• Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay

      Rosnow, Ralph L.; Fine, Gary Alan (1976)
      Presents findings from a sociological and psychological study of rumor, gossip, and hearsay, showing that the distribution patterns of these communication forms closely parallel characteristics and rules of economic exchange, and that the consumption of rumor and gossip corresponds to the consumption of goods and services. Recommendations and guidelines for rumor control centers based on World War II clinics are presented.
    • People Studying People: Artifacts and Ethics in Behavioral Research

      Rosenthal, Robert, 1933-; Rosnow, Ralph L. (1977)
      This is a lively and engaging look at the factors, known as `artifacts', that can confound behavioural experiments. By describing key research studies in a narrative style, Rosnow and Rosenthal address the issues of scientific method and clarify the difficulties that behavioural researchers will encounter. Their final chapter addresses ethical issues, again through narrative use of examples.
    • An Unusual Ring Contraction in the Formation of N‐Nitrosohexamethyleneimine and N‐Nitrosopiperidine from Tolazamide

      Eshraghi, Jamshid; Longo, John; Dalton, David R.; Harrington, George W. (1990-04)
      The previously reported reaction of tolazamide with nitrite, under physiological conditions, to form N‐nitrosohexamethyleneimine and surprisingly, N‐nitrosopiperidine was confirmed. By using the six‐membered ring analogue of tolazamide, 1‐(piperidyl)‐3‐(p‐tolylsulfonyl)urea, which yields the corresponding N‐nitrosopiperidine and N‐nitrosopyrrolidine, the present study shows that an unusual ring contraction occurs, excising the carbon alpha to the nitrogen.
    • Miasma, Mimesis, and Scapegoating in Euripides' "Hippolytus"

      Mitchell-Boyask, Robin (1991-04)
      Euripides, as Rene Girard observes of Shakespeare, "in the portrayal of certain characters seems to oscillate between two opposite, really incompatible poles. On the one hand he makes these characters quite distinctive, especially as 'villains'; on the other hand he shows these same characters behaving and thinking exactly like their antagonists."1 Thus in the Hippolytus, quite different characters come to act like their opponents in the course of the play's action. The young virgin Hippolytus comes to sound and act like the mature, sexually experienced Phaedra; Phaedra like Hippolytus; and Theseus like Hippolytus. Even Artemis resembles her opposite, Aphrodite, at the play's end. Furthermore, all characters seek eventually to revenge themselves reciprocally on one another, and in this reciprocity arises the play's disaster. I shall attempt to show how these two processes unfold in Euripides' Hippolytus.
    • Privatization of Public Enterprises in Latin America

      Porrata-Doria, Rafael A., Jr.; Wegen, Gerhard (1993)
    • On Seams and Seamlessness

      Alpert, Rebecca; 0000-0001-7536-9695 (1995)
      When Laura Levitt, my friend and colleague at Temple University, asked me to participate in this forum, my first response was a categorical no. Laura and I have talked about our different perspectives about postmodern approaches to Jewish feminism infrequently over the last several years. The conversations always end with us restating our differences, agreeing to disagree. Because my feelings are so strong about this subject, I was reluctant to have this conversation in public. Yet Laura persuaded me to consider participation, in full knowledge that this would be an airing of our differences, and I have taken the risk to do so. My contribution, a letter to Laura, is an effort to bring my love for her into the context of what is, for me, a passionate and acrimonious intellectual debate that has important implicationsfor the future ofJewish feminism.
    • Volume 12.1 Is Dedicated in Memory of John M. Lindsey, Professor Emeritus 1932-1998

      Rubin, Randi Lynne; Richardson, Henry J., II; Angel, Marina; Porrata-Doria, Rafael A., Jr.; Reinstein, Robert J. (1998)
    • Euripides' Hippolytus and the Trials of Manhood (The Ephebia?)

      Mitchell-Boyask, Robin (1999)
      This essay focuses on a particular aspect of Hippolytus' social nature in Euripides' drama, his status as an ephebe, and the relationship between Euripides' drama and the ephebia. My goal is to show how the drama engages certain Athenian social rituals as an integral part of its form and meaning. Through a close study of the play's language, we will find that the drama's text embodies and enacts these social structures as Hippolytus undergoes a passage to a manhood that he can only achieve in death. I pursue this inquiry in the light of recent work by Vidal-Naquet and Winkler on the ephebia and Greek drama, examining the social function of Euripides' drama, its evocation and imitation of specific Athenian social practices, and the way the text's language specifically negotiates these practices.
    • The adaptive evolution database (TAED).

      Liberles, DA; Schreiber, DR; Govindarajan, S; Chamberlin, SG; Benner, SA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2001-01-01)
      BACKGROUND: The Master Catalog is a collection of evolutionary families, including multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees and reconstructed ancestral sequences, for all protein-sequence modules encoded by genes in GenBank. It can therefore support large-scale genomic surveys, of which we present here The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). In TAED, potential examples of positive adaptation are identified by high values for the normalized ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (KA/KS values) on branches of an evolutionary tree between nodes representing reconstructed ancestral sequences. RESULTS: Evolutionary trees and reconstructed ancestral sequences were extracted from the Master Catalog for every subtree containing proteins from the Chordata only or the Embryophyta only. Branches with high KA/KS values were identified. These represent candidate episodes in the history of the protein family when the protein may have undergone positive selection, where the mutant form conferred more fitness than the ancestral form. Such episodes are frequently associated with change in function. An unexpectedly large number of families (between 10% and 20% of those families examined) were found to have at least one branch with high KA/KS values above arbitrarily chosen cut-offs (1 and 0.6). Most of these survived a robustness test and were collected into TAED. CONCLUSIONS: TAED is a raw resource for bioinformaticists interested in data mining and for experimental evolutionists seeking candidate examples of adaptive evolution for further experimental study. It can be expanded to include other evolutionary information (for example changes in gene regulation or splicing) placed in a phylogenetic perspective.
    • A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes

      Hedges, SB; Chen, H; Kumar, S; Wang, DYC; Thompson, AS; Watanabe, H; Kumar, Sudhir|0000-0002-9918-8212 (2001-09-12)
      Background: Genomic sequence analyses have shown that horizontal gene transfer occurred during the origin of eukaryotes as a consequence of symbiosis. However, details of the timing and number of symbiotic events are unclear. A timescale for the early evolution of eukaryotes would help to better understand the relationship between these biological events and changes in Earth's environment, such as the rise in oxygen. We used refined methods of sequence alignment, site selection, and time estimation to address these questions with protein sequences from complete genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Results: Eukaryotes were found to evolve faster than prokaryotes, with those eukaryotes derived from eubacteria evolving faster than those derived from archaebacteria. We found an early time of divergence (∼4 billion years ago, Ga) for archaebacteria and the archaebacterial genes in eukaryotes. Our analyses support at least two horizontal gene transfer events in the origin of eukaryotes, at 2.7 Ga and 1.8 Ga. Time estimates for the origin of cyanobacteria (2.6 Ga) and the divergence of an early-branching eukaryote that lacks mitochondria (Giardia) (2.2 Ga) fall between those two events. Conclusions: We find support for two symbiotic events in the origin of eukaryotes: one premitochondrial and a later mitochondrial event. The appearance of cyanobacteria immediately prior to the earliest undisputed evidence for the presence of oxygen (2.4-2.2 Ga) suggests that the innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis had a relatively rapid impact on the environment as it set the stage for further evolution of the eukaryotic cell. © 2001 Hedges et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Evolution enters the genomic era

      Liberles, DA; Liberles, David A|0000-0003-3487-8826 (2001-12-01)
      A report on the 18th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB), Aarhus, Denmark, 20-25 August, 2001.
    • The Protein Trinity: Structure/Function Relationships That Include Intrinsic Disorder

      Dunker, A Keith; Brown, Celeste J; Lawson, Celeste J David; Iakoucheva-Sebat, Lilia M; Vucetic, Slobodan; Obradovic, Zoran (2002)
    • Proteomics in alcohol research

      Anni, H; Israel, Y (2002-01-01)
      The proteome is the complete set of proteins in an organism. It is considerably larger and more complex than the genome - the collection of genes that encodes these proteins. Proteomics deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome under physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., after exposure to alcohol, which causes major changes in numerous proteins of different cell types). To map large proteomes such as the human proteome, proteins from discrete tissues, cells, cell components, or biological fluids are first separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and multidimensional liquid chromatography. Then, individual proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. The huge amount of data acquired using these techniques is analyzed and assembled by fast computers and bioinformatics tools. Using these methods, as well as other technological advances, alcohol researchers can gain a better understanding of how alcohol globally influences protein structure and function, protein-protein interactions, and protein networks. This knowledge ultimately will assist in the early diagnosis and prognosis of alcoholism and the discovery of new drug targets and medications for treatment.
    • The evolutionary position of nematodes

      Blair, JE; Ikeo, K; Gojobori, T; Blair Hedges, S (2002-04-08)
      Background: The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens). Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results: We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion: We conclude that insects (arthropods) are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms. © 2002 Blair et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.