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The Faculty/ Researcher Works collection focuses on research, scholarship, and creative works, as well as materials that primarily reflect the intellectual environment of the Temple University campus.

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  • The IGF-II–Insulin Receptor Isoform-A Autocrine Signal in Cancer: Actionable Perspectives

    Center for Biotechnology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2020-02-05)
    Insulin receptor overexpression is a common event in human cancer. Its overexpression is associated with a relative increase in the expression of its isoform A (IRA), a shorter variant lacking 11 aa in the extracellular domain, conferring high affinity for the binding of IGF-II along with added intracellular signaling specificity for this ligand. Since IGF-II is secreted by the vast majority of malignant solid cancers, where it establishes autocrine stimuli, the co-expression of IGF-II and IRA in cancer provides specific advantages such as apoptosis escape, growth, and proliferation to those cancers bearing such a co-expression pattern. However, little is known about the exact role of this autocrine ligand–receptor system in sustaining cancer malignant features such as angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. The recent finding that the overexpression of angiogenic receptor kinase EphB4 along with VEGF-A is tightly dependent on the IGF-II/IRA autocrine system independently of IGFIR provided new perspectives for all malignant IGF2omas (those aggressive solid cancers secreting IGF-II). The present review provides an updated view of the IGF system in cancer, focusing on the biology of the autocrine IGF-II/IRA ligand–receptor axis and supporting its underscored role as a malignant-switch checkpoint target.
  • Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Diagnostic Challenge Using a Multimodal Approach

    Nakrani, Rima; Yeung, Ho-Man; Kim, Jin Sun; Kamat, Bhishak; Kumaran, Maruti; 0000-0002-7188-9738 (2020-10-05)
    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma (PAIS) is a rare tumor without clear syndromic presentation other than nonspecific symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and weight loss. This diagnosis is difficult due to challenging radiographic interpretations of multiple imaging modalities. We present a case of a 60-year-old male, who presented to his pulmonologist and underwent a CT chest with IV contrast that initially suggested primary lung carcinoma. CT angiogram showed significant vascular filling defects suspicious of an intravascular mass, rather than vascular invasion by lung lesions. The PET/CT scans further suggested a malignant process, but indistinguishable between an extravascular or intravascular etiology. Taking these results together, they suggested an intravascular malignancy, prompting a tissue biopsy, which ultimately led to a diagnosis of PAIS with metastases. Establishing a definitive diagnosis is essential as treatment and prognosis are different for sarcoma compared to carcinoma. There is no standard treatment to date, and management often includes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. PAIS is a rare entity that cannot be diagnosed clinically and needs a multimodality approach for its diagnosis.
  • Case series: Failure of imaging & biochemical markers to capture disease progression in COVID-19

    Dorey-Stein, Zachariah L.; Myers, Catherine; Kumaran, Maruti; Mamary, Albert; Criner, Gerard J.; 0000-0002-3761-153X; 0000-0002-0909-5048 (2020-09-19)
    We report four individuals admitted for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who demonstrated significant clinical improvement prior to discharge and subsequently were readmitted with worsening respiratory failure, elevated inflammatory markers and worsening chest imaging. We propose a multi-disciplinary discharge criterion to establish a safer discharge process including trending inflammatory markers, daily imaging and pursuing follow up CT chest, particularly in individuals with significant morbidities and health disparities.
  • Obesity is associated with reduced orbitofrontal cortex volume: A coordinate-based meta-analysis

    Chen, Eunice; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Giovannetti, Tania; Smith, David; 0000-0002-9288-7133; 0000-0001-5661-152X; 0000-0001-5754-9633 (2020-09-09)
    Neural models of obesity vary in their focus upon prefrontal and striatal differences. Animal and human studies suggest that differential functioning of the orbitofrontal cortex is associated with obesity. However, meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging studies have not found a clear relationship between the orbitofrontal cortex and obesity. Meta-analyses of structural imaging studies of obesity have shown mixed findings with regards to an association with reduced orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume. To clarify these findings, we conducted a meta-analysis of 25 voxel-based morphometry studies, and found that greater body mass index is associated with decreased gray matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmanns’ areas 10 and 11), where family-wise corrected p < .05, N = 7,612. Use of the right orbitofrontal cortex as a seed in a Neurosynth Network Coactivation analysis showed that this region is associated with activity in the left frontal medial cortex, left temporal lobe, right precuneus cortex, posterior division of the left middle temporal gyrus, and right frontal pole. When Neurosynth Network Coactivation results were submitted as regions of interest in the Human Connectome Project data, we found that greater body mass index was associated with greater activity in left frontal medial cortex response to the Gambling Task, where p < .05, although this did not survive Bonferroni-correction. Our findings highlight the importance of the orbitofrontal cortex structure and functioning in neural models of obesity. Exploratory analyses suggest more studies are needed that examine the functional significance of reduced orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume in obesity, and the effect of age and weight changes on this relationship using longitudinal designs.
  • Retrospective analysis of high flow nasal therapy in COVID-19-related moderate-to-severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure

    Patel, Maulin; Gangemi, Andrew; Marron, Robert; Chowdhury, Junad; Yousef, Ibraheem; Zheng, Matthew; Mills, Nicole; Tragesser, Lauren; Giurintano, Julie; Gupta, Rohit; Gordon, Matthew; Rali, Parth; D'Alonso, Gilbert; Fleece, David; Zhao, Huaqing; Patlakh, Nicole; Criner, Gerard; 0000-0001-6558-1924; 0000-0002-8764-6538; 0000-0003-2775-2918; 0000-0002-0953-4768| (2020-08-26)
    Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group.
  • Meta-analysis of reward processing in major depressive disorder reveals distinct abnormalities within the reward circuit

    Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Alloy, Lauren B.; Smith, David; 0000-0003-4402-0081; 0000-0001-5754-9633 (2019-11-11)
    Many neuroimaging studies have investigated reward processing dysfunction in major depressive disorder. These studies have led to the common idea that major depressive disorder is associated with blunted responses within the reward circuit, particularly in the ventral striatum. Yet, the link between major depressive disorder and reward-related responses in other regions remains inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. To address this issue, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 41 whole-brain neuroimaging studies encompassing reward-related responses from a total of 794 patients with major depressive disorder and 803 healthy controls. Our findings argue against the common idea that major depressive disorder is primarily linked to deficits within the reward system. Instead, our results demonstrate that major depressive disorder is associated with opposing abnormalities in the reward circuit: hypo-responses in the ventral striatum and hyper-responses in the orbitofrontal cortex. The current findings suggest that dysregulated corticostriatal connectivity may underlie reward-processing abnormalities in major depressive disorder, providing an empirical foundation for a more refined understanding of abnormalities in the reward circuitry in major depressive disorder.
  • Case Report: Watching and Waiting? A Case of Incomplete Glenosphere Seating With Spontaneous Reversal in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    MacAskill, Micah L.; Thomas, Rachel; Barnes, Leslie A.; 0000-0001-9274-1751 (2020-08-27)
    Introduction: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty is a useful procedure with broadening applications, but it has the best outcomes when used for rotator cuff tear arthropathy. However, this procedure is not without complications. While scapular notching and aseptic loosening are more common complications that have been extensively studied in the literature, dissociation of the glenoid component and incomplete glenosphere seating has not received much attention. Specifically, little research has explored appropriate management of incomplete seating of the glenosphere component, and no gold standard for treatment of this complication has emerged. Methods: In the case described here, an elderly patient with an incompletely seated glenosphere component post-operatively opted to pursue conservative management in order to avoid revision surgery if possible. Results: The partially engaged, superiorly directed components in this case exhibited spontaneous complete and symmetric seating of the glenosphere between six and twelve months post-operatively, indicating that conservative management of this complication in low-demand patients may be a viable option to avoid the risks associated with revision surgery. Conclusion: Further research should be pursued to explore what patient and prosthesis design factors may be suited to observation with serial radiographs when incomplete seating of the glenosphere component occurs.
  • Effects of Revegetation on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Solar Photovoltaic Infrastructure

    Choi, Chong Seok; Cagle, Alexander E.; Macknick, Jordan; Bloom, Dellena E.; Caplan, Joshua; Ravi, Sujith; 0000-0002-6860-2038; 0000-0003-4624-2956; 0000-0002-0425-9373 (2020-08-11)
    Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is being deployed at an unprecedented rate. However, utility-scale solar energy development is land intensive and its large-scale installation can have negative impacts on the environment. In particular, solar energy infrastructure can require extensive landscape modification that transforms soil ecological functions, thereby impacting hydrologic, vegetative, and carbon dynamics. However, reintroducing native vegetation to solar PV sites may be a means of restoring their soils. To this end, we investigated critical soil physical and chemical parameters at a revegetated photovoltaic array and an adjacent reference grassland in Colorado, United States. Seven years after revegetation, we found that carbon and nitrogen remained lower in the PV soil than in the reference soil and contained a greater fraction of coarse particles. We also found that the PV modules introduced heterogeneity in the soil moisture distribution, with precipitation accumulating along the lower edges of panels. The redistribution of soil moisture by panel arrays could potentially be used in concert with planting strategies to maximize plant growth or minimize soil erosion, and should be considered when evaluating the potential to co-locate vegetation with solar infrastructure.
  • From leads to leadless: A convoluted journey

    Dulam, Vipin; Cooper, Joshua M.; Gangireddy, Chethan; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Keshavamurthy, Suresh; 0000-0002-5578-1911 (2020-07-21)
  • Synthesis and catalytic performance of polydopamine supported metal nanoparticles

    Li, Haoqi; Xi, Jiaxin; Donaghue, Adrienne G.; Keum, Jong; Zhao, Yao; An, Ke; McKenzie, Erica; Ren, Fei; 0000-0002-9943-329X; 0000-0001-8997-9670; 0000-0003-1982-2533; 0000-0002-8868-4536 (2020-06-26)
    Polydopamine (PDA) is an emerging nature-inspired biopolymer material that possesses many interesting properties including self-assembly and universal adhesion. PDA is also able to form coordination bonds with various metal ions, which can be reduced to metal nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of thermal annealing under protective environment. In this study, PDA has been utilized as a support material to synthesize Pt NPs in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The catalytic performance of the resulting PDA-Pt nanocomposite was evaluated using an electrochemical workstation which showed comparable activity to Pt/C material for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Furthermore, Cu, Ni, and Cu–Ni NPs supported on PDA were also obtained using this strategy with assistance of subsequent thermal annealing. The phase evolution of the NPs was studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction while the morphology of the nanoparticles was investigated using electron microscopic techniques. Preliminary results showed the NPs supported on PDA also possessed HER activity. This work demonstrates that PDA can be utilized as a potential support for synthesis of metal NPs that can be exploited in engineering applications such as catalysts.
  • Ultrasound-guided Hydro-dissection Facilitates Tissue Expander Placement and Components Separation in Complex Ventral Hernia Repair

    Maroney, Jenna; Taylor, George; Lo, Alexis; Golpanian, Samuel; Prus, Nelson W.; Livelsberger, Jon; Gassman, Andrew A.; 0000-0001-7382-1932 (2020-09-23)
    Summary: Tissue expanders are known adjuncts in ventral hernia repair, used in a staged approach where tissue closure or coverage of the defect is preferred but inadequate. Placement of tissue expanders in the correct tissue plane can be difficult, especially in thin patients or with loss of domain. This case series describes a technique in which tissue expander placement is facilitated by ultrasound-guided hydro-dissection, following the placement of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. In short, after induction of anesthesia, the same needle used for the ultrasound-guided TAP block can be repositioned by the anesthesiologist to instill tumescent solution into the fascial plane between the internal and external oblique muscles. This allows for identification of the fascial planes in the ensuing operation. Our technique may prove to be an alternative tool in the placement of tissue expanders for ventral hernia repair, or in other procedures requiring device placement.
  • Responses to affect subtypes differentially associate with anxious and depressive symptom severity

    Mennies, Rebekah J.; Birk, Samantha L.; Case, Julia; Olino, Thomas; 0000-0002-1964-8523; 0000-0001-5139-8571 (2020-07-02)
    Responses to affect include cognitive processes (i.e., perseverative vs. non-perseverative) and valence (i.e., modulation of positive vs. negative affect). However, little research has examined how the factor structure of responses to affect is defined along one or both of these dimensions. The present study conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of items from assessments of repetitive negative thinking, rumination on positive affect (PA), and dampening. We also examined the associations between emergent factors and measures of depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and non-social state anxiety. EFA results suggested a three-factor model of repetitive negative thinking, dampening, and rumination on PA. There was a significant association between repetitive negative thinking and dampening factors, but not between other factors. Repetitive negative thinking and dampening were associated with greater internalizing symptoms, whereas rumination on PA was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms. These findings clarify the structure of these responses to affect and their differential associations with symptoms, which may be used to tailor cognitive interventions for anxiety and/or depression.
  • A Rare Case of Primary Anorectal Melanoma and a Review of the Current Landscape of Therapy

    Yeung, Ho-Man; Gupta, Brinda; Kamat, Bhishak; 0000-0002-7188-9738 (2020-08-02)
    Introduction: Anorectal mucosal melanoma (ARMM) is an uncommon and highly aggressive malignancy. Given its rarity, there is insufficient evidence on the optimal medical management which presents as a clinical challenge to its diagnosis and treatment. Treatment of ARMM typically involves a multimodal approach including surgical resection, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy. Case Presentation: Here, we present a case of a 78-year-old female who presented with a four-month history of rectal bleeding and bowel incontinence. Ultimately, colonoscopy revealed a mass at the anal verge, and biopsy of the mass showed malignant cells that stained positive for S100, Melan-A and HMB-45, consistent with the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Molecular testing revealed no BRAF, KIT or NRAS gene mutations. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry showed tumor proportion score of 1%. She underwent abdominoperineal resection with a plan to initiate immunotherapy with an anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor. This case highlights a rare aggressive malignancy and reviews its treatment option, which are mostly extrapolated from its cutaneous counterpart and some derived from a few case reports. Due to its rarity, there is no consensus guideline for the treatment of ARMM.
  • Improving thermal conduction across cathode/electrolyte interfaces in solid-state lithium-ion batteries by hierarchical hydrogen-bond network

    He, Jinlong; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Ling (2020-09)
    Effective thermal management is an important issue to ensure safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries. Fast heat removal is highly desired but has been obstructed by the high thermal resistance across cathode/electrolyte interface. In this study, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used as the vibrational mediator to tune interfacial thermal conductance between an electrode, lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), and a solid state electrolyte, polyethylene oxide (PEO). Embedded at the LCO/PEO interface, SAMs are specially designed to form hierarchical hydrogen-bond (H-bond) network with PEO. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that all SAM-decorated interfaces show enhanced thermal conductance and dominated by H-bonds types. The incorporation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) SAM drastically enhances interfacial thermal conductance by approximately 211.69%, largely due to the formation of a strong H-bond, -COOH···:O, between PAA and PEO. Even with weaker H-bonds such as -OH···:O, it still outperforms the pristine interface as well as interfaces decorated with non-H-bonded SAMs, e.g. PE. Such improvement is attributed to the unique hierarchical H-bond network at the interface, which removes discontinuities in temperature field, straighten SAM chains, make materials strongly adhere, and couple the vibrational modes of materials. The study is expected to guide surface engineering for more effective thermal management in lithium-ion batteries.
  • New DEEL Community Podcast: Episode 1

    New Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership (DEEL) Community (Temple University) (2020-07-20)
  • Bayesian analysis in educational psychology research: An example of gender differences in achievement goals

    Peterson, Steven K.; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2016-01-23)
    Much research in educational psychology concerns group differences. In this study, we argue that Bayesian estimation is more appropriate for testing group differences than is the traditional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). We demonstrate the use of Bayesian estimation on gender differences in students' achievement goals. Research findings on gender differences in achievement goals have been mixed. We explain how Bayesian estimation of mean differences is more intuitive, informative, and coherent in comparison with NHST, how it overcomes structural and interpretive problems of NHST, and how it offers a way to achieve cumulative progress toward increasing precision in estimating gender differences in achievement goals. We provide an empirical demonstration by comparing a Bayesian and a traditional NHST analysis of gender differences in achievement goals among 442 7th-grade students (223 girls and 219 boys). Whereas findings from the two analyses indicate comparable results of higher endorsement of mastery goals among girls and higher endorsement of performance-approach and avoidance goals among boys, it is the Bayesian analysis rather than the NHST that is more intuitively interpreted. We conclude by discussing the perceived disadvantages of Bayesian estimation, and some ways in which a consideration of Bayesian probability can aid interpretations of traditional analytical methods.
  • The Emergence of Outreach Ambassador Role Identities in Undergraduate Engineering Students

    Garner, Joanna K.; Haas, Christine; Alley, Michael; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2018-12-17)
    One common form of outreach by colleges of engineering is the ambassador program, whereby students interact with middle and high school audiences in an effort to promote STEM-related career choices. Although the impact of such programs on K-12 students’ knowledge and attitudes has been examined, less is known about the impact on the ambassadors themselves. In this research study, we use multiple case study methodology to understand the development of the ambassador role and its emergence at an initial workshop in which undergraduate students learn to craft and deliver engineering-related outreach talks. Narrative data from interviews with a purposefully diverse sample of six participants allowed us to analyze emerging ambassador role identities using the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (Kaplan and Garner, 2017). Findings address three questions: (1) How do individuals’ existing role identities inform the motivation to become an ambassador? (2) How did the role of workshop participant shape the development of the ambassador role? (3) Which features of the training workshop promoted the formulation of an engineering ambassador role identity? Analyses revealed that the ambassador role identity originates from and was very much aligned with components of students’ other, pre-existing role identities. Also evident was a bridging sub-role of presenter, which was anchored in the action possibility of high quality technical communication. Theoretical and practical considerations for preparing undergraduate engineering students to take on an ambassador role are considered.
  • A complex dynamic systems perspective on identity and its development: The dynamic systems model of role identity

    Kaplan, Avi; Garner, Joanna K.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2017)
    Current prominent models of identity face challenges in bridging across divergent perspectives and apparent dichotomies such as personal or social-collective, conscious or unconscious, and epigenetic or discursive-relational, and affording pursuit of research questions that allows integrative answers. This article presents a coherent theoretical perspective on the integrative nature of identity and its developmental mechanisms. Adopting the contextual social role as a primary unit of analysis, the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI) conceptualizes role identity as a Complex Dynamic System (CDS) anchored in action that comprises the actor’s ontological and epistemological beliefs, purpose and goals, self-perceptions and self-definitions, and perceived action possibilities in the role. These system components are conceptualized as interdependent, and identity development is viewed as emergent, continuous, nonlinear, contextualized, and given to influences from within and without the system. The role identity itself constitutes an element within a multilevel hierarchy, which at the unit of analysis of the individual reflects a CDS of the multiple roles that constitute the person’s psychosocial identity. Identity development involves the formation and restructuring of relations within and among role identities through intra- and interpersonal processes that are mediated by sociocognitive and cultural means, and framed by the context as well as by implicit dispositions. The DSMRI provides a framework to conceptualize and investigate the nature of the identity system, its development, and the relationship between identity development and psychological functioning at different units of-analysis, across different developmental stages and contexts, and using quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
  • Concept Mapping as a Mechanism for Assessing Science Teachers’ Cross-Disciplinary Field-Based Learning

    Garner, Joanna K.; Kaplan, Avi; Hathcock, Stephanie; Bergey, Bradley W.; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2019-07-11)
    Two common goals of science teacher professional development (PD) are increased content knowledge (CK) and improved readiness to teach through inquiry. However, PD assessment challenges arise when the context is structured around inquiry-based, participant-driven learning, and when the content crosses scientific disciplines. This study extended the use of concept mapping as an assessment tool for examining changes in the content knowledge of 21 high school science teachers who participated in a field-based environmental science summer institute. The scoring rubric focused on documenting concepts, links, and map organization and scope in an attempt to capture development of cross-disciplinary knowledge in ways that correspond with theories of expertise development. The analysis revealed significant gains from pre-PD to post PD maps in the sophistication of links between concepts and in the number of additional, participant-generated scientifically valid concepts. Relative to the initial maps, post PD maps also manifested more complete clustering of concepts. Findings are discussed in reference to previous studies on teachers’ learning and implications for future research using concept mapping as a means of assessing teacher PD.
  • The conceptualization of costs and barriers of a teaching career among Latino preservice teachers

    Bergey, Bradley W.; Ranellucci, John; Kaplan, Avi; 0000-0002-2898-0085 (2019-07-16)
    We investigated the perceived costs and barriers of a teaching career among Latino preservice teachers and how these men conceptualized costs relative to their race-ethnic identity, gender identity, and planned persistence in the profession from an expectancy-value perspective. We used a mixed-method approach that included a content analysis of open-ended survey responses to identify salient costs and barriers and non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) of participants’ responses to quantitative scales to capture phenomenological meaning of perceived costs, collective identity constructs, and planned persistence in the profession. Participants identified a range of drawbacks and barriers of a teaching career including concerns about job demands, work conditions, teacher preparation demands, emotional costs, social status, and salary, among other concerns. The MDS map for the whole sample suggested race-ethnic and gender identity were closely associated with status, salary, and morale; maps also provided insight into phenomenological meanings of different types of costs and cost measures. MDS maps for individual students demonstrated substantial diversity in individual meanings that are lost in group-level analyses. Results are discussed with attention to theoretical and practical implications for understanding and supporting men of color entering the teaching profession.

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