The Faculty/ Researcher Works collection focuses on research, scholarship, and creative works, as well as materials that primarily reflect the intellectual environment of the Temple University campus.

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    Hussein, Amml (2021-11-23)
    This article presents a review of the state of diversity admission practices in higher education and exposes problems with admissions practices that do not extend beyond the admissions landscape. Efforts to increase minority enrollment numbers should be followed up with programs that cultivate meaningful interaction across racial backgrounds of the student body. This paper calls for enhancing institutional practices to align and mitigate potential legal suites that extend beyond admission. Several perspectives and approaches are synthesized and landmark cases are referenced. This discussion is timely as the Supreme Court precedence for race admission programs is up for re-evaluation and the issue is ripe.
  • A Foucauldian Archaeology of Modern Medical Discourse

    Scheurich, James J.; Brokaw, James J.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Byram, Jessica N. (2020-09)
    Medical education researchers have long been interested in understanding medical professional identity formation and its implications for the healthcare system. Various theories have been proposed to explain identity formation. Among them, Foucault’s discourse theory maintains that it is the discourse of medicine that constitutes medical professional identities. This study deployed a Foucauldian archaeological methodology to analyze the structure of modern medical discourse and establish links between discourse and professional identity formation in medical students. A total of forty-six medical students at Indiana University School of Medicine participated in either individual or focus group interviews. Direct observation of the clinical and educational settings was also performed, which resulted in additional textual data in the form of fieldnotes. Archaeological analysis of discourse was undertaken in three levels of the statements, the discursive elements, and the discursive rules and relations. Results entailed a detailed depiction of the structure of medical discourse including discursive objects and modes of enunciation, discursive concepts, and theoretical strategies related to each object. Discursive objects are things that are talked about in modern medical discourse. This study identified four discursive objects as disease and treatment, the doctor, the human body, and the sick person. Modes of enunciation are the different ways in which people talk about objects of medicine, whereas concepts consist of the notions people draw from when talking about objects of medicine. Theoretical strategies indicate certain positions that people take in relation to the objects of medicine. Rules of formation and conditions of existence for each discursive element were also established. Since Identities are entrenched through language and interaction, developing a systematic understanding of the structure of medical discourse will shed new light on medical professional identity formation. Results of this study also have profound implications for teaching professionalism and medical humanities in medical curricula. Furthermore, as a research methodology used for the first time in medical education, archaeology not only opens new territories to be explored by future research, it also provides an entirely new way to look at them.
  • Ansel Adams and Dorothea Lange at Manzanar: Photojournalistic Activism and the Japanese American Incarceration

    Shuttleworth, Jay M.; Patterson, Timothy; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2021-09-01)
    Ansel Adams and Dorothea Lange's photojournalist activism during World War II was a direct response to President Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 (EO 9066), which led to the incarceration of 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans in 10 camps across seven mostly western states. The incarceration was an illegal, racist, haphazard, and illogical event. Approximately two-thirds of those imprisoned were U.S. citizens. Japanese and Japanese Americans living in many other parts of the country were not imprisoned; and only one percent of those living in Hawai'i were incarcerated, despite the islands' location in the actual Pacific theater of war. In 1983, the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians estimated that incarcerees lost an estimated $2.5 to $6.2 billion in property and entitlements. President Ronald Reagan later described the incarceration as "a grave wrong" and "a mistake." Lange was in a very different photographic position than Adams, despite bringing extensive and applauded experience from documenting.
  • Primary Mitochondrial Disorders of the Pediatric Central Nervous System: Neuroimaging Findings

    Gonçalves, Fabrício Guimarães; Pinheiro, César Augusto; Alves, Ferreira; Heuer, Beth; Peterson, James; Viaene, Angela N.; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Martín-Saavedra, Juan Sebastián; Andronikou, Savvas; Goldstein, Amy; Vossough, Arastoo; Heuer|0000-0003-3184-3994 (2020-11-02)
    Primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs) constitute the most common cause of inborn errors of metabolism in children, and they frequently affect the central nervous system. Neuroimaging findings of PMDs are variable, ranging from unremarkable and nonspecific to florid and highly suggestive. An overview of PMDs, including a synopsis of the basic genetic concepts, main clinical symptoms, and neuropathologic features, is presented. In addition, eight of the most common PMDs that have a characteristic imaging phenotype in children are reviewed in detail.
  • Two Sides of the Megalopolis: Educating for Sustainable Citizenship

    Patterson, Timothy; Pope, Alexander; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2012)
    Despite widespread focus on literacy and math at the expense of other subjects, citizenship and environmental education have an important role in American public education. Citizenship and environmental education are broadly tasked with helping students develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to shepherd the body politic and natural world, respectively, into the future. For educators and administrators concerned with instructional efficiency, educational farm visits offer one means of pairing these two approaches into a unified learning experience. This paper presents findings from a qualitative case study analysis of two such programs, incorporating interviews with and observations of visiting students, teachers, and parents. The authors argue that sustainable citizenship—a typically European conception of citizenship that stresses the natural as well as the national world—is an important outcome of these types of educational experiences.
  • Viewing videos of controversial issues instruction: What influences transformative reflection?

    Shuttleworth, Jay M.; Patterson, Timothy; Jaffee, Ashley Taylor; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2018)
    This qualitative study examined how and under what conditions pre-service social studies teachers reported transformations to their controversial issues pedagogy. This study began in 2011 and was situated in a pre-service social studies seminar at a graduate school of education in the United States. Data collection occurred in five different seminars and lasted three years. Afterwards, the authors met intermittently between 2014 and 2016 to establish findings. The study examined preservice social studies teachers’ responses to classes that utilized videotaped instruction of an experienced practitioner’s lessons about controversial free speech and terrorism. The following question guided data collection: “How, and under what conditions, do pre-service social studies teachers report transformations to their controversial issues pedagogy when viewing videos of an experienced teacher?” The theoretical framework drew upon enlightened political engagement, and data was derived from the written reflections of pre-service social studies teachers in five different seminars. Findings emphasized that the pre-service social studies teachers were most likely to report pedagogical transformations when reflecting with a peer and when they were free to choose their analytical focus. Also, they were most likely to contextualize these pedagogical transformations within the observed teacher’s classroom, a phenomenon we called ‘transposing’. Implications of this study identify issues about how to teach for pedagogical transformations in controversial issues instruction.
  • Contact Zone Learning and International Teacher Professional Development

    Patterson, Timothy; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2017)
  • Personalized Learning in Social Studies Teacher Education

    Patterson, Timothy; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2016)
    Social studies teachers are asked to do the seemingly impossible: cover a broad array of content during the school year while also instilling critical reading and writing skills and developing a broadly defined civic identity. How can they effectively prepare to meet these ambitious goals? In this guide, I argue for the place of personalized learning in social studies teacher education. Making inquiry the centerpiece of social studies teacher education will facilitate the move towards personalized learning in lesson planning, curriculum design, and assessment. Through inquiry-related activities and projects, supported by digital and communicative technologies and a sociocultural approach to content planning, social studies teachers have the ability to enhance students’ personal competencies, facilitating mastery in a broad array of social studies knowledge and skills.
  • Global Citizenship Education: New Pathways in Practice

    Patterson, Timothy; Choi, Yoonjung; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2016-06-09)
    This special issue of the Journal of Research in Curriculum and Instruction was developed to disseminate current research within global citizenship education in light of the confusions in theory and inaction in practice in the field. In this special issue, guest editors and authors from Canada, Scotland, Japan, Korea, and the United States consider the competing demands placed on, and opportunities available to educators concerned with global citizenship education. Data has been collected across local, national, international, and virtual spaces utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide an insightful look into the nature of global citizenship education inside and outside of K-16 contexts. The findings of these papers call attention to innovations and frustrating gaps in the field.
  • Teaching “Hard History” through Children’ Literature about Enslavement

    Shuttleworth, Jay M.; Patterson, Timothy; Patterson|0000-0001-8139-9348 (2020)
    Because of a long tradition of children's literature depicting enslavement, elementary teachers have an expansive assortment of books from which to choose. These books, however, can be filled with inaccuracies, troubling illustrations, and dubious interpretations of the "peculiar institution." The recent controversy over "A Birthday Cake for George Washington," a book written for first-through-third graders, filled with illustrations of enslaved persons smiling while they work in bondage, demonstrates just how problematic these books have the potential to be. In this article, the authors offer lessons from their study of recently published children's books that depict enslavement. Their analytical framework aims to assist teachers as they decode the interpretive stances embedded in the narratives and illustrations of books that depict enslavement. They then offer recommendations for an instructional strategy aligned with the "College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards" that will support students' learning about enslavement from any of the books in their study, or other books that may be available in a particular school library
  • Hypoxia induces stress fiber formation in adipocytes in the early stage of obesity

    Anvari, Golnaz; Bellas, Evangelia; Bellas|0000-0002-1667-7118 (2021-11-02)
    In obese adipose tissue (AT), hypertrophic expansion of adipocytes is not matched by new vessel formation, leading to AT hypoxia. As a result, hypoxia inducible factor-1⍺ (HIF-1⍺) accumulates in adipocytes inducing a transcriptional program that upregulates profibrotic genes and biosynthetic enzymes such as lysyl oxidase (LOX) synthesis. This excess synthesis and crosslinking of extracellular matrix (ECM) components cause AT fibrosis. Although fibrosis is a hallmark of obese AT, the role of fibroblasts, cells known to regulate fibrosis in other fibrosis-prone tissues, is not well studied. Here we have developed an in vitro model of AT to study adipocyte-fibroblast crosstalk in a hypoxic environment. Further, this in vitro model was used to investigate the effect of hypoxia on adipocyte mechanical properties via ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK) signaling pathways. We confirmed that hypoxia creates a diseased phenotype by inhibiting adipocyte maturation and inducing actin stress fiber formation facilitated by myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A/MKL1) nuclear translocation. This work presents new potential therapeutic targets for obesity by improving adipocyte maturation and limiting mechanical stress in obese AT.
  • Early life blood lead levels and asthma diagnosis at age 4–6 years

    Oktapodas Feiler, Marina; Pavia, Carly J.; Frey, Sean M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Canfield, Richard L.; Jusko, Todd A.; Oktapodas Feiler|0000-0002-2315-9589 (2021-11-12)
    The USA has a high burden of childhood asthma. Previous studies have observed associations between higher blood lead levels and greater hypersensitivity in children. The objective of the present study was to estimate the association between blood lead concentrations during early childhood and an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months of age amongst a cohort with well-characterized blood lead concentrations. Blood lead concentrations were measured at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of age in 222 children. The presence of an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months was assessed using a questionnaire which asked parents or guardians whether they had been told by a physician, in the past 12 months, that their child had asthma. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR) of an asthma diagnosis were estimated for several parameterizations of blood lead exposure including lifetime average (6 to 48 months) and infancy average (6 to 24 months) concentrations. After adjustment for child sex, birthweight, daycare attendance, maternal race, education, parity, breastfeeding, income, and household smoking, age-specific or composite measures of blood lead were not associated with asthma diagnosis by 72 months of age in this cohort.
  • Community-Clinical Linkage Intervention to Improve Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Underserved Korean Americans

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2019-08-19)
    Background: Korean Americans report thae lowest and declined rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, compared to general population in the United States. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based multifaceted intervention designed to improve CRC screening among Korean Americans. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial involving 30 Korean church-based community organizations (n = 925) was conducted. Fifteen churches were assigned to intervention (n=470) and the other 15 to control (n = 455) groups. Main components of the intervention included interactive group education, patient navigation, physician engagement, and provision of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit. CRC screening rates were assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Results: Participants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to receive CRC screening (69.3%) as compared with those in the control group (16%). The intervention was particularly effective in promoting FIT among the more disadvantaged individuals in the Korean American community. Regression analysis revealed that controlling for the intervention effect, male gender, high school education, annual income of $20,000–40,000 were significantly associated with increased screening by FIT, whereas English inefficiency was significantly and lack of health insurance was marginally significantly associated with decreased screening by colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. Conclusion: Culturally and linguistically appropriate multifaceted intervention combining FIT provision with community-clinical linkage has a potential to be a cost-effective and practical approach to effectively targeting hard-to-reach disadvantaged minority populations and enhance CRC screening to reduce cancer disparities.
  • Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2018-01-16)
    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education), physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends) on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.
  • Depression Risks and Correlates among Different Generations of Chinese Americans: The Effects of Relationships with Friends and Relatives

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2017-06-03)
    An increasing body of literature has suggested that the public portrayal of Chinese Americans as a high-achieving, well-adjusting “model minority” might not reflect the entire reality of their mental health conditions. This study examined depression risks and correlates among different generations of Chinese Americans, using non-Hispanic whites as a comparison group. A nationally representative sample of Chinese Americans (n = 600) from the Comprehensive Psychiatric Epidemiological Survey was used. Results of the study indicate that Chinese Americans in general have a lower risk of depression than non-Hispanic whites. Moreover, the prevalence and correlates of depression do not show a linear trend of difference from first to second to third-or-higher generation Chinese Americans, and then to non-Hispanic whites; rather, the risk of depression and its association with social relational factors presents in distinctive patterns for first and second generation Chinese Americans, compared to third-or-higher generation Chinese Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Specifically, friend network and relative group play different roles in influencing depression for different generations of Chinese Americans. The findings contributed to the growing body of literature on acculturation and mental health among immigrants, shedding lights on the complicated sociocultural contexts that could influence the mental well-being of individuals. Mental health service providers need to be aware of the complex and nuanced association between social relational factors and depression in their prevention, management, and treatment efforts.
  • A Multi-Level Analysis on School Connectedness, Family Support, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 1995–1996

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2018-04-25)
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the effect of family support, school connectedness, and school environments on depressive symptoms among adolescents across racial/ethnic groups on both the student-level and school-level. Method: This study uses a sample of 4228 students (2122 girls and 2016 boys) from the public use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Students were measured at two time points (one year apart) on school connectedness, family support, socio-demographic factors, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies’ Depression Scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine potential predictors on adolescent depressive symptoms. This is, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the first study to examine the interplay of school connectedness, school racial composition, and adolescent depression. Results: School connectedness partially mediates the effects of family support on depressive symptoms, but both remain strong predictors of depressive symptoms. African American adolescents are the only racial/ethnic group that has constantly higher CES-D scores than the non-Hispanic white adolescents. School-level connectedness is positively related to students’ depressive symptoms. The racial composition of a school has different effects on students’ depressive symptoms on student’s race. Conclusions: Low perceived family support, low school connectedness, being female, and being African American are consistently associated with greater depressive symptoms one year later. The overall level of school connectedness of a school is found to be related with greater individual student’s depressive symptoms, while the effects of school proportion of minority students on students’ depressive symptoms differ significantly across the race/ethnicity of students. Future study is needed to explore the association between racial/ethnic segregation and adolescent depression while considering students’ racial/ethnic status.
  • The Evaluation of IDEAL-REACH Program to Improve Nutrition among Asian American Community Members in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2019-08-23)
    Asian Americans’ food purchasing, cooking, and eating patterns are not well understood. Greater insight into these behaviors is urgently needed to guide public health interventions of dietary behaviors in this population. The present study aims to examine the effects of a community-level intervention on food purchasing and preparation, nutrition knowledge, and health awareness in Asian Americans. Methods From 2015 to 2017, we conducted the Improving Diets with an Ecological Approach for Lifestyle (IDEAL-REACH) intervention to increase access to healthy food or beverage options for the Asian-American population in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Participants (1110 at pre- and 1098 at post-assessment) were recruited from 31 community-based organizations (CBOs). We assessed Asian Americans’ dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge, and awareness of heart health. Results The results of pre-post intervention comparisons showed that the IDEAL-REACH intervention was successful in promoting whole grains consumption, reducing sodium consumption, and raising knowledge and awareness related to nutrition and heart health. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is one of the first initiatives in the U.S. to engage CBOs to promote healthier dietary behaviors. The findings show that CBOs serve as a powerful platform for community-level interventions to improve healthy nutrition behaviors in Asian-American communities.
  • Evaluation of a Healthy Chinese Take-Out Sodium-Reduction Initiative in Philadelphia Low-Income Communities and Neighborhoods

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2018-05-30)
    Objectives: Sodium reduction in restaurant foods is important because 77% of sodium in the United States is consumed by eating prepared and restaurant foods. We evaluated a sodium-reduction intervention, Healthy Chinese Take-Out Initiative, among Chinese take-out restaurants in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our objectives were to (1) analyze changes in the sodium content of food samples and (2) collect data on changes in chefs’ and owners’ knowledge about the health risks of sodium overconsumption, perceptions of the need for sodium reduction, self-efficacy for lowering sodium use, and perceptions of training needs for sodium-reduction strategies. Methods: The initiative trained chefs from 206 Chinese take-out restaurants on strategies to reduce sodium in prepared dishes. We analyzed changes in the sodium content of the 3 most frequently ordered dishes—shrimp and broccoli, chicken lo mein, and General Tso’s chicken—from baseline (July-September 2012) to 36 months after baseline (July-September 2015) among 40 restaurants. We conducted a survey to examine the changes in chefs’ and owners’ knowledge, perceptions, and self-efficacy of sodium reduction. We used multilevel analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance to examine effects of the intervention on various outcomes. Results: We found significant reductions in the sodium content of all 3 dishes 36 months after a low-sodium cooking training intervention (coefficients range, –1.06 to –1.69, P < .001 for all). Mean knowledge (range, 9.2-11.1), perceptions (range, 4.6-6.0), and self-efficacy (range, 4.2-5.9) (P < .001 for all) of sodium reduction improved significantly from baseline (August 2012) to posttraining (also August 2012), but perceptions of the need for sodium reduction and self-efficacy for lowering sodium use returned to baseline levels 36 months later (August 2015). Conclusions: The intervention was a useful population health approach that led to engaging restaurants in sodium-reduction practices. Local public health agencies and professionals could partner with independent restaurants to introduce environmental changes that can affect population health on a broad scale, particularly for vulnerable populations.
  • Evaluation of a Transdisciplinary Cancer Research Training Program for Under-Represented Minority Students

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2019)
    Aim/Purpose: This paper will describe the initial development of systems to evaluate research education activities of a U.S. academic Partnership to train minority students as cancer researchers and provide preliminary data from monitoring Partnership activities during the first six months. Background: There is increased focus on multidisciplinary/transdisciplinary research training programs. However, few training programs have included detailed evaluations to assess their outcomes and effectiveness. Methods: The Temple University/Fox Chase Cancer Center and Hunter College Regional Comprehensive Cancer Health Disparity Partnership (TUFCCC/HC Cancer Partnership, or the Partnership) is a recently-initiated center focused on training individuals from under-represented minorities (URMs) as cancer researchers. Evaluation of the training activities involves detailed specification of goals for each of the Partnership’s Cores; objectives for addressing each goal; measures and indicators to determine progress towards each objective; and data sources to provide information for the measures/indicators. Contribution: This paper will provide important information for evaluation of training programs focused on students from URM populations and development of transdisciplinary research education programs. Findings: Goals, objectives, measures, and data sources for evaluation of the Partnership’s Research Education Core (REC) were developed jointly by personnel from the REC and the Planning Evaluation Core (PEC) in an iterative process. These measures capture the training activities led by the REC (e.g., number of seminars and workshops), scientific output by trainees (e.g., papers and grants), and ability of the program to meet trainees’ goals and expectations. Recommendations for Practitioners and Researchers: Evaluation plans for transdisciplinary training programs need to be developed prior to program initiation. Evaluation measures should be jointly specified by training and evaluation personnel, then reviewed and revised in an iterative process. Impact on Society: This program is intended to enhance diversity among cancer researchers and increase studies to address disparities in cancer care. Future Research: The PEC will oversee the evaluation of Partnership training activities over the five year period and assist Partnership leaders in ensuring successful outcomes.
  • A Study of Physical Activity Determinants among High-Risk Hypertensive Filipino and Korean Americans

    Center for Asian Health (Temple University) (2019-03-31)
    Physical activity (PA) serves a critical role in maintaining health and preventing chronic diseases, though its influence on high-risk Asian American populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine PA levels among Filipino and Korean Americans at high risk of hypertension and to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with PA levels in these populations. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 137 participants in the Greater Philadelphia Area. Data was collected on PA levels, sociodemographic factors, and health factors. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors associated with low, moderate, and high PA and predictive probabilities were calculated for interaction terms, incorporating ethnicity and blood pressure variables. Overall, 42.33% of participants belonged to the moderately active PA group and 21.90% belonged to the highly active group. In the final multinomial regression model, it was found that having gone to college increased the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = 1.96, p = 0.034), while having high blood pressure reduced the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = −2.21, p = 0.022). Lastly, being Korean versus Filipino reduced the odds of being in the highly active category (coef. = −2.89, p = 0.035). Based on predictive probabilities, Koreans and Filipinos with high blood pressure were more likely to belong in the low active PA category (52.31% and 46.33%). These findings highlight the need for culturally relevant PA interventions for promoting and increasing PA levels to prevent and manage hypertension among these populations.

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