The Faculty/ Researcher Works collection focuses on research, scholarship, and creative works, as well as materials that primarily reflect the intellectual environment of the Temple University campus.

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  • “Everyday Use”: My Sojourn at Parchman Farm

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1993-01)
  • Mrs. Wickham's "Dogs of Noted Americans"

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1993)
    Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham's preliminary research for "Dogs of Noted Americans" offers insight into the domestic lives of writers, historical figures, and other celebrities of the last half of the nineteenth century as well as into the ideology of pets in Victorian America.
  • The Vampire Motif in "Absalom, Absalom!"

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (1984-07-01)
  • Zephaniah Swift Spalding: Constance Woolson’s Cipher

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2011-07)
    This chapter argues that in a number of Woolson’s early Civil War poems and stories, her affection for Zeph Spalding gets displaced onto the Confederate brigadier general John Hunt Morgan. In this guise among others, Zeph haunts Woolson’s writing throughout her career: in Anne (1880), Woolson’s first novel, as Captain Ward Heathcote; and in Horace Chase (1894), Woolson’s last novel, as the eponymous Yankee businessman. Throughout, Zeph functions as a cipher that reveals Woolson’s understanding of the Civil War and its aftermath, the economic expansion that followed, and the imperialist zeitgeist of nineteenth-century America.
  • John Henryism, psychological labor, and control-value theory: Race, ethnicity, and situational coping for student success

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2022-10-20)
    This study explored the integration of John Henryism—defined as effortful, active coping in response to environmental stress—into control-value theory. Specifically, we were interested in how this process differed among identity groups. We used measures of John Henryism (JHAC-12), control-value theory, and momentary engagement (Record of Experience) on a school-based task. Results demonstrated the following: identifying as a first-generation college student predicted John Henryism; value significantly predicted cognitive engagement and positive emotion; and perceived control lowered negative emotions. Identifying as a first-generation college student corresponded to higher levels of John Henryism and control. Identifying as female led to a decrease in positive emotions, but an increase in value. Similarly, identifying as a Black student was associated with a decrease in control, but also a decrease in negative emotions. Indirect effects showed that identifying as a first-generation college student led to an increase in John Henryism followed by (1) an increase in value, (2) an increase in perceived control, or (3) an increase in value with attendant positive emotions. Findings indicate that John Henryism integrates into control-value theory and contributes to momentary engagement on a school-based task.
  • Coping with COVID-19: An explor VID-19: An exploratory mixed-methods inv ed-methods investigation of the estigation of the impact of John Henryism on urban college students’ engagement in schoolwork

    Institute on Disabilities (Temple University) (2022-07-05)
    The current study examined how COVID-19 impacted urban college students’ engagement in their schoolwork and whether John Henryism mediated the relationship among demographic variables and engagement. Results demonstrated that John Henryism is a significant predictor of all three engagement outcomes (absorption, dedication, and vigor) and mediated the relationship between historically underrepresented students (Black and Latinx) and their vigor for engaging in schoolwork. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual challenges. This study adds another dimension to the coping strategies urban college students are using to stay engaged in their schoolwork during the pandemic.
  • Toxic metals and pediatric clinical immune dysfunction: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence

    Oktapodas Feiler, Marina; Kulick, Erin; Sinclair, Krystin Sinclair; Spiegel, Nitzana; Habel, Sonia; Given Castello, Olivia; Oktapodas Feiler|0000-0002-2315-9589; Given Castello|0000-0002-2721-9809; Kulick|0000-0001-8650-5357 (2024-04-11)
    Background: Children are at high risk for exposure to toxic metals and are vulnerable to their effects. Significant research has been conducted evaluating the role of these metals on immune dysfunction, characterized by biologic and clinical outcomes. However, there are inconsistencies in these studies. The objective of the present review is to critically evaluate the existing literature on the association between toxic metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium) and pediatric immune dysfunction. Methods: Seven databases (PubMed (NLM), Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (Ebsco), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), ProQuest Public Health Database, and ProQuest Environmental Science Collection) were searched following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in February 2024. Rayaan software identified duplicates and screened by title and abstract in a blinded and independent review process. The remaining full texts were reviewed for content and summarized. Exclusions during the title, abstract, and full-text reviews included: 1) not original research, 2) not epidemiology, 3) did not include toxic metals, 4) did not examine an immune health outcome, or 5) not pediatric (>18 years). This systematic review protocol followed the PRISMA guidelines. Rayaan was used to screen records using title and abstract by two blinded and independent reviewers. This process was repeated for full-text article screening selection. Results: The search criteria produced 7906 search results; 2456 duplicate articles were removed across search engines. In the final review, 79 studies were included which evaluated the association between toxic metals and outcomes indicative of pediatric immune dysregulation. Conclusions: The existing literature suggests an association between toxic metals and pediatric immune dysregulation. Given the imminent threat of infectious diseases demonstrated by the recent COVID-19 epidemic in addition to increases in allergic disease, understanding how ubiquitous exposure to these metals in early life can impact immune response, infection risk, and vaccine response is imperative.
  • Tweeting Conventions: Political journalists' use of Twitter to cover the 2012 presidential campaign

    Lawrence, Regina G.; Molyneux, Logan; Coddington, Mark; Holton, Avery; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2013-09-20)
    This study explores the use of Twitter by political reporters and commentators—an understudied population within the rapidly growing literature on digital journalism—covering the 2012 Republican and Democratic conventions. In particular, we want to know if and how the “affordances” of Twitter are shaping the traditional norms and routines of US campaign reporting surrounding objectivity, transparency, gatekeeping, and horse race coverage, and whether Twitter is bursting the “bubble” of insider talk among reporters and the campaigns they cover. A sample derived from all tweets by over 400 political journalists reveals a significant amount of opinion expression in reporters' tweets, but little use of Twitter in ways that improve transparency or disrupt journalists' (and campaigns') role as gatekeepers of campaign news. Overall, particularly when looking at what political journalists retweet and what they link to via Twitter, the campaign “bubble” seems at the moment to have remained largely intact.
  • US Political Journalists' Use of Twitter Lessons from 2012 and a Look Ahead

    Molyneux, Logan; Mourão, Rachel R.; Coddington, Mark; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2016-09-15)
  • From Thinking to Doing: Effects of Different Social Norms on Ethical Behavior in Journalism

    Lee, Angela M.; Coleman, Renita; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2016-05-02)
    Journalists have been shown to be highly capable of making good moral decisions, but they do not always act as ethically as studies show them to be able. Using the Reasoned Action Model, this study explores the gap between moral motivation and moral behavior and tests the proposition that different social norms can help predict how journalists behave across three ethical and three unethical behaviors (N=374). The study found that descriptive norms predicted ethical behaviors and that injunctive norms predicted unethical behaviors. Descriptive norms also accounted for more variance in journalists’ ethical behavior (48%) than injunctive norms did on unethical behavior (28%). The findings advance the Four-Component Model in significantly improving moral behavior predictability and offer a new way to assess journalists’ moral reasoning.
  • Making Sources Visible: Representation of Evidence in News Texts, 2007–2019

    Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2021-07-05)
    Journalistic work is shifting toward more aggregative and intertextual forms, using published sources more often within their news routines and stories. This study examines that shift through the lens of evidence. It applies the concepts of evidentiary distance and ancillary evidence — that is, evidence about evidence — to news texts to explore their originality and transparency, and it approaches those texts as central sites in which journalists outline the basis for their knowledge claims and make the case for their epistemic authority. A content analysis of news texts from newspapers and digital newsrooms in 2007, 2013, and 2019 shows firsthand evidence is rarely presented. Non-mediated attributed speech is by far the evidence most often presented, but it has become less common over time, with corresponding increases in mediated speech and thirdhand evidence. Ancillary evidence describing evidentiary sources or evidence-gathering processes is also fairly rare. Results suggest that evidence in news stories is becoming intertextual but remains rather opaque, with digital and legacy news organizations becoming more similar over time.
  • How Newsroom Social Media Policies Can Improve Journalists' Well-Being

    Molyneux, Logan; Nelson, Jacob L.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-11-13)
    This chapter draws on a discourse analysis of newsroom social media policies, and in-depth interviews with journalists focused on their reactions to the social media policies within the newsrooms in which they have worked, and their recommendations for how those policies should be improved.
  • When Sources Contradict: The Epistemological Functions of Contradiction in News Texts

    Coddington, Mark; Molyneux, Logan; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-05-17)
    Contradiction is a defining characteristic of contemporary journalism, despite the risks it carries of raising uncertainty among audiences. Scholars and observers alike have called for journalists to embrace an epistemological stance rooted in adjudication of competing claims, but studies suggest journalists can only rarely perform this service. What, then, is the epistemological role of contradictions in journalism? This study employs quantitative and qualitative analysis of news texts over a 12-year span to explore tensions in journalistic norms that shape the presentation of contradictions. Findings suggest contradictions are infrequently presented in news texts and are usually between sources on equal footing. In the rare cases journalists themselves contradict their sources, these contradictions are neither explicit nor forceful. Many contradictions revolve around questions of interpretation.
  • “Let’s Not Tank the Reputation of This Organization.” How Newsroom Social Media Policies Exacerbate Journalism’s Labor Crisis

    Molyneux, Logan; Nelson, Jacob L.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2023-09-27)
    This study explores the tension between journalists’ personal social media accounts and newsroom social media policies to understand how newsroom managers exacerbate journalism’s labor crisis by de-professionalizing the field through restrictive policies. To analyze this tension, we conduct a critical discourse analysis of (1) managerial discourses collected from newsroom social media policies and scholarly literature and (2) journalistic discourses collected from in-depth interviews with 37 U.S. journalists. We find that newsroom social media policies require journalists to make four sacrifices in service of their organization’s reputation: individuality, opinion, voice, and privacy. This leaves journalists feeling frustrated by their lack of agency when it comes to engaging with the public and pursuing social media success. We conclude that this conflict contributes to journalism’s human resources crisis by limiting journalistic professionalism and autonomy, both of which are crucial for job satisfaction and journalism’s democratic mission.
  • Legitimating a platform: evidence of journalists’ role in transferring authority to Twitter

    Molyneux, Logan; McGregor, Shannon C.; Molyneux|0000-0001-7382-3065 (2021-01-31)
    Studies suggest a growing interdependence between journalists and Twitter. What is behind this interdependence, and how does it manifest in news texts? We argue that social media platforms (and Twitter in particular) have situated themselves as purveyors of legitimated content, a projection that journalists have not fully challenged and at times abetted. Instead, journalists rely on these platforms both for access to powerful users and as conduits to surface the words of ‘ordinary people.’ This practice treats tweets more like content, an interchangeable building block of news, than like sources, whose ideas and messages must be verified. Using a corpus of U.S. news stories with tweets in them, we provide empirical evidence for our argument of the power of platforms to legitimate speech and shape journalism. This study illuminates journalists’ role in transferring some of the press’s authority to Twitter, thereby shaping the participants in and content of public deliberation.
  • Café Del Cerro: Miles de voces dirán que no fue en vano

    Morris, Nancy; Morris|0000-0001-5106-9268 (2022-12-30)
  • Development of a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) for Chinese Americans: A Formative Evaluation Approach

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2022-12-29)
    Increasing evidence demonstrates that an online Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) can delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, little has been done for Chinese Americans. This study, using Community-Based Participatory Research and Intervention Mapping approaches, describes a formative research process in the development of a culturally and linguistically tailored online DPP program among Chinese Americans with prediabetes living in New York City. Using a triangulation approach, data were collected to inform the development of an online DPP curriculum through (1) a literature review, (2) three focus groups (n = 24), and (3) a community advisory board meeting among 10 key informants knowledgeable in community needs, diabetes care, and lifestyle interventions. Participants indicated online DPPs would be very useful and easily accessible. However, key barriers including low computer skills/literacy and technology self-efficacy were identified. In addition, taking meal photos and tracking pedometer steps daily were found to be acceptable self-motoring tools for sustaining a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, the integration of features such as text message reminders and the creation of social support groups into the online DPP curriculum was proposed to minimize attrition. This theory-based formative research to develop a culturally and linguistically appropriate web-based DPP curriculum was well-received by Chinese Americans and warrants testing in future intervention studies.
  • Cardiac strain is lower among women with HIV in relation to monocyte activation

    Center for Neurovirology and Gene Editing (Temple University) (2022-12-30)
    Background: Women with HIV (WWH) face heightened risks of heart failure; however, insights on immune/inflammatory pathways potentially contributing to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction among WWH remain limited. Setting: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a sensitive measure of LV systolic function, with lower cardiac strain predicting incident heart failure and adverse heart failure outcomes. We analyzed relationships between GLS (cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging) and monocyte activation (flow cytometry) among 20 WWH and 14 women without HIV. Results: WWH had lower GLS compared to women without HIV (WWH vs. women without HIV: 19.4±3.0 vs. 23.1±1.9%, P<0.0001). Among the whole group, HIV status was an independent predictor of lower GLS. Among WWH (but not among women without HIV), lower GLS related to a higher density of expression of HLA-DR on the surface of CD14+CD16+ monocytes (ρ = -0.45, P = 0.0475). Further, among WWH, inflammatory monocyte activation predicted lower GLS, even after controlling for CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load. Conclusions: Additional studies among WWH are needed to examine the role of inflammatory monocyte activation in the pathogenesis of lower GLS and to determine whether targeting this immune pathway may mitigate risks of heart failure and/or adverse heart failure outcomes. Trial registration: Clinical trials.gov registration: NCT02874703.

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