance, dyspnea, and quality of life out to at least 12 months, with an acceptable safety profile in patients with little or no collateral ventilation in the target lobe. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01796392).
    • A Qualitative Examination of a School-Based Implementation of Computer-Assisted Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety

      Crane, Margaret E.; Philips, Katherine E.; Maxwell, Colleen A.; Norris, Lesley A.; Rifkin, Lara S.; Blank, Jacob M.; Sorid, Samantha D.; Read, Kendra L.; Swan, Anna J.; Kendall, Philip C.; Frank, Hannah E.; Kendall|0000-0001-7034-6961 (2021-06-24)
      Mental health treatment in schools has the potential to improve youth treatment access. However, school-specific barriers can make implementing evidence-based interventions difficult. Task-shifting (i.e., training lay staff to implement interventions) and computer-assisted interventions may mitigate these barriers. This paper reports on a qualitative examination of facilitators and barriers of a school-based implementation of a computer-assisted intervention for anxious youth (Camp Cope-A-Lot; CCAL). Participants (N = 45) included school staff in first through fourth grades. Providers attended a training in CCAL and received weekly, hour-long group consultation calls for three months. In the second year, the sustainability of CCAL use was assessed. Qualitative interviews were conducted after the first year (initial implementation) and second year (sustainability). Interviews were analyzed using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains to classify themes. Although participants reported that CCAL included useful skills, they expressed concerns about recommended session length (45 minutes) and frequency (weekly). Time burden of consultation calls was also a barrier. School staff facilitated implementation by enabling flexible scheduling for youth to be able to participate in the CCAL program. However, the sustainability of the program was limited due to competing school/time demands. Results suggest that even with computer assisted programs, there is a need to tailor interventions and implementation efforts to account for the time restrictions experienced by school-based service providers. Optimal fit between the intervention and specific school is important to maintain the potential benefits of computer-assisted treatments delivered by lay service providers in schools.
    • Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

      Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2019-06-16)
      Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of credibility and quality; instead, writing proficiency is more closely linked to these perceptions. Results also suggest clickbait headlines may lower perceptions of credibility and quality.
    • Air Current Applied to the Face Improves Exercise Performance in Patients with COPD

      Marchetti, Nathaniel; Lammi, Matthew R.; Travaline, John M.; Ciccolella, David; Civic, Brian; Criner, Gerard J. (2015-08-09)
      Purpose: Improving dyspnea and exercise performance are goals of COPD therapy. We tested the hypothesis that air current applied to the face would lessen dyspnea and improve exercise performance in moderate-severe COPD patients. Methods: We recruited 10 COPD patients (5 men, age 62 ± 6 years, FEV1 0.93 ± 0.11 L (34 ± 3 % predicted), TLC 107 ± 6 %, RV 172 ± 18 %) naïve to the study hypothesis. Each patient was randomized in a crossover fashion to lower extremity ergometry at constant submaximal workload with a 12-diameter fan directed at the patients face or exposed leg. Each patients’ studies were separated by at least 1 week. Inspiratory capacity and Borg dyspnea score were measured every 2 min and at maximal exercise. Results: Total exercise time was longer when the fan was directed to the face (14.3 ± 12 vs. 9.4 ± 7.6 min, face vs. leg, respectively, p = 0.03). Inspiratory capacity tended to be greater with the fan directed to the face (1.4 (0.6–3.25) vs. 1.26 (0.56–2.89) L, p = 0.06). There was a reduction in dynamic hyperinflation, as reflected by higher IRV area in the fan on face group (553 ± 562 a.u. vs. 328 ± 319 a.u., p = 0.047). There was a significant improvement in the Borg dyspnea score at maximal exercise (5.0 (0–10) vs. 6.5 (0–10), p = 0.03), despite exercising for 34 % longer with the fan directed to the face. Conclusions: Air current applied to the face improves exercise performance in COPD. Possible mechanisms include an alteration in breathing pattern that diminishes development of dynamic hyperinflation or to a change in perception of breathlessness.
    • An Examination of the Community Participation Interests of Young Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; O'Shea, Amber; Suarez, John; Hurford, Irene; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-12-24)
      Participation in various aspects of community life (e.g., education, employment) plays a critical role in fostering young adult development and health. To support behavioral health services in addressing a broader array of meaningful community participation areas, the current study examined the participation interests of young adults with serious mental illnesses via a literature review and focus groups interviews. Literature review results revealed a range of community participation areas of interest to these individuals, including employment, education, religion and spirituality, social networking (e.g., using social media), volunteering activities, socializing, and civic and artistic participation (e.g., attending a political event, playing music). Focus group participants named many of these same areas, but also mentioned unique areas of participation that have not been the focus of previous research (i.e., playing games, sports, exploration of other communities (e.g., traveling), hanging out, and nature-based participation). Implications for future research and behavioral health practice are discussed.
    • An exploration of linear and curvilinear relationships between community participation and neurocognition among those with serious mental illnesses

      Thomas, Elizabeth; Snethen, Gretchen; McCormick, Bryan; Salzer, Mark; Snethen|0000-0002-0721-3661; McCormick|0000-0003-1017-8868; Salzer|0000-0002-2108-1618; Thomas|0000-0001-6543-9856 (2019-04-04)
      Objective: Longitudinal research supports an effect of participation in aspects of community life (e.g., leisure activity, employment) on neurocognition in the general population. This study examined the extent and nature of the relationship between community participation and neurocognition among people with serious mental illnesses. Methods: Participants included 168 adults with schizophrenia spectrum or affective disorder diagnoses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses explored linear and curvilinear effects of the amount and breadth of community participation on neurocognition. Results: Significant linear relationships existed between amount of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning, motor speed, verbal fluency, and attention/processing speed, and between breadth of participation and verbal fluency. Significant curvilinear effects were noted between amount of community participation and verbal memory, and between breadth of community participation and overall neurocognitive functioning and motor speed. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings suggest that enhanced community participation may contribute to improved neurocognitive functioning, further supporting the importance of this rehabilitation target.
    • Approach and Avoidance Patterns in Reward Learning Across Domains: An Initial Examination of the Social Iowa Gambling Task

      Case, Julia A. C.; Olino, Thomas; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2020-01-06)
      The current study examines learning patterns in response to both monetary and social incentives through both approach and avoidance behaviors using modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task. Specifically, we investigated learning in response to both positive and negative feedback in a sample of 191 undergraduate students. The social task was a novel paradigm, and social feedback were images of faces displaying positive and negative emotions. We examined internal validity of the tasks through modeling changes in approach and avoidance. We also explored associations between approach and avoidance learning and individual differences in anxiety and social anxiety, depression and well-being, general anhedonia and social closeness, and fun-seeking, using multilevel models (MLMs). Results showed that both the monetary and social tasks demonstrated learning as shown by decreases in plays on disadvantageous decks across the task. Additionally, we found that overall task performance on the monetary task was associated with fun-seeking and overall task performance on the social task was associated with fun-seeking and depressive symptoms. Initial findings suggest promise for the novel task in the examination of social avoidance learning.
    • Are environmental pollution and biodiversity levels associated to the spread and mortality of COVID-19? A four-month global analysis

      Fernández, Daniel; Giné-Vázquez, Ialago; Liu, Ivy; Yucel, Recai; Nai Ruscone, Marta; Morena, Marianthi; García, Víctor Gerardo; Haro, Josep Maria; Pan, William; Tyrovolas, Stefanos (2020-12-21)
      On March 12th, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. The collective impact of environmental and ecosystem factors, as well as biodiversity, on the spread of COVID-19 and its mortality evolution remain empirically unknown, particularly in regions with a wide ecosystem range. The aim of our study is to assess how those factors impact on the COVID-19 spread and mortality by country. This study compiled a global database merging WHO daily case reports with other publicly available measures from January 21st to May 18th, 2020. We applied spatio-temporal models to identify the influence of biodiversity, temperature, and precipitation and fitted generalized linear mixed models to identify the effects of environmental variables. Additionally, we used count time series to characterize the association between COVID-19 spread and air quality factors. All analyses were adjusted by social demographic, country-income level, and government policy intervention confounders, among 160 countries, globally. Our results reveal a statistically meaningful association between COVID-19 infection and several factors of interest at country and city levels such as the national biodiversity index, air quality, and pollutants elements (PM10, PM2.5, and O3). Particularly, there is a significant relationship of loss of biodiversity, high level of air pollutants, and diminished air quality with COVID-19 infection spread and mortality. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for future studies on the relationship between air quality variables, a country’s biodiversity, and COVID-19 transmission and mortality. The relationships measured in this study can be valuable when governments plan environmental and health policies, as alternative strategy to respond to new COVID-19 outbreaks and prevent future crises.
    • Avoiding panic during pandemics: COVID-19 and tourism-related businesses

      Hu, Haisheng; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jin (2021-03-14)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has brought devastating impacts of an unprecedented scale to tourism-related businesses due to governments instituting mobility restrictions and business closures worldwide. In this research note, we present the results of a survey involving 1,212 tourism-related businesses in Jiangxi province, China, in late February 2020. The survey covered various topics, including (1) self-evaluated effects of COVID-19, (2) business responses, (3) social responsibility behavior, and (4) anticipated government policies. Findings from mixed-effects (ordered) logit models revealed that small-sized businesses appear particularly vulnerable to the pandemic. Social responsibility behavior is determined by business size, local pandemic circumstances, and local tourism dependence. Different businesses favor distinct government aid policies. Based on estimation results from our econometric models, we plotted a policy positioning matrix to identify appropriate policy measures for diverse businesses.
    • Back to Basics: The Importance of Measurement Properties in Biological Psychiatry

      Moriarity, Daniel P.; Alloy, Lauren; Alloy|0000-0002-5196-2635 (2022-04-01)
      Biological psychiatry is a major funding priority for organizations that fund mental health research (e.g., National Institutes of Health). Despite this, some have argued that the field has fallen short of its considerable promise to meaningfully impact the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of psychopathology. This may be attributable in part to a paucity of research about key measurement properties (“physiometrics”) of biological variables as they are commonly used in biological psychiatry research. Specifically, study designs informed by physiometrics are more likely to be replicable, avoid poor measurement that results in misestimation, and maximize efficiency in terms of time, money, and the number of analyses conducted. This review describes five key physiometric principles (internal consistency, dimensionality, method-specific variance, temporal stability, and temporal specificity), illustrates how lack of understanding about these characteristics imposes meaningful limitations on research, and reviews examples of physiometric studies featuring a variety of popular biological variables to illustrate how this research can be done and substantive conclusions drawn about the variables of interest.
    • ‘Better safe than sorry’: examining trauma as an obstacle to empowerment and social change in a U.S. intimate partner violence intervention

      Kogen, Lauren (2021-09-24)
      Communication for social change (CSC) research often addresses ‘empowerment.’ This paper argues that CSC must better incorporate trauma healing into the concept of empowerment, and thus into a revised model of social change. Data from a U.S. intimate partner violence intervention are used to provide evidence for the validity of, and usefulness of, such a revised model. Three broad theoretical arguments are offered regarding trauma within CSC: (1) trauma is rarely addressed outside peacebuilding interventions, but is relevant to other marginalized populations; (2) storytelling work has mostly focused on its politically empowering effects, and insufficiently on its healing effects related to trauma as a precursor to political empowerment; and (3) storytelling work almost always assumes an audience, but there is also value in internal communication – e.g. telling a story to oneself or journaling – when trauma has limited one’s opportunities for communication.
    • Better than text? Critical reflections on the practices of visceral methodologies in human geography

      Sexton, Alexandra E.; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Sweet, Elizabeth L.; Miele, Mara; Ash, James (2017-03-19)
      This co-authored intervention discusses themes on the thinking and doing of visceral research. 'Visceral' is taken here as that relating to, and emerging from, bodily, emotional and affective interactions with the material and discursive environment. There has recently been a distinct and necessary turn within the social sciences, particularly in human geography, towards the need for more viscerally-aware research practices. Building on such work, this collective intervention by leading visceral scholars offers two key contributions: first, it critically examines visceral geography approaches by considering their methodological contributions, and suggests improvements and future research pathways; and second, the authors extend recent visceral geography debates by examining how to conduct this type of research, providing reflections from their own experiences on the practicalities and challenges of implementing visceral methods. These observations are taken from a diverse range of research contexts - for example, from gender violence and community spaces, to the politics of 'good eating' in schools and social movements (e.g. Slow Food) - and involve a similarly diverse set of methods, including body-map storytelling, cooking and sharing meals, and using music to 'attune' researchers' bodies to nonhuman objects. In short, this collective intervention makes important and original contributions to the recent visceral turn in human geography, and offers critical insights for researchers across disciplines who are interested in conceptually and/or practically engaging with visceral methods.
    • Beyond Diagnoses and Total Symptom Scores: Diversifying the Level of Analysis in Psychoneuroimmunology Research

      Moriarity, Daniel P.; Alloy, Lauren; Alloy|0000-0002-5196-2635 (2020-10-01)
      Psychoneuroimmunology is a rapidly advancing field that investigates immunological processes (at numerous levels of measurement) as risk factors, mechanisms, and sequelae of psychological phenomena. However, the majority of psychopathology-focused psychoneuroimmunology research to date has analyzed differences in immunological characteristics between those with vs. without a disorder (i.e., case-control studies), and/or relationships between immune markers and total scores on self-report symptom measures associated with a specific diagnostic category (e.g., depression). Although these approaches are important for studying psychopathology at the level at which mental health is typically conceptualized (both in research and clinical work), there are inherent limitations to these methods that limit their utility in studying the associations between immune functioning and mental health. The example of inflammation and depression will be used throughout this viewpoint to illustrate these limitations and highlight arguments for diversifying the level of analysis of psychopathology in psychoneuroimmunology research.
    • Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions

      Crerand, Canice E.; Sarwer, David; Kazak, Anne E.; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola; 0000-0003-1033-5528 (2016-01-11)
      Objective: To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life. Design: Case-control design. Setting: A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices. Participants: Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions. Main Outcome Measure: Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning). Results: Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P < .001) and were more likely to report concerns about facial features (P < .02) compared with nonaffected youth. Females in both groups reported greater investment in appearance, greater body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P < .01). Within both groups, greater body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P < .01). The two groups did not differ significantly on measures of quality of life, body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance. Conclusions: Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents’ well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.
    • Book Review: Larry May and Shannon Fyfe, International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense

      deGuzman, Margaret M. (2018-06-08)
      In "International Criminal Tribunals: A Normative Defense," Larry May and Shannon Fyfe set out to demonstrate that international tribunals provide “the fairest way to deal with mass atrocity crimes in a global arena.” To do so, the authors take up a wide range of critiques that scholars and others have leveled at international criminal tribunals and argue that although most have some validity, none are fatal to the enterprise of international criminal justice. The authors’ analysis of the various critiques yields both normative arguments about the value of international criminal tribunals and suggestions about how the institutions can be improved. In advancing their normative claims and supporting their prescriptive suggestions, the authors draw on a deep well of philosophical and theoretical concepts, including legitimacy, fairness, effectiveness, and efficiency. The result is a book that not only canvases and addresses the broad array of critiques leveled at international criminal tribunals but adds significantly to the rather scant literature on the philosophical justifications for international criminal justice.
    • Branding (Health) Journalism: Perceptions, practices, and emerging norms

      Molyneux, Logan; Holton, Avery E.; 0000-0001-7382-3065 (2014-04-30)
      Observational studies of journalists on social media platforms suggest that journalists are beginning to develop personal brands using social media. Similar studies suggest that journalists covering specialty areas such as health are more likely to experiment with and adopt new forms of practice that break with the traditional tenets of journalism. Through interviews with such journalists, this study explores the perceptions, practices, and drivers of personal branding among journalists. Findings indicate journalists are squarely focused on branding at the individual level (rather than branding the organizations they work for). Journalists cite technological and cultural changes in the profession as giving rise to personal branding. They also describe the tension they feel between their obligation to uphold the traditional tenets of journalism and their perceived need to incorporate more branding into their practice, especially on social media platforms. The findings indicate that journalists may be changing the fundamental elements of branding in at least one way, exchanging the differentiation between themselves and their content for the mutual sharing and co-creation of content with their colleagues and audience.
    • Cellular mechanisms underlying neurological/neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID‐19

      Center for Metabolic Disease Research (Temple University) (2020-12-10)
      Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infection manifest mainly respiratory symptoms. However, clinical observations frequently identified neurological symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders related to COVID‐19 (Neuro‐SARS2). Accumulated robust evidence indicates that Neuro‐SARS2 may play an important role in aggravating the disease severity and mortality. Understanding the neuropathogenesis and cellular mechanisms underlying Neuro‐SARS2 is crucial for both basic research and clinical practice to establish effective strategies for early detection/diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. Although significant progress has been made in studying Neuro‐SARS2, much remains to be learned about the neuroinvasive routes (transneuronal and hematogenous) of the virus and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the development/progression of this disease. Future and ongoing studies require the establishment of more clinically relevant and suitable neural cell models using human induced pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids, and postmortem specimens.