The Faculty/ Researcher Works collection focuses on research, scholarship, and creative works, as well as materials that primarily reflect the intellectual environment of the Temple University campus.

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  • Invadopodia enable cooperative invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells

    Fox Chase Cancer Center (2022-08-01)
    Invasive and non-invasive cancer cells can invade together during cooperative invasion. However, the events leading to it, role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the consequences this may have on metastasis are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the isogenic 4T1 and 67NR breast cancer cells sort from each other in 3D spheroids, followed by cooperative invasion. By time-lapse microscopy, we show that the invasive 4T1 cells move more persistently compared to non-invasive 67NR, sorting and accumulating at the spheroid-matrix interface, a process dependent on cell-matrix adhesions and independent from E-cadherin cell-cell adhesions. Elimination of invadopodia in 4T1 cells blocks invasion, demonstrating that invadopodia requirement is limited to leader cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that cells with and without invadopodia can also engage in cooperative metastasis in preclinical mouse models. Altogether, our results suggest that a small number of cells with invadopodia can drive the metastasis of heterogeneous cell clusters.
  • Children show adult-like hippocampal pattern similarity for familiar but not novel events

    Benear, Susan; Horwath, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, Emily; Camacho, M. Catalina; Ngo, Chi T.; Newcombe, Nora; Olson, Ingrid; Perlman, Susan B.; Murty, Vishnu; Benear|0000-0001-7448-9230; Cowan|0000-0002-9956-0475; Newcombe|0000-0002-7044-6046; Olson|0000-0001-8947-6432; Murty|0000-0002-1360-3156 (2022-06-29)
    The ability to detect differences among similar events in our lives is a crucial aspect of successful episodic memory performance, which develops across early childhood. The neural substrate of this ability is supported by operations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Here, we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) to measure neural pattern similarity in hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex for 4- to 10-year-old children and adults during naturalistic viewing of clips from the same compared to different movies. Further, we assessed the role of prior exposure to individual movie clips on pattern similarity in the MTL. In both age groups, neural pattern similarity in hippocampus was lower for clips drawn from the same movies compared to those drawn from different movies, suggesting that related content activates processes focused on keeping representations with shared content distinct. However, children showed this only for movies with which they had prior exposures, whereas adults showed the effect regardless of any prior exposures to the movies. These findings suggest that children require repeated exposure to stimuli to show adult-like MTL functioning in distinguishing among similar events.
  • Understanding relational binding in early childhood: Interacting effects of overlap and delay

    Benear, Susan; Ngo, Chi T.; Olson, Ingrid; Newcombe, Nora; Benear|0000-0001-7448-9230; Olson|0000-0001-8947-6432; Newcombe|0000-0002-7044-6046 (2021-04-22)
    Episodic memories typically share overlapping elements in distinctive combinations, and to be valuable for future behavior they need to withstand delays. There is relatively little work on whether children have special difficulty with overlap or withstanding delay. However, Yim, Dennis, and Sloutsky (Psychological Science, 2013, Vol. 24, pp. 2163–2172) suggested that extensive overlap is more problematic for younger children, and Darby and Sloutsky (Psychological Science, 2015, Vol. 26, pp. 1937–1946) reported that a 48-h delay period actually improves children’s memory for overlapping pairs of items. In the current study, we asked how children’s episodic memory is affected by stimulus overlap, delay, and age using visual stimuli containing either overlapping or unique item pairs. Children aged 4 and 6 years were tested both immediately and after a 24-h delay. As expected, older children performed better than younger children, and both age groups performed worse on overlapping pairs. Surprisingly, the 24-h delay had only a marginal effect on overall accuracy. Although there were no interactions, when errors were examined, there was evidence that delay buffered memory for overlapping pairs against cross-contextual confusion for younger children.
  • Positive risk-taking: Mixed-methods validation of a self-report scale and evidence for genetic links to personality and negative risk-taking

    Patterson, Megan W.; Pivnick, Lilla; Mann, Frank D.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige (2019-10-31)
    Adolescents are more likely to take risks. Typically, research on adolescent risk-taking has focused on its negative health and societal consequences. However, some risk-taking behaviors might be positive, defined here as behavior that does not violate the rights of others and that might advance socially-valuable goals. Empirical work on positive risk-taking has been limited by measurement challenges. In this study, we elicited adolescents’ free responses (n = 75) about a time they took a risk. Based on thematic coding, we identified positive behaviors described as risks and selected items to form a self-report scale. The resulting positive risk-taking scale was quantitatively validated in a population-based sample of adolescent twins (n = 1249). Second, we evaluated associations between positive risk-taking, negative risk-taking, and potential personality and peer correlates using a genetically informed design. Sensation seeking predicted negative and positive risk-taking equally strongly, whereas extraversion differentiated forms of risk-taking. Additive genetic influences on personality accounted for the total heritability in positive risk-taking. Indirect pathways from personality through positive and negative peer environments were identified. These results provide promising evidence that personality factors of sensation seeking and extraversion can manifest as engagement in positive risks. Increased understanding of positive manifestations of adolescent risk-taking may yield targets for positive youth development strategies to bolster youth well-being.
  • Students Attending School Remotely Suffer Socially, Emotionally, and Academically

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Kautz, Tim; Defnet, Amy; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Talamas, Sean; Lira, Benjamin; Steinberg, Laurence (2021-07-13)
    What is the social, emotional, and academic impact of attending school remotely rather than in person? We address this urgent policy issue using survey data collected from N = 6,576 high school students in a large, demographically diverse school district that allowed families to choose either format in fall 2020. Controlling for baseline measures of well-being collected one month before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as student demographics and other administrative data from official school records, students who attended school remotely reported lower levels of social, emotional, and academic well-being (ES = 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 standard deviations, respectively) than classmates who attended school in person—differences that were consistent across gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status subgroups but significantly wider for older compared to younger students.
  • A Guide To Representational Similarity Analysis for Social Neuroscience

    Popal, Haroon S.; Wang, Yin; Olson, Ingrid; Olson|0000-0001-8947-6432 (2020-01-02)
    Representational similarity analysis (RSA) is a computational technique which uses pairwise comparisons of stimuli to reveal their representation in higher-order space. In the context of neuroimaging, mass-univariate analyses and other multivariate analyses can provide information on what and where information is represented but have limitations in their ability to address how information is represented. Social neuroscience is a field that can particularly benefit from incorporating RSA techniques to explore hypotheses regarding the representation of multidimensional data, how representations can predict behavior, how representations differ between groups, and how multimodal data can be compared to inform theories. The goal of this paper is to provide a practical as well as theoretical guide to implementing RSA in social neuroscience studies.
  • The Main and Interactive Associations between Demographic Factors and Psychopathology and Treatment Utilization in Youth: A Test of Intersectionality in the ABCD Study

    Mennies, Rebekah J.; Birk, Samantha L.; Norris, Lesley; Olino, Thomas; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2021-01)
    Demographic factors may be associated with youth psychopathology due to social-contextual factors that may also pose barriers to intervention. Further, in line with intersectionality theory, youth with multiple non-dominant identities may be most likely to experience psychopathology and face barriers to care. This study examined rates of parent-reported psychopathology and mental health treatment utilization as a function of several demographic characteristics (in isolation and in concert) in a population-based, demographically diverse sample of 11,875 9- to 10-year-old youth. Results indicated most consistently that lower SES was associated with greater rates of psychopathology and greater likelihood of treatment utilization; that Asian American youth (relative to all other racial groups) and Hispanic/Latinx (relative to non-Hispanic/Latinx) youth were less likely to have a history of psychopathology or to have utilized treatment; and that male youth had greater rates of lifetime Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and were more likely to have utilized treatment. There was more modest support for interactive effects between demographic factors on psychopathology, which are discussed. The present study provides some support for differential rates of parent-reported psychopathology and treatment utilization as a function of demographic identities in youth. Potential explanations for these differences (e.g., cultural differences in symptom presentation; underreporting of symptoms) are discussed.
  • Profiles of Psychosocial and Clinical Functioning in Adolescence and Risk for Later Depression

    Olino, Thomas; Klein, Daniel; Seeley, John R.; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2020-07-28)
    Background: Most studies examining predictors of onset of depression focus on variable centered regression methods that focus on effects of multiple predictors. In contrast, person-centered approaches develop profiles of factors and these profiles can be examined as predictors of onset. Here, we developed profiles of adolescent psychosocial and clinical functioning among adolescents without a history of major depression. Methods: Data come from a subsample of participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project who completed self-report measures of functioning in adolescence and completed diagnostic and self-report measures at follow-up assessments up to approximately 15 years after baseline. Results: We identified four profiles of psychosocial and clinical functioning: Thriving; Average Functioning; Externalizing Vulnerability and Family Stress; and Internalizing Vulnerability at the baseline assessment of participants without a history of depression at the initial assessment in mid- adolescence. Classes differed in the likelihood of onset and course of depressive disorders, experience of later anxiety and substance use disorders, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Moreover, the predictive utility of these classes was maintained when controlling for multiple other established risk factors for depressive disorders. Conclusions: This work highlights the utility of examining multiple factors simultaneously to understand risk for depression.
  • Approach and Avoidance Patterns in Reward Learning Across Domains: An Initial Examination of the Social Iowa Gambling Task

    Case, Julia A. C.; Olino, Thomas; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2020-01-06)
    The current study examines learning patterns in response to both monetary and social incentives through both approach and avoidance behaviors using modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task. Specifically, we investigated learning in response to both positive and negative feedback in a sample of 191 undergraduate students. The social task was a novel paradigm, and social feedback were images of faces displaying positive and negative emotions. We examined internal validity of the tasks through modeling changes in approach and avoidance. We also explored associations between approach and avoidance learning and individual differences in anxiety and social anxiety, depression and well-being, general anhedonia and social closeness, and fun-seeking, using multilevel models (MLMs). Results showed that both the monetary and social tasks demonstrated learning as shown by decreases in plays on disadvantageous decks across the task. Additionally, we found that overall task performance on the monetary task was associated with fun-seeking and overall task performance on the social task was associated with fun-seeking and depressive symptoms. Initial findings suggest promise for the novel task in the examination of social avoidance learning.
  • Evaluating the Effects of a Programming Error on a Virtual Environment Measure of Spatial Navigation Behavior

    Weisberg, Steven; Schinazi, Victor; Ferrario, Andrea; Newcombe, Nora; Newcombe|0000-0002-7044-6046 (2022-01-24)
    Relying on shared tasks and stimuli to conduct research can enhance the replicability of findings and allow a community of researchers to collect large data sets across multiple experiments. This approach is particularly relevant for experiments in spatial navigation, which often require the development of unfamiliar large-scale virtual environments to test participants. One challenge with shared platforms is that undetected technical errors, rather than being restricted to individual studies, become pervasive across many studies. Here, we discuss the discovery of a software bug in a virtual environment platform used to investigate individual differences in spatial navigation: Virtual Silcton. The bug, which was difficult to detect for several reasons, resulted in storing the absolute value of a direction in a pointing task rather than the signed direction and rendered the original sign of the direction unrecoverable. To assess the impact of the bug on published findings, we collected a new data set for comparison. Results revealed that although the bug caused suppression in pointing errors and had different effects across people (less accurate navigators had more suppression), the effect of the bug on published data is small, partially explaining the difficulty in detecting the bug. We also used the new data set to develop a tool that allows researchers who have previously used Virtual Silcton to evaluate the impact of the bug on their findings. We summarize the ways that shared open materials, shared data, and collaboration can pave the way for better science to prevent errors in the future.
  • Gain-loss framing enhances mnemonic discrimination in preschoolers

    Ngo, Chi T.; Newcombe, Nora; Olson, Ingrid; Newcombe|0000-0002-7044-6046; Olson|0000-0001-8947-6432 (2020-02-25)
    Episodic memory relies on discriminating among similar elements of episodes. Mnemonic discrimination is relatively poor at age 4, and then improves markedly. We investigated whether motivation to encode items with fine grain resolution would change this picture of development, using an engaging computer-administered memory task in which a bird ate items that made the bird healthier (gain frame), sicker (loss frame), or led to no change (control condition). Using gain-loss framing led to enhanced mnemonic discrimination in 4- and 5-year-olds, but did not affect older children or adults. Despite this differential improvement, age-related differences persisted. An additional finding was that loss framing led to greater mnemonic discrimination than gain framing across age groups. Motivation only partially accounts for development in mnemonic discrimination.
  • Development of holistic episodic recollection

    Ngo, Chi; Horner, Aidan J.; Newcombe, Nora; Olson, Ingrid; Newcombe|0000-0002-7044-6046; Olson|0000-0001-8947-6432 (2019-08-07)
    Episodic memory binds the diverse elements of an event into a coherent representation. This coherence allows for the reconstruction of different aspects of an experience when triggered by a cue related to a past event—a process of pattern completion. Previous work has shown that such holistic recollection is evident in young adults, as revealed by dependency in retrieval success for various associations from the same event. In addition, episodic memory shows clear quantitative increases during early childhood. However, the ontogeny of holistic recollection is uncharted. Using dependency analyses, we found here that 4-year-olds (n = 32), 6-year-olds (n = 30), and young adults (n = 31) all retrieved complex events in a holistic manner; specifically, retrieval accuracy for one aspect of an event predicted accuracy for other aspects of the same event. However, the degree of holistic retrieval increased from the age 4 to adulthood. Thus, extended refinement of multiway binding may be one aspect of episodic memory development.
  • Responses to affect subtypes differentially associate with anxious and depressive symptom severity

    Mennies, Rebekah J.; Birk, Samantha L.; Case, Julia A.C.; Olino, Thomas; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571 (2020-07-02)
    Responses to affect include cognitive processes (i.e., perseverative vs. non-perseverative) and valence (i.e., modulation of positive vs. negative affect). However, little research has examined how the factor structure of responses to affect is defined along one or both of these dimensions. The present study conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of items from assessments of repetitive negative thinking, rumination on positive affect (PA), and dampening. We also examined the associations between emergent factors and measures of depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and non-social state anxiety. EFA results suggested a three-factor model of repetitive negative thinking, dampening, and rumination on PA. There was a significant association between repetitive negative thinking and dampening factors, but not between other factors. Repetitive negative thinking and dampening were associated with greater internalizing symptoms, whereas rumination on PA was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms. These findings clarify the structure of these responses to affect and their differential associations with symptoms, which may be used to tailor cognitive interventions for anxiety and/or depression.
  • Hippocampal Threat Reactivity Interacts with Physiological Arousal to Predict PTSD Symptoms

    Tanriverdi, Busra; Gregory, David F.; Murty, Vishnu; Murty|0000-0002-1360-3156 (2021-05-10)
    Prior studies highlight how threat-related arousal may impair hippocampal function. Hippocampal impairments are reliably associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, little research has characterized how increased threat-sensitivity may drive arousal responses to alter hippocampal reactivity, and further how these alterations relate to the sequelae of trauma-related symptoms. In a sample of individuals recently exposed to trauma (N=117, 76 Female), we found that PTSD symptoms at 2-weeks and 3-months were associated with decreased hippocampal responses to threat as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Further, decreased hippocampal threat sensitivity was predicted by individual differences in fear-potentiated startle, an arousal-mediated behavior. Critically, the relationship between hippocampal threat sensitivity and PTSD symptomology only emerged in individuals who showed high threat-related arousal. Collectively, our finding suggests that development of PTSD is associated with threat-related decreases in hippocampal function, due to increases in fear-potentiated arousal.
  • Machine-learning as a validated tool to characterize individual differences in free recall of naturalistic events.

    Shen, Xinxu; Houser, Troy; Smith, David; Murty, Vishnu; Murty|0000-0002-1360-3156; Smith|0000-0001-5754-9633 (2021-12-21)
    The use of naturalistic stimuli, such as narrative movies, is gaining popularity in many fields, characterizing memory, affect, and decision-making. Narrative recall paradigms are often used to capture the complexity and richness of memory for naturalistic events. However, scoring narrative recalls is time-consuming and prone to human biases. Here, we show the validity and reliability of using a natural language processing tool, the Universal Sentence Encoder (USE), to automatically score narrative recall. We compared the reliability in scoring made between two independent raters (i.e., hand-scored) and between our automated algorithm and individual raters (i.e., automated) on trial-unique, video clips of magic tricks. Study 1 showed that our automated segmentation approaches yielded high reliability and reflected measures yielded by hand-scoring, and further that the results using USE outperformed another popular natural language processing tool, GloVe. In study two, we tested whether our automated approach remained valid when testing individual’s varying on clinically-relevant dimensions that influence episodic memory, age and anxiety. We found that our automated approach was equally reliable across both age groups and anxiety groups, which shows the efficacy of our approach to assess narrative recall in large-scale individual difference analysis. In sum, these findings suggested that machine learning approaches implementing USE are a promising tool for scoring large-scale narrative recalls and perform individual difference analysis for research using naturalistic stimuli.
  • Impact of Treatment Improvement on Long-term Anxiety: Results from CAMS and CAMELS

    Crane, Margaret E.; Norris, Lesley; Frank, Hannah E.; Klugman, Joshua; Ginsburg, Golda; Keeton, Courtney; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S.; Compton, Scott; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Philip C.; Kendall|0000-0001-7034-6961; Klugman|0000-0002-7072-0041 (2021-03-13)
    Objective: This paper examined associations between change in youth and family characteristics during youth anxiety treatment and long-term anxiety severity and overall functioning. Method: Participants (N = 488; age 7-17 years; 45% male; 82% white) were randomized to 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). A subset participated in the naturalistic follow-up Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-term Study (CAMELS; n = 319; 3.70-11.83 years posttreatment). The current secondary analyses examined how change in anxiety severity (Child Global Impression-Severity), overall functioning (Children's Global Assessment Scale), caregiver psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory), caregiver strain (Family Burden Assessment Scale), and family dysfunction (Brief Family Assessment Measure) during CAMS was associated with anxiety severity and overall functioning years later (M = 7.72 years). CAMS procedures were registered on clinialtrials.gov. Results: Changes in factors related to functioning (i.e., overall functioning, family dysfunction, caregiver strain) were associated with improvements in anxiety severity in CAMELS (|βys| ≥ .04, ps ≤ .04). Changes in factors related to psychopathology (i.e., anxiety severity, caregiver psychopathology) were associated with improvements in overall functioning in CAMELS (|βys| ≥ .23, ps ≤ .04). It was changes in each of the variables examined (rather than baseline values) that predicted anxiety severity and overall functioning. Conclusions: Both youth and family factors play a significant role in long-term treatment outcomes. Therapists would be wise to monitor how these factors change throughout treatment.
  • Using a Smartphone App and Clinician Portal to Enhance Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Pramana, Gede; Sequeira, Stefanie L.; Lindheim, Oliver; Kendall, Philip C.; Rosen, Dana; Parmanto, Bambang; Kendall|0000-0001-7034-6961 (2019-06-19)
    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for child anxiety disorders, but 40-50% of youth do not respond fully to treatment, and time commitments for standard CBT can be prohibitive for some families and lead to long waiting lists for trained CBT therapists in the community. SmartCAT 2.0 is an adjunctive mobile health program designed to improve and shorten CBT treatment for anxiety disorders in youth by providing them with the opportunity to practice CBT skills outside of session using an interactive and gamified interface. It consists of an app and an integrated clinician portal connected to the app for secure 2-way communication with the therapist. The goal of the present study was to evaluate SmartCAT 2.0 in an open trial to establish usability, feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of brief (8 sessions) CBT combined with SmartCAT. We also explored changes in CBT skills targeted by the app. Participants were 34 youth (ages 9-14) who met DSM-5 criteria for generalized, separation, and/or social anxiety disorder. Results demonstrated strong feasibility and usability of the app/portal and high satisfaction with the intervention. Youth used the app an average of 12 times between each therapy session (M = 5.8 mins per day). At post-treatment, 67% of youth no longer met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, with this percentage increasing to 86% at two-month follow-up. Youth showed reduced symptom severity over time across raters and also improved from pre- to post-treatment in CBT skills targeted by the app, demonstrating better emotion identification and thought challenging and reductions in avoidance. Findings support the feasibility of combining brief CBT with SmartCAT. Although not a controlled trial, when benchmarked against the literature, the current findings suggest that SmartCAT may enhance the utility of brief CBT for childhood anxiety disorders. This paper is currently in press in Behavior Therapy.
  • Stress impacts the fidelity but not strength of emotional memories

    Shermohammed, Maheen; Davidow, Julity Y.; Somerville, Leah; Murty, Vishnu; Murty|0000-0002-1360-3156 (2019-06-04)
    Psychological stress during memory encoding influences resulting memory representations. However, open questions remain regarding how stress interacts with emotional memory. This interaction has mainly been studied by characterizing the correct identification of previously observed material (memory “hits”), with few studies investigating how stress influences the incorrect endorsement of unobserved material as remembered (memory “false alarms”). While hits can provide information about the presence or strength of a memory representation, false alarms provide insight into the fidelity of those representations, indicating to what extent stored memories are confused with similar information presented at retrieval. This study examined the effects of stress on long-term memory for negative and neutral images, considering the separate contributions of hits and false alarms. Participants viewed images after repeated exposure to either a stress or a control manipulation. Stress impaired memory performance for negative pictures and enhanced memory performance for neutral pictures. These effects were driven by false alarms rather than hits: stressed participants false alarmed more often for negative and less often for neutral images. These data suggest that stress undermines the benefits of emotion on memory by changing individuals’ susceptibility towards false alarms, and highlight the need to consider both memory strength and fidelity to characterize differences in memory performance.
  • Changes in community clinicians’ attitudes and competence following a transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioral Therapy training

    Creed, Torrey A.; Crane, Margaret E.; Calloway, Amber; Olino, Thomas; Kendall, Philip C.; Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Olino|0000-0001-5139-8571; Kendall|0000-0001-7034-6961 (2021-08-30)
    Background: Although the literature suggests that attitudes toward evidence-based practices (EBPs) are associated with provider use of EBPs, less is known about the association between attitudes and how competently EBPs are delivered. This study examined how initial attitudes and competence relate to improvements in attitudes and competence following EBP training. Methods: Community clinicians (N = 891) received intensive training in cognitive behavioral therapy skills followed by 6 months of consultation. Clinician attitudes were assessed using the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale, and competence was assessed using the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale. Data were analyzed by fitting three latent change score models to examine the relationship between changes in attitudes and competence across the training and within its two phases (workshop phase, consultation phase). Results: Latent change models identified significant improvement in attitudes (Mslatent change ⩾ 1.07, SEs ⩽ 0.19, zs ⩾ 6.85, ps < .001) and competence (Mslatent change ⩾ 13.13, SEs ⩽ 3.53, zs ⩾ 2.30, ps < .001) across the full training and in each phase. Higher pre-workshop attitudes predicted significantly greater change in competence in the workshop phase and across the full training (bs ⩾ 1.58, SEs ⩽ 1.13, z ⩾ 1.89, p < .048, β ⩾ .09); however, contrary to our hypothesis, post-workshop attitudes did not significantly predict change in competence in the consultation phase (b = 1.40, SE = 1.07, z = 1.31, p = .19, β = .08). Change in attitudes and change in competence in the training period, the workshop phase, and the consultation phase were not significantly correlated. Conclusions: Results indicate that pre-training attitudes about EBPs present a target for implementation interventions, given their relation to changes in both attitudes and competence throughout training. Following participation in initial training workshops, other factors such as subjective norms, implementation culture, or system-level policy shifts may be more predictive of change in competence throughout consultation.
  • Influence of Naturalistic, Emotional Context and Intolerance of Uncertainty on Arousal-Mediated Biases in Episodic Memory

    Reisman, Samantha; Gregory, David F.; Stasiak, Joanne; Mitchell, William John; Helion, Chelsea; Murty, Vishnu; Helion|0000-0002-3149-1493; Murty|0000-0002-1360-3156 (2021-08-12)
    Threat-related arousal is known to distort memory, biasing individuals towards perceptual details and away from contextual details. This work has mainly been conducted in laboratory settings, limiting the application of findings to real-world experiences. To test how threat-related arousal influences multi-featural memory for complex events, participants navigated an immersive haunted house while physiological arousal data was collected and later, recalled memories for the event after a 1-week delay. We found that threat-related arousal resulted in relatively fewer remembered events, but enhanced recall of perceptual details for events that were remembered. Further, the relationship between physiological arousal and perceptual bias was impaired in individuals with high intolerance of uncertainty, suggesting that uncertainty aversion may result in a generalization of threat-related perceptual biases to mundane events. These findings support a model by which heart rate and individual differences in uncertainty aversion interact to shape how threatening events are recorded in long-term memory.

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